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Full text of "Microcomputing Magazine (January 1984)"

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The ULTIMATE Printer Interface? 




We hope so, but because we 
have 2- 1 /2 technicians answer- 
ing four incoming customer 
service phone lines, we have 
learned that just when you think 
the product is perfect some pro- 
grammer finds a new way to do 
things and proves you wrong! 
When we at CARDCO, Inc. are 
told of a problem, we try to in- 
corporate the cure in all future 
production. And as our customers 
will attest, we do not leave owners 
of older versions out in the cold. 
When an upgrade is made in the 
production version of our inter- 
face, we make the upgrade 
available to all owners of that 
interface, AT NO CHARGE! Free 
technical support, no charge 
product upgrades and a lifetime 
guarantee, we dare anyone to 
do a better job of customer sup- 
port. 

That's all very nice, but what's all 
this about the ULTIMATE printer 
interface? While answering your 
technical questions our customer 
service technicians listened to 
what you wanted. You wanted to 
be able to print the full 
Commodore character set with 
Commodore graphics, reversed 
characters and reversed 
graphics. You wanted compata- 
bility with Commodore's normal 
tab functions and high resolution 
dot space tab functions. You 
wanted to be able to use the 



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Card/?B - $49 95 



Commodore high resolution dot 
addressable graphics commands. And 
you wanted to run all existing programs 
without modification and without giving 
up the extra features and special 
functions of your printer. 

The CARD/7+G has DIP switch selection 
for the following fine printers: 

• Prowriter 



• C-ltoh8510 

• NEC 8023 

• Epson MX-80/1 00 

• Epson RX-80/1 00 

• Epson FX-80/ 100 



Star Gemini 1 0X 
Okidata 82/83/84 
Okidata 92/94 
Axiom GP/ 100 
Gorilla Banana 



In response to your demand 
CARDCO, Inc. proudly presents 
theCARD/?+G (CARDPRINT+G). 
Why is it the ULTIMATE printer 
interface? Because it is "state of 
the art" today and because of 
our strong committment to 
customer service it will stay that 
way for all your tomorrows. 

The CARD/7+G is available 
now from your local retailer. Sug- 
gested retail $89.95. 

If you own a version of the 
original CARD/7A, we are sorry 
the CARD/7+G is a totally new 
product and you will not be 
allowed a free upgrade. But if you 
want the capabilities of the new 
CARD/7+G we do have a trade 
up policy, please contact our 
customer service department for 
details. 

If you don't need the graphics 
capabilities of the CARD/7+G be 
sure to check out the new 
CARD/7B. The "B" model offers all 
of the same features that have 
made the CARD/7A the * 1 selling 
printer interface in an economy" 
package. The CARD/7B is 
compatible with programs not 
requiring graphics functions (ie. 
Word Processors, Spread Sheets, 
etc. ) and fully supported by our 
customer service department 
and the suggested retail price is 
only $49.95. 



313Mathewson • Wichita, Kansas 67214 • (316) 267-6525 



Circle 369 on Reader Service i 

Commodore M is a registered trademark ot Commodore Business Systems, Inc. 




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When you can't personal I there, only trw 
Jearest typed correspondence should be your subsh 
tute With a PowerType Daisywheel printer your docu 
ments look highly professional And so do youl 

PowerType. It's "typewriter friendly" Using 
simple drop in ribbon cassette, it hi directionally 
types executive quality correspondence at 18 cps 
with a print wheel that holds 96 flawiess characters 

Designed tor personal or business apphca 
'PS. PowerType s C epts paper that ranges 



from letter to legal size, from fanfold to roll to cut 
sheet. You can set right and left margins, vertical mm\ 
horizontal tabs. 

Plus of course, PowerType has both serial 

id pai : mtert, to ena it to connect to just 
■out any personal or business computer 

So the next time you're going face to face 
through the mail, rely on Pov .pe It will help you 
make a pre ional impression. And tto tlways 
very becoming. 





mi c r on I c $ • i ft c 

THE POWER BEHIND THE PRINTED W< 

Computer Peripherals Division 
P.O. Bo* 612186. Dallas Ft Worth Airport. TX 75261 (214) 456-0052 



Circle 361 on Reader Service card 





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Editorial Offices 

80 Pine St. 

Peterborough, NH 03458 



MICROCOMPUTING 



EDITORIAL DIRECTOR 
WAYNE GREEN PUBLICATIONS 

Jeff DeTray 



EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 

Keith Thompson 

SENIOR EDITORS 

Larry Canale, Dan Muse 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 

Tracy Mayor, Sheila Wright 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Jim Heid 

EDITORIAL DESIGN 
MANAGER 

Susan Gross 

EDITORIAL DESIGNERS 

Joan Ahern, Judy Oliver 

LAYOUT EDITORS 

Phil Geraci, Maurelle Godoy, 
Sue Hays, Laura Landy 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 

Jill Hall 

PROOFREADER 

Harold Bjornsen 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Robert Baker, Thomas Bonoma, 
Frank Derfler, Jr., Mark Robillard 



PRODUCTION DIRECTOR 

Nancy Salmon 

ASSISTANT TO THE PRODUCTION DIRECTOR 

David Wozmak 

ADVERTISING PRODUCTION 

Bruce Hedin 

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT 

Patricia Bradley, Fiona Davies, Linda Drew, 

Michael Ford, Maxjorie Gillies, Kimberly Nadeau, 

Scott Philbrick, Phyllis Pittet, Paula Ramsey, 

Lynne Simon son, Ken Sutcliffe, Karen Wozmak 

FILM PRODUCTION 

Theresa Verville, Donna Hartwell, Robert Villeneuve 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

Thomas Villeneuve, Sandra Dukette, Nathaniel Haynes, 

Laurie Jennison, Sturdy Thomas 

TYPESETTING 

Sara Bedell, Manager; Darlene Bailey, Marie Barker, 

Prem Krishna Gongaju, Lynn Haines, 

Cynthia Letourneau, Debra Nutting, Lindy Palmisano, 

Heidi N. Thomas, Sue Weller 

CREATIVE CONSULTANT 

Christine Destrempes 

DESIGN MANAGER 

Joyce Pillarella 

DESIGN CONSULTANT 

Howard Happ 

ADMINISTRATTVE ASSISTANTS 

Sue Donohoe 
January Folsom 
Patrice Scribner 

DESIGN ASSISTANT 

Sarah Werninger 

CHIEF COPY WRITER 

Steve Tripp 

COPY WRITER 

Dale Tietjen 

4 Microcomputing, January 1984 



THE COLUMNISTS 



6 Publisher's Remarks 

Bazaar Banter 

12 Techniques 

By Mark J. Robillard 
A Glutton for Graphics 

19 PET-pourri 

By Robert Baker 

CBM Software: Still Sprouting 

24 Overview 

By Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 
Bad News for Modem Users 

28 What's New, Big Blue? 

By Thomas Bonoma 
Booting Up Some Magazines 

38 The Edit Mode 

The Word on PCjr and HomeWord 
Tell it with Telidon. Page 62. 






















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Bottom line on accounting. Page 78. 




COVER: Graphics Features 



54 The SMC-70: G ^ 8 

More Than a Micro 

Sony may be grabbing the graphics 
lead with its SMC-70 (and SMC-70G). 
This coverage of that system's 
graphics capabilities kicks off 
Microcomputing's special graphics 
section. By Guy Wright 

58 A Decision 

For Business Graphics 

If the business graphics field has 
been suppressed in the past by hard- 
ware and software limitations, it no 
longer needs to be, thanks to NCR's 
Decision Mate V. By David Busch 

62 Telidon 

That's the name of this article's 
topic: an easy-to-use, hi-res, color 
graphics subsystem that connects 
onto micros, minis and mainframes 
and can be used semi-independently. 
By J.R. Waese and J. Heid 

65 What a CAD! 

The Robographics computer-aided 
drafting system (CAD-1) offers low- 
cost flexibility in graphics. For drafts- 
men and engineers, it provides in- 
creased productivity. 
By Allan H. Schmidt 

74 Playing Games 
With Apple Pascal 

Yes, even a high-level language has 
potential for fast -moving graphics 
games. The author describes Light- 
Traces, a two-player arcade-style ex- 
cursion written in Pascal. 
By Robert Hurt 

88 The Good, the CAD 
And the Apple 

Your computer may not be a pencil, 
but it does offer graphics advantages 
that a pencil cannot. This first of a 
two-part article shows how your Ap- 
ple takes shape as a computer-aided 
design machine. By Richard Fritzson 



□ 






Volume VIII No. 1 
Contents: January 1984 



ARTICLES 



41 Keep an Eye 

On Your Memory 

If you find memory monitor tasks 
mundane, these two short programs 
will do the peeking and poking for 
you. By Edward Rager 

42 Writing Off 
Your Computer 

If you're using your micro in your 
business, it may well be tax-deduct- 
ible. The authors offer advice on 
how you make this determination. 
By D.V. Saftner and C.J. O'Neil 

44 A Few Tips on Deducing 
Your Deduction 

This sidebar presents some basic tax 
rules that will assist the program- 
mer during use of the BasicA pro- 
gram (for the IBM PC) presented in 
the article "Writing Off Your 
Computer." 

70 To Market, To Market . . . 

Market mongers making major in- 
vestments may be interested to 
know that the investment game can 
be simplified through the use of a 
micro. By Anne Coda 

78 The Bottom Line on 

Top-of-the-Line Accounting 

Computerized accounting systems 
don't come cheap. With the help of 
this article, you'll have an easier 
time finding the best system for 
your money. By James McCoy 

82 Ten of the Best in Brief 

Author James McCoy provides cap- 
sule evaluations of ten accounting 
programs. 



100 Speak Easy and Carry 
A Big Digitizer 

To add that special touch to your 
Basic programs, the author gives to 
you Speak-Easy, a voice digitizer for 
the TRS-80 Model III. 
By Greg Rogers 

104 All Sorts of Versatility 

Efficiency is the name of the game 
with this Z-80 assembly language 
sorting routine for Basic program- 
mers. By Gregory C. Hamilton 



DEPARTMENTS 



8 Letters to the Editor 
99 Conversions 

Breakeven 

115 Microcomputings 1983 Article 
Index 

120 Micro Software Digest 

Software Reviews at a Glance 

122 Calendar 

123 Dealer Directory 

124 Book Reviews 

IBM Graphics Books Critiqued 

126 New Software 
123 New Products 
146 Software Reviews 

pfs:Graph: Data Display Made Easy 

VisiCalc IV's StretchCalc 

BPS: Graph Preparation 

The Bottom Line in Econometric 

Models 
Inventory Assistance: Infotory 

Cover photo by Michael Tedesco Studios. 
No baloney with Sony. Page 54. 





PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 

VICE PRESIDENT/GENERAL MANAGER 

Debra Wetherbee 

VICE-PRESIDENT/FINANCE 

Roger Murphy 

ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT/VP 

Matthew Smith 

ASSISTANT TO THE VP/FINANCE 

Dominique Smith 

DIRECTOR OF MARKETING & SALES 

David Schissler 

DIRECTOR OF ADVERTISING 

Stephen Twombly 

CIRCULATION DIRECTOR 

William Howard 
603-924-9471 

RETAIL AND NEWSSTAND SALES MANAGER 

Ginnie Boudrieau 
1-800-343-0728 

ADVERTISING 
603-924-7138 

Stephen Robbins, Bob Sharkey, 
Jim Shaw, Linda McConnell 

PUBLIC RELATIONS 

Jim Leonard 



Microcomputing (ISSN 0744-4567) is published monthly 
by Wayne Green, Inc., 80 Pine St., Peterborough NH 
03458. U.S. subscription rates $25, one year; $53, three 
years. Canada and Mexico $27.97, one year, U.S. funds. 
Foreign $44.97, one year; U.S. funds drawn on U.S. 
bank. Foreign air mail subscriptions— please inquire. 
Nationally Distributed by International Circulation 
Distributors. Second-class postage paid at Peterborough, 
NH 03458 and at additional mailing offices. Phone: 
603-924-9471. Entire contents copyright 1983 by Wayne 
Green, Inc. No part of this publication may be reprinted 
or otherwise reproduced without written permission 
from the publisher. Postmaster: Send form #3579 to 
Microcomputing, Subscription Services, PO Box 997, 
Farmingdale, NY 11737. 



Microcomputing is certified by the 
Audit Bureau of Circulations. 




Microcomputing is a member of the CW Communica- 
tions/Inc. group, the world's largest publisher of com- 
puter-related information. The group publishes 42 com- 
puter publications in 18 major countries. Nine million 
people read one or more of the group's publications each 
month. Members of the publication group include: Aus- 
tralia: Australasian Computerworld, Micro Magazine; 
Argentina: Computerworld/Argentina; Brazil: DataNews, 
MicroMundo; Denmark: Computerworld/Danmark, Mi- 
kroData; France: Le Monde Informatique; Germany: Com- 
puterWoche, MicroComputerWelt, PC Welt; Italy: Com- 
puterworld Italia; Japan: Computerworld Japan; Mexico: 
Computerworldl Mexico; Norway: Computerworld Norge, 
MikroData; People's Republic of China: China Computer- 
world; Saudi Arabia: Saudi Computerworld; Spain: Com- 
puterworld/Espana, MicroSistemas; Sweden: Computer- 
Sweden, MikroDatorn, Min Hemdator; United Kingdom: 
Computer Management, Computer Business Europe; 
United States: Computerworld, HOT CoCo, inCider, Info- 
World, ISO World, Microcomputing, PC World, 80 Micro, 
RUN. 

Microcomputing, January 1984 5 



PUBLISHER'S REMARKS 



By Wayne Green 



Computer Marts: 

Medieval Marketing? 



Bazaar Thinking 

Recent articles in Computerworld 
about Boscom and Infomart, the planned 
Boston and Dallas computer merchan- 
dise mart developments, got me to rumi- 
nating, as I am wont to do. A cost of $165 
million to refurbish the old Boston Com- 
monwealth Pier and make it into a com- 
puter shopping mart? Good grief! 

Methinks someone with a remarkably 
glib tongue must have woven some 
heady dreams to get that kind of dough 
behind such an ephemeral project. Imag- 
ine what could be accomplished if that 
kind of money were put to good use! Oh 
well, with Atari and Texas Instruments 
wallowing in losses of that magnitude, I 
suppose I should just shrug off another 
potential lead balloon. In the computer 
field, people are accustomed to both win- 
ning and losing on a large scale. 

Going Back 

It seems to me that the whole concept 
of trying to sell computer systems in a 
merchandise mart environment is a tri- 
umph of a medieval marketing mentali- 
ty. Perhaps, upon reflection, I am being 
generous. The concept takes me back to 
bazaars in Tehran, Damascus and 
Baghdad. 

As I wandered through the bazaar in 
Damascus, which claims to be the oldest 
continuously inhabited city in the world, 
I was awed by it. In one section, there 
were hundreds of small shoe shops. In 
the next were hundreds of shops selling 
cloth, most of it imported from China. 
Another section had copperware, and 
so on. 

This type of shopping is good for the 
customer in that the closeness of the 
merchants makes it easy to find exactly 
what is wanted, and it's easy to bargain 
for it. The closeness of similar products 
helps to keep prices competitive. The 
same system has evolved in Hong Kong 
with microcomputer stores, with dozens 
in the Golden Shopping Center, all with 

6 Microcomputing, January 1984 



similar products (fake Apples) and all 
fiercely competitive. 

But in the merchandise marts— if 
you've ever visited one— we have quite a 
different situation. Here I've seen exhibits 
by manufacturers that are aimed at buy- 
ers for stores and chains of stores. These 
are wholesale, not retail. And this is not, as 
I read it, what is planned for the computer 
marts, where only the end customer is in 
mind as the buyer. 

If the IBM people set up exhibits in Bos- 
com and Infomart, will they be demon- 
strating their equipment for users or for 
dealers? If they are aiming at end users, 
are they going to actually sell directly to 



Are there any 

developments that might 

be a little more up-to-date- 

than going back to the 

1000 B.C. concept of 

merchandising? 



the customer, or are they going to just 
demonstrate and then tell the prospect to 
go find a dealer to make the actual sale? 

Dealers are not likely to be enthusiastic 
about direct manufacturer-to-customer 
sales. But without such sales, how can the 
enormous expense of such a display possi- 
bly be justified? 

Boston's Pier 

The Pier, while it is an enormous build- 
ing and almost unused these days, is not 
near much. It's a mile or so away from 
downtown Boston. There's little public 
transportation out that way. It does have a 
nice parking area across the street, which 
is more than you can say for Hynes Audi- 
torium, where most of the recent comput- 




er shows have been held. 
Will people go that far out of the way to 

look at computers? Spending $165 mil- 
lion is a big gamble on that flimsy prem- 
ise, no matter how desperate the city 
may be to find something to do with prop- 
erty. It's too out of the way to attract 
many shows, so most of the time it's been 
just sitting there, gradually rusting away. 

With the rapidly changing technology, 
are there any developments that might be 
a little more up-to-date than going back to 
the 1000 B.C. bazaar concept of merchan- 
dising? And what will be the advantages 
of a mart over what we already have in 
computer shows? 

Will potential buyers of computers and 
software get the same feelings of frustra- 
tion that I have when I attend a show? An 
exhibit in a mart, whether it is for direct 
selling or demonstration, would have the 
same serious limitations for me. 

When I wander around a computer 
show and see enthusiastic manufactur- 
ers showing their hardware and soft- 
ware, I know two things immediately. 

One, these birds know their products 
cold — and that means that they are going 
to be able to show off all positive aspects 
and razzle-dazzle to me. Two. they know 
the bugs and limitations and will be able 
to easily hide these from me, even if I am 
fairly perceptive. 

I learned long ago not to believe dem- 
onstrations at shows. That's like expect- 
ing a used car dealer to start listing the 
problems I can expect if I buy a car from 
him — it isn't going to happen. Used horse 
and camel dealers wrote the book ages 
ago, and it's still alive and well at com- 
puter shows — and presumably at com- 
puter marts, too. No thanks. 

Be Honest . . . 

With the complexity of the programs 
being sold today, it isn't practical to plan 
on trying them out personally. It takes 
weeks to get really familiar with pro- 
grams like VisiCalc, so what can you do I 



in five or ten minutes in a store, at a 
show or even in a mart? And, be honest 
about this, how can you hope to compare 
SuperCalc 3, Lotus 1-2-3, MBA and other 
such incredibly complex programs in a 
few hours? 

Yes, of course, I have some ideas on 
how to tackle the problem, and for one 
hell of a lot less than the $165 million re- 
furbishing of that old pier in Boston. And 
that doesn't count the incredible invest- 
ment in renting space, setting up and 
maintaining permanent exhibits and the 
personnel to man them. 

One way around this silly extrava- 
gance would be for the manufacturers of 
hardware and software to prepare video 
tapes demonstrating their products. 
With some entertaining talent to show off 
the product, we customers could sit in 
comfort in a computer store and watch a 
video presentation that would show us 
everything and a half that the product 
could do. With an interactive video disk, 
it could even branch to show us specific 
applications that might be in tune with 
our particular needs. As expensive as 
video is, it doesn't hold a candle to the 
cost of exhibiting in a mart. 

With both Xerox and IBM said to be 
planning to rent mart space for about 
$1 million per year in Boscom, plus 
another $1 million a year for the display 
and personnel (minimum), they would 
have to sell nearly $100,000 a day. 



There really has to be 

a better way to sell 

computers than endless 

shows or computer marts. 

Can't someone come up 

with something better? 






average, just to pay for this ex- 
travagance . . . never mind any profits. 

Building Up Stamina 

One of the benefits of realizing the im- 
possibility of making decisions on com- 
puters or software at shows is that it has 
speeded up my ability to see them. I re- 
cently was able to cover most of a 24- 
building computer show in Munich in 
one single day. It had me almost looking 
forward to the Las Vegas Comdex show 
(November 28-December 2), with its 
5,850 booths. 

I did get practiced up a few days ago, 
though, starting with that 24-building 
Munich show to get my wind, flying the 
next day via Anchorage, AK, to Tokyo 
and the Data Show, then to 180 exhibits 
at the Singapore PerComp Asia '83 show 



and finally to the 960-booth Comdex Eu- 
rope at Amsterdam. 

Comdex Europe — A Lonely Show 

The Munich, Tokyo and Singapore 
shows were crowded, so getting around 
was a hassle. Fortunately, the Comdex 
show was virtually empty, so getting 
around was a breeze. 

For the second straight year, the show 
was almost deserted. One would begin to 
expect some resistance on the part of ex- 
hibitors to spend all of that money just to 
stand around and talk with each other. 
Perhaps the lure of an all-expense paid 
trip to Amsterdam is all it takes to get 
American exhibitors— never mind that 
there are virtually no customers. 

One problem, of course, is that few 
dealers cross a border in Europe. If you 
want to sell in Germany, you exhibit in 
Germany— hence the huge show in 
Munich and the incredibly big Hannover 
Fair each spring. France? You exhibit at 
one of the Paris shows. Holland is a nice 
country, but it's small, and you can 
count the computer stores in one breath, 
so even if every one of them had come to 
the show— which they didn't— they 
would have been lost in the empty 
spaces. It was nice, though, to be able to 
get a badge without any wait at all a few 
minutes after the opening of the show. At 
NCC you'd have to wait an hour. 

The educated opinion was that a Com- 
dex show in Amsterdam is never going to 
be worthwhile. I missed the 1982 disas- 
ter, which conflicted with a show in Hong 
Kong, but apparently the 1983 version 
was a close approximation. The newspa- 
per reports last year were not exagger- 
ated. 

The Comdex people, not one bit dis- 
mayed by their second Amsterdam ca- 
tastrophe, have announced plans to in- 
vade Japan. Hey, good luck. Shelly! The 
Tokyo Comdex is scheduled for March or 
April '85, with no date yet firm. 

Shelly has also announced a third 
Comdex in the U.S. . . just what the in- 
dustry needs! As I wrote earlier, there 
really has to be a better way to sell com- 
puters than endless shows or computer 
marts. Can't someone come up with 
something better? 

One last observation on shows: it does 
seem as if the firms that put on the big- 
gest displays invariably end up going out 
of business shortly thereafter. This 
wisdom was making the rounds at the 
Munich Systems show, where Victor 
must have spent $100,000 on a party— a 
huge affair at the most expensive hotel in 
the city. I was there having dinner in the 
same hotel and I saw it with my own 
eyes. 

Now how can German sales support 
such an extravagance— as well as the 
huge Victor exhibit at the show? Well, at 
least they had the good sense to avoid 
Comdex— as did Apple, Tandy, IBM, Vec- 
tor, NorthStar, CompuPro, NEC and so 
on.D 



Circle 348 on Reader Service card 



ACTIVE TRACE 

"A marvelous Basic 
programming aid ... 

It's just amazing to watch a 
program you wrote run under 
Scope, and debugging 
becomes if not trivial, then at 
least doable." 

Thomas Bonoma, Microcomputing 

Dec. '83, p 22 

' 'Extremely useful program 
. . . Anyone doing much pro- 
gramming in Basic should 
appreciate Active Trace a lot." 

Jerry Pournelle, Byte Magazine 

April '83, p 234 

Spaghetti code is what many "experts' 
call a beginner's Basic program which is 
all tangled up and difficult to follow. The 
Active Trace package will help you learn 
how to avoid the pitfalls of structureless 
programs. And if you already have a pro- 
gram which is too confusing to follow, or 
has an error which is hiding, relax. 
Active Trace doesn't get confused. Active 
Trace will lead you through your program 
letting you know variable values (all vari- 
ables or just those you specify) as they 
change. In a form a novice can under- 
stand, your program's internal activity is 
presented on your screen, or printer, or 
it can be saved on disk. 

For more advanced programmers, the 
disk file of your programs activity can be 
used with your word processor to auto- 
matically find the source of an error and 
display the circumstances surrounding its 
occurrence. 

Ready to Order? 

Just have a Question? 

Contact your dealer or call 

Toll Free: 800-358-91 20( US) 

800-862-4948(CA) 



Active Trace 



Complete package includes Scope, XREF 
mapping and documentation 



Scope Separately 



$79.95 
$49.95 



Only recommended for those who already 
own professional mapping (XREF) programs 

Active Trace is available for most MS-DOS and CPM 2.2 

systems and supports the special features of Brand specific 
versions of Microsoft Basic such as Basica on the IBM-PC 



A 



WARECO 



ctive Software 

P.O. Box 695 Gualala, CA 95445 
(707) 884-4019 

Active trace. Active software. AWARECO and Scope are 
trademarks of A Ware Company— CPM is a trademark of 
Digital Research— MS-DOS and Microsoft are trademarks of 
Microsoft Corporation— IBM-PC is a trademark of IBM Corp 



Microcomputing, January 1984 7 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 



Some Tips for Osborne 

I read Edward Mitchell's article 
"Debug Your Osborne Software" in the 
October issue of Microcomputing (p. 74) 
and was interested in some of the 
statements made there since I im- 
plemented the CP/M BIOS for the 
Toshiba T200/T250 line of computers, 
which have a memory-mapped screen 
and terminal emulation also. 

Mr. Mitchell and all Basic users under 
CP/M should be aware that many Basics 
do character I/O through CP/M BDOS 
function calls. One side effect of this is 
that the BDOS monitors the output 
stream and keeps track of the output po- 
sition. When it receives a TAB character 
(09), it spaces out to the next MOD 8 char- 
acter position. It does this to support 
Type and other low-level output utilities 
that don't have the intelligence to perform 
primitive output formatting on their own. 

The implication of this is that the char- 
acter 09 shouldn't be sent unless you 
want CP/M to get in the way. 

One way out of this is to do all character 
I/O (especially cursor positioning) 
through direct BIOS calls. This has the 
side effect of speeding up character I/O 
substantially. Some Basics already do 
their character I/O through BIOS calls. 

The other way is to offset the x coordin- 
ates that have a value of less than a space 
by a number that is terminal dependent. 
Terminal makers have recognized that 
many machines have difficulty sending 
characters less than 20H, so they make 
provision for it. In the case of the Toshiba 
machine that has Hazeltine emulation, 
the x offset for x coordinates less than 
20H was 60H or 96. Possibly the same 
value would work for the Osborne. 

I hope this information is helpful to 
people doing cursor positioning under 
CP/M using Basic. 



David W. Harralson 
Yorba Linda, CA 



Bar Code Fever 

I was pleased with Joseph Verzino's ar- 
ticle "Say It in Bar Code," (September Mi- 
crocomputing, p. 36). However, I do have 
a question. Are there any products avail- 
able to read or decode bar code and to in- 
put bar code one way or another into a 
VIC-20? 

If not, have there been any books or 
magazine articles that explain "how to 
do it yourself'? I am very interested in 

8 Microcomputing, January 1984 



obtaining such a capability. 

Colin C. Kelly, Jr. 

15 Sotelo Ave. 

Piedmont, CA 94611 



TSIsOK 

First of all I want to say that I enjoy 
Microcomputing and read it cover to 
cover. However, after reading "Publish- 
er's Remarks" in the November issue (p. 
6), I was a little upset about some of the 
remarks made in regard to the Timex/ 
Sinclair computer. 

Here are a few things that I think 
should be known: First of all, being a new 
computer on the market, it is hard to 
have magazines, books and hardware 
and software available right then and 
there. 

There are currently, however, maga- 
zines and books for the Timex/Sinclair 
1000. And yes, there are third-party 
companies that are currently supporting 
hardware and software for the "little" 
computer. 

Also, I would like to point out that the 
computer was introduced as a computer 
to help people learn Basic. 

Timex also offers a toll-free number for 
assistance in programming and new 
product information, and the people are 



pleasant and helpful. 

Just once I would like to read some- 
thing positive about this small but pow- 
erful computer, especially now that the 
2000 is available. 

Bryan J. Mobley 
Akron, OH 



An Overwhelming Response 

The response to my request for pen 
pals (October Microcomputing, "Letters 
to the Editor," p. 30) was overwhelming. 
I've received more than 1000 letters so far. 

Members of my local user's group and I 
are currently developing a special news- 
letter (nonprofit) for all our friends world- 
wide who enjoy using their Timex/Sin- 
clair, Commodore, Radio Shack and 
Adam computers. 

We invite users of all ages and interests 
to donate informative articles to our 
readers and a special Classified section 
for users is available with a members' 
rate of ten cents per word (minimum ten 
words). 

Our yearly rate is $10 for 12 issues and 
all proceeds go directly to continue the 
newsletter. 

Chris Elsasser 

Box 635 Rt 2 

Camilla GA 31730 



Microcomputing encourages readers to express their opinions and viewpoints in its 
"Letters to the Editor" forum. 

Letters should be double-spaced and sent to Microcomputing magazine, "Letters to 
the Editor," 80 Pine St., Peterborough, NH 03458; or contact us on CompuServe 
(701 16,752) or SourceMail (ST8283). 



Sneak Previews 



One of the hottest issues of 1984 will be 
compatibility between computers. The 
February issue of Microcomputing will 
examine the truths and myths of compat- 
ibility with a number of practical and in- 
formative articles. We've recently seen a 
lower-court decision overturn Franklin 
Computer Corp.'s earlier victory over Ap- 
ple regarding the Franklin's unabashed 
emulation of the Apple. What implica- 
tions does this have for microcomputer 
manufacturers and the buying public? 

Our introductory article by Rick Cook 
entitled "What Do You Mean, Compati- 
ble'?" will set the stage for the issue. Tom 
Howe will report on a new coprocessor 
board, the Plus 88, that allows the 
Kaypro II to run some IBM PC software. 
He'll have some interesting observations. 



If you have a supply of TRS-80 cassette 
tapes (but no TRS-80!) then you will en- 
joy our article on reading TRS-80 cas- 
settes into a nonTRS-80 machine. This 
program and simple hardware project 
will astonish those who believe the 
TRS-80 is a machine unto itself. 

Our big system news is an early review 
of the Dimension 68000. The machine is 
touted as being able to handle the TRS- 
80, Apple, IBM PC, UNIX and CP/M- 
based software. We're testing one now 
and will report to you our findings next 
month. 

There's more for February. We are also 
planning some late-breaking stories that 
we can't even tell you about . . . yet. See 
you next month! 



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Now the excitement of original 
arcade graphics and sound effects 
comes home to your computer 

Introducing ATARISOFT™ A new 
source for computer software. 

If you own a Commodore VIC 20 
or 64, a Texas Instruments 99/4A, an 
IBM or an Apple II, you can play the 
original arcade hits. 

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ROBOTRON: 2084, STARGATE and 
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So, start playing the original hits 
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Only from ATARISOFT 

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Now your computer fits 
the arcade hits. 



DONKEY KONG. Mario and NINTENDO are trademarks and © 
Nintendo 1981. 1983. PAC-MAN and characters are trademarks 
of Bally Midway Mfg Co. sublicensed to Atari, Inc by Namco- 
America. Inc. DEFENDER is a trademark of Williams Electronics. 
Inc., manufactured under license from Williams Electronics. Inc 
ROBOTRON: 2084 is a trademark and © of Williams 1982, manu- 
factured under license from Williams Electronics, Inc STARGATE 
is a trademark and © of Williams 1981. manufactured under license 
from Williams Electronics. Inc. DIG DUG is created and designed 
by Namco Ltd. manufactured under license by Atari, Inc. Trade- 
marks and © Namco 1982. PROTECTOR II is a trademark of Syn- 
apse Software Corporation, manufactured under license by Atari, 
Inc. SHAMUS is a trademark of Synapse Software Corporation, 
manufactured under license by Atari, Inc PICNIC PARANOIA is a 
trademark of Synapse Software Corporation, manufactured by 
Atari. Inc. SUPER STORM is engineered and designed by Synapse 
Software Corporation, manufactured under license by Atari, Inc. 
ATARISOFT™ products are manufactured by Atari, Inc. for use on 
the above referenced machines and are not made, licensed or 
approved by the manufacturers of these machines COMMODORE 
64, VIC 20, TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 99/4A. IBM, APPLE. COLE- 
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Commodore Electronics Limited, Texas Instruments, International 
Business Machines Corp., Apple Computer Inc , Coleco Industries. 
Inc. and Mattel. Inc A ©Warner Communications Company 
© 1983 Atari, Inc. All rights reserved 



Complete this coupon and we'll keep you 
up to date on the newest hits from 
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Name 



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' . ..--. "Specsmanship" 
• ; ' • The Creative 




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New years bring 
new ambitions and 
new directions. This 4 

column, which used to 
be called 'The Intelligent 
foastei.'' has picked up a new 
direction of its own. 

'Techniques" will bring you applica- 
tions and theory of the latest advances in 
the world of electronics as it applies 
to your personal micro world. Inter 
spersed with my ramblings will be com- 
plete projects and experiments to let you 
participate in the research without leav- 
ing your house. 

As always. I welcome your comments, 
suggestions and criticisms and I'll try to 
incorporate them into some of the 
monthly columns throughout the year. 

This month, we'll tie into this issue's 
theme of computer graphics. There are 
no construction details, just an introduc- 
tion to the various techniques used by 
the industry to produce those tine- Imag- 
inative tantasies captured on film, like 
the one shown on this page. This picture 
was generated by Ken Utting. a Sanders 

Associates employee. 

Utting was using, as a display termi- 
nal, a Calcomp/Sanders Vistagraphic 
4218. This display provides 256 simulta 
neous colors over a resolution of 
640x512 pixels. Utting was running un- 
der VistagraJ (a Core-like subroutine 
package supplied by Caleomp). The 
shading was produced by running a ver- 
sion of Brigham Young University's 
MOVIE. BYU. which was cleverly modi- 
I lied by Calcomp's Jan Silverman. 

12 Microcomputing, January 1984 




\ 



Pixels, Core, Silverman . . . 

(or, What's This Guy Talking About?) 

If you haven't been part of, or haven't 
been introduced to, the computer graph- 
ics community, the last paragraph was 
probably a blur to you. Don't feel 
alone — the field is relatively young, b.ut 
it's emerging rapidly. 

Trying to explain architecture types is 
like taking a picture- ot a road race. With 
everything advancing so rapidly, you 
tend to get distorted images. 

The place to start, I guess, is where the 
computer leaves off and the graphics 
begin . 

I assume that readers of Micrcx ompuf- 
ing are familiar with the standard struc- 
ture of a computer. The prcx cssor com- 
municates over some type of data path, 
called a bus. to storage- devices, such as 
disks and memory. It also uses this bus to 
communicate with the outside- world 
through RS-232C interfaces and the like. 

Well, consider that a graphics interface 



will \x- placed 
upon the bus 
like another section ot 

memory (Fig. 1)- This memory 
however, can be viewed directly by the- 

operator. To draw images, then, all you 
have to do is arrant^- the data beino store-d 
in this memory to represent the- structure 
of that imauc- 

The graphics Interface, or graphics 
prcxessor. as it is called by industry peo- 
ple-, takes the- stored data trom this mem- 
ory on the- bus and sends it serially i< 
display head that is nothing more- than a 
color or monochrome monitor. As you can 
imagine, the design ot this processor is 
quite complex and. like- I said. i^ forever 
being improved upon by companies in 
the field. It's not a trivial task to design 
one trom scratch. 

What I want to accomplish here is 



Mark Robillard is a f*rincipal Engi- 
neer/Program Manager tor Sanders 
Caleomp in Hudson. NH. You may eun- 
taet him at MJR Digital. TO Box 630. 
TownsencL MA 01469. 




to make some sense out of manufac- 
turers' specifications for graphics boards. 
I'll also cover the various techniques 
used to accomplish these specs. 

At the close of the article is a list of ref- 
erence books on the subject of graphics 
design theory. You will find, through 
these, that there is far too much detail 
than could be brought out in a single 
article. 

Specifications 

Now that you're done admiring the pic- 
ture, let's examine the specifications of 
the display (Fig. 2) used to produce it. 
Calcomp is a typical graphics supplier; 
you'll find similar specifications for inter- 
faces among all levels of equipment. 

In the upper left portion of the data 
sheet, you'll find that several models are 
provided (not important) and that each is 
divided by something called "interlace" 
and "noninterlace" (very important). 

Let me explain the actions and differ- 
ences between the two. 

TV or raster-type displays move an 
electron beam across the face of the dis- 
play. From this sweeping motion comes 
the name "Raster displays." To illustrate 
this point, look at Fig. 3— the classic 
representation of television operation. 

The electron beam starts in the upper 
left corner of the screen and is moved 
from left to right. When it reaches the 
right, it is swept back to the left side. 
However, when it's traveling left, the 
beam moves downward slightly. In this 
way, we end up with a series of parallel 
horizontal lines. 

In a standard TV image, there are 525 



Calcomp Graphics Development System. 



horizontal scan lines that are laid down 
in the fashion explained above before the 
beam must return to the upper left again. 

Noninterlaced displays move and place 
the beam just the way I have described it. 
They place all 525 lines on the screen 60 
times per second. So each individual 
scan line, or, for that matter, each indivi- 
dual time interval (pixel), is being rewrit- 
ten (refreshed) at a 60Hz rate. 

Noninterlaced display monitors are 
fast because they accept pixel data 
(on/off) at a rate that supports the 60Hz 
refresh. 

On the other hand, interlaced displays 
cut the speed in half. How do they do 
this? They write the odd-numbered scan 
lines first, then, on the second pass, they 
write the even lines. 

Although half of the lines are actually 
being refreshed at the 60Hz rate, the en- 
tire picture is being updated at only a 
30Hz rate. Therefore, pixel on/off data is 
being accessed at only half the rate as 
before. 

The differences between the two are 
many. Interlaced displays tend to flicker. 
When a white-colored ball is displayed on 
a black background, the ball surface will 
produce a beating effect on your eyes. 



This type of display is cheaper and not as 
bright. 

The noninterlaced display, which rep- 
resents the direction the industry is 
heading, is brighter and virtually flicker- 
free. As you can see from the data sheet 
in Fig. 2, the display is offered in both 
varieties. Expect the noninterlace to cost 
more . . . it's worth it! 

Pixels at Last 

Those horizontal scan lines come out 
looking like a series of dots across the 
face of the tube. These little dots, known 
as pixels, aren't a disease, or a design 
problem with the monitor. They're ac- 
tually supposed to be there. In fact, de- 
signers can't get enough of them! 

You see, the graphics processor is 
keeping time from the moment he leaves 
the beam on the left to the moment he 
jerks it back (retrace). This scan must be 
done in a precise amount of time. 

Although the main actions being per- 
formed so far are start sweep and retrace, 
there is no reason the processor can't be 
doing something else in between. In fact, 
anything it does in between will automa- 
tically be in sync with the traces. Why 
not get on/off data from a memory and 















< 




> 


PROCESSOR 






C ) 


VIDEO 






i 
1 


1 






MONITOR 
















1 


> 




' 






















PARALLEL 
INTERFACE 




SERIAL 
INTERFACE 






SYSTEM 
MEMORY 




GRAPHICS 
INTERFACE 
















































SYSTE^ 


1 BUS 















Fig. 1 . Placement of a graphics interface on a standard micro system bus. 

Microcomputing, January 1984 13 



display it a piece at a time? (No, we didn't 
invent something here; they've been do- 
ing that for years.) 

If you look up "pixels" in a computer 
dictionary, it will say "the smallest ad- 
dressable point on a raster display." 

We haven't started on addressing yet; 
we're still out at the monitor, following 
the scan lines. I'm sure you get the idea, 
though — a digital controller marches 
through display memory, location by lo- 
cation, fetching data to send to the moni- 
tor before the next retrace cycle. 

Each one of these "elements of time" is 
defined as fractions of a second. The 
faster they are, the more you can fit 
across the screen in the allotted time. 
The Calcomp display boasts the ability to 
put 640 of them on a line (Calcomp even 
has one that displays twice that much). 
Typical personal computers have been 
limited to 256 for normal TV viewing, yet 
the more business-oriented models, like 
the IBM PC, are supporting 640. 

Shades and Color 

Getting back to the spec sheet, there is 
another important factor in specifying a 
graphics interface. 

Across from the model numbers is list- 
ed the amount of colors or gray shades 
available. When discussing pixels, I nev- 
er mentioned the fact that the electron 



beam inside the monitor has the ability to 
vary in intensity, providing different 
levels of brightness. 

As you might guess, varying the beam 
is an analog function. To get more than 
one value of analog voltage requires more 
than one digital signal. TTL-level signals 
are either on or off; that's the case in all 
computer systems. 

Through the use of digital-to-analog 



The real test is to 

find out how fast your 

graphics interface can 

draw a vector. 



(D/A) converters, two or more bits of digi- 
tal data may be transformed into varying 
levels of current, which then can be con- 
verted into a video signal with multiple 
intensities. 

By now you should have figured out 
that placing two bits into a D/A converter 
will yield those four shades provided by 
the model 4212. 

While we're on the subject of multiple 
bits-per-pixel, let's explore the organiza- 



tion of pixel memory. As I mentioned, 
more than one bit representing a pixel 
can result in more than one shade. In 
graphics systems, each bit is referred to 
as a plane. Therefore, to display 16 
shades would require a *x4" memory, 
or four bit-planes. 

Each pixel on the screen is associated 
with one discrete addressable location in 
pixel memory. In a 640x512 system, 
there are 327,680 of them! That same 
16-shade system will require a memory 
arranged as approximately 400K x 4. Fig. 
4 illustrates the organization and the ac- 
tions of the D/A converter. 

It's possible to choose those 16 shades 
from a larger selection through the use of 
something called a look-up table (Fig. 5), 
which is a smaller memory (usually a 
high-speed static RAM). This technique 
is used on color displays. 

You might have noticed that personal 
computers that display close to the reso- 
lution of the Calcomp unit use RGB 
monitors. 

In a television system, all colors are 
made up of varying quantities of the col- 
ors red, green and blue. The tube in the 
monitor has three electron guns inside. 
Yes, a three-bit plane system could drive 
a color monitor; however, going with 
straight TTL yields only eight colors. In 
fact, that is exactly how many low-end 



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14 Microcomputing, January 1984 



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refund or exchange within 
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CONDITION with all papers 
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Microcomputing, January 1984 15 



business graphics terminals generate 
their colors. 

Linking the look-up table idea into 
those same three-bit planes will allow 
you to dynamically change the values 
coming out to the monitor. Remember, 
the table is a section of memory also. 

To illustrate the look-up table's opera- 
tion, let's return to the Calcomp system. 
The display shown in the beginning of 
this article was produced with 256 colors 
or shades of blue. The 42 18 is an eight-bit 
plane system that uses a 12-bit look-up 
table. 

The digital outputs of each bit plane in 
pixel memory are combined into one 
eight-bit byte. This byte is now used to 
address the look-up table memory. Be- 
cause it involves eight-bits, 256 separate 
locations may be addressed. 

At each of these locations are three sets 



of four outputs. These outputs then go in- 
to D/A converters to produce the colors. 
Each D/A converter corresponds to one of 
the red, green and blue CRT guns. 

Because there are 16 possible combi- 
nations of shades coming out of the table 
(four-bits) and there are 256 possible 
amounts of these, a color palette of 4096 
colors is available! 

Speed, Pixel Plash and Vectors 

So far, we've been talking about tre- 
mendous amounts of memory. We've al- 
so been discussing only one picture. 

As you get further into this, you'll be- 
gin to wonder how fast you can draw a 
picture. After all, 400,000 memory loca- 
tions don't get updated all at once. In fact, 
if you were to leave the pixel memory on 
the bus for processor access and graphics 
processor access, there would appear a 



northeast snow storm on the monitor 
screen. This is known as pixel flash. 

In inexpensive personal computers, 
you can see pixel flash. When Basic is 
writing to the screen, you can also see 
pixels move in jumps. 

Industrial users of graphics get around 
these problems by providing two pixel 
memories. One is updated while the oth- 
er is being displayed. They flip-flop on 
and off of the main bus to give constant 
access to the processor. This technique is 
called double-buffering, and it's right 
above the look-up table on the spec sheet. 

The next item is pixel writing speed. 
This is where creative "specsmanship" 
comes in. You'll see all kinds of numbers 
beside the pixel update time spec. The 
Calcomp unit is, at its fastest, around 350 
nanoseconds. That's pretty fast, but are 
individual pixel speeds important? 




Specifications 



Vistagraphic™ 4200 
Graphic Display Terminals 



General: 

Color Models 

4213 30 Hz Interlace 

4214 60 Hz Noninterlace 
4218 60 Hz Noninterlace 

Monochrome Models 

4211 30 Hz Interlace 

4212 60 Hz Noninterlace 
Double Buffered Pixel Memory 
Look-Up Table (Color Palette) 



Firmware: 



Graphic Control Program (GCP) 
TTY mode, Local debug, Built-in Test 



16 Colors 

16 Colors 

256 Colors 

2 Shades 
4 Shades 

4096 



Graphic Functions: 

Graphic Instructions 



Display: 

CRT Size 

Resolution 

Character Sizes 

Pixel Update Times 
Horizontal Vector 
Vertical Vector 
45° Vector 



Character Instructions 



19 in 

640x512 

3 

0.35-2.5 Msec 

2.5 Msec 

3.6 ^sec 



Absolute and relative vectors 

Absolute and relative dots 

Circle generation 

Complex Polygon fill 

Picture Element Read Write 

2D Scale and Translate 

Selective Bit Plane Overlay/Underlay 

96 ASCII upper and lower case 

Programmable line and tab spacing 

Horizontal and vertical orientation 



Processor / Memory : 

System Processor (MC68000) 

Display List/Program Memory (RAM) 
RAM Expansion Memory 
Program Memory (EPROM) 



16/32 bit 

128K bytes 

up to 1M bytes 

32K bytes 



Interfaces: 

RS-232C asynchronous 

Parallel interfaces to most computers 



110-19,200 baud 



Peripherals: 



Alphanumeric/Function Keyboard (Standard) 

Data Tablet 

loystick 

Forcestick 

Trackball 

Monochrome Screen Copier 



Software: 



Enclosures: 



FORTRAN Support Package (FSP) 



Pedestal 

Expanded Pedestal 

Expanded Rack Mountable Card Cage 

Display Monitor Rack Mounting 



Environmental : 

Power 
Standard 
Optional 



Dimensions 

CRT Display 

CRT Display (Rack Mountable) 

Pedestal 

Expanded Pedestal 

Card Cage 

Keyboard 
Weight 

CRT Display 

CRT Display (Rack Mountable) 

Pedestal 

Expanded Pedestal 

Card Cage 

Keyboard 
Temperature 

Operating 

Storage 
Humidity (non-condensing) 
Altitude 
EMC 
Safety 



120 VAC 
220 VAC 
100 VAC 
240 VAC 
100 VAC 



±10°0 
±10°0 
±10°0 
±10°0 

± 10°o 



60 Hz 
50 Hz 
60 Hz 
50 Hz 
50 Hz 



15.8 x 21.4 x 23.2 in 401 x 544 x 589 mm 

17.5 x 19.0 x 21.5 in/445 x 483 x 546 mm 

3.3 x 21.4 x 23.2 in/84 x 544 x 589 mm 

5.8 x 21 4 x 23.2 in 147 x 544 x 589 mm 

10.0 x 17.3 x 17.5 in/254 x 438 x 445 mm 

3.3x18.8x8.1 in/84 x 478 x 206 mm 

70 lbs/32 kg 
60 lbs/27 kg 
25 lbs/11 kg 
35 lbs/16 kg 
35 lbs/16 kg 
7 lbs/3 kg 

+ 50°Fto +104°F/ + 10°C to +40°C 
+ 14°Fto +158°F/-10°Cto +70°C 

10°/o-90°/o 

Oto 10,000 ft/0 to 3,048 m 

Designed to meet FCC and VDE 

Designed to meet UL, CSA, and VDE 



Fig. 2. Reproduction of the Calcomp Vistagraphic 4200 Display data sheet. 



16 Microcomputing, January 1984 













The real test is to find out how fast your 
graphics interface can draw a vector (a 
short or long line on the screen). Nobody 
tells what the distance is, and most don't 
tell you that it takes 40 times the speed 
listed to set up before drawing the first 
pixel! They also don't tell you whether 
the vector is being scaled, zoomed or 
clipped. 

The best rule of thumb is to ask the 
vendor: "How long does it take to pro- 
duce a fully transformed 1cm vector?" 
and "How many can you display in one 
second?" Watch the salesman sink to the 
floor. 

I'm going to wrap this up for now by 
referring to the picture of a fully loaded 
Calcomp graphics system (see p. 13). The 
photo shows the 42 1 8, hard disk unit and 
various peripherals. 



HOME POINT 

OF RETURN 

FOR VERTICAL 

RETRACE 



HORIZONTAL SCAN 
LINE 

HORIZONTAL RETRACE 
POINT -, 




VERTICAL RETRACE 
POINT- 



Fig. 3. Representation of the beam 
movements on a standard television 
monitor. 



If you need more information on the de- 
sign of these terminals, refer to the books 
listed below: 

• Fundamentals of Interactive 
Computer Graphics 
J.D. Foley, A. Van Dam 
Addison-Wesley 



Tutorial: Computer Graphics 

Kellog S. Booth 

IEEE Computer Society 

Computer Graphics Primer 

Mitchell Waite 

Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc. 



PIXEL 


MEMORY 1 


'LANES 










640 


4 








640 


3 


• 
1 
2 






640 


2 

5 

i 
2 


5 
1 
2 




640 i 

5 
l 
2 


S' 




/ 






























VIDEO OUTPUT 



DIGITAL TO ANALOG 
CONVERTER 



Fig. 4. Diagram showing the use of multiple memory planes to achieve varying 
video levels. 



PIXEL 
DATA 

FROM 

e 

PLANES 



LOOK 

UP 

TABLE 



*4 
*5 
*6 
A 7 



0| 

°3 
04 



2 5 
06 

°8 



0» 

Oio 

0| 2 



DAC > RED 



3 



DAC J> GREEN \ 



> BLUE ) 



0AC 



TO 
MONITOR 



Fig. 5. Use and actions of the color look-up table. 

Microcomputing, January 1984 17 






Get The Whole Picture 










< 






low you can develop your 
knowledge of computing in- 
stantly. Microcomputing uncov- 
ers important trends and new 
discoveries. . .then shows how 
they'll affect you. 

Other multi-system magazines are 
loaded with filler stories. Not Micro 
computing. Every issue is alive with use- 
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• Overview examines industry trends and new tech- 
nologies in-depth. 

• new-product announcements explore state-of-the-art 
products before they reach the stores. 

• extensive buyer's guides save you money as you compar- 
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• candid reviews of software, hardware, and books en- 
sure that your next purchase will be a sound invest- 
ment. 

• hardware projects help you modify your system to fit 
your changing needs. 

• software conversions widen the scope of your machine. 



Discover 



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PET-POURRI 



The Answer 

For Mailing Jobs 



By Robert W. Baker 



PS: It's 

Commodore's 
EasyMail 64 



Easy Mail 64 

If you need a mail list program that 
handles around 700 names and ad- 
dresses for your small business, Commo 
dores's EasyMail 64 may be your answer. 
It requires a C-64, a 1541 disk and a 1525 
printer. 

Easy Mail's ten-page manual uses a tu- 
torial approach. When the program be- 
gins, you have a chance to change the 
screen color combinations via the func- 
tion keys. After you enter the current 
date when prompted, the program is 
ready to accept commands. 

From this point on, you can enter, dis- 
play, alter, delete or print name and ad- 
dress entries. You also can initialize 
disks, display disk status or print mailing 
labels. 

A highlighted program status line is al- 
ways displayed at the bottom of the 
screen. This line indicates when the com- 
puter is busy and reminds you of certain 
actions or functions. At any time, you 
can press the run/stop key to access a 
help screen that lists the available com- 
mands and functions. 

Each entry has fixed length fields to ac- 
commodate a name, a four-line address, 
the state or province, zip code, phone 
number and a special category field that 
can be up to eight characters long. 

New EasyMail Entries 

When making new entries, use the cur- 
sor keys to return to previously typed 
fields to make changes. If you're satisfied 
with the entire contents, the entry can be 
accepted and written to disk. When ac- 
cepted, each entry is automatically as- 
signed a sequential EasyMail reference 
number used to locate individual entries. 

To display a specific entry, you can 
either enter the specific EasyMail 64 
reference number or search on any 
specific field when the reference number 



isn't known. When searching for specific 
entries, you can continue from one 
match to the next or stop at any time. 
The actual searching uses only the 
leading characters of the data for mat- 
ching, so you can easily look for specific 
groups of entries. 

There are two ways of printing the en- 
tries. You can list them onto plain paper 
in a report format or you can print mail- 
ing labels. 

Both printings allow pattern matching, 
so you can limit the data to be printed to 
only those matching a specific data pat- 
tern in one particular field. Both also 
allow sorting the file using one key field 
that you select. 

When printing labels, you can print 
one or two across a page. There's even a 
special feature to help align labels in the 
printer. 

The program will print the first set of 
labels and pause to see if you think the 
labels are aligned. If not, EasyMail 64 will 
print the first set of labels again and re- 
peat the question. 



Easy Handling 

EasyMail easily handles the job it is de- 
signed for, but it definitely would not be 
suitable for any reasonably sized busi- 
ness or club mailing list. Search and sort- 
ing times can be long, especially when a 
large amount of data has been entered. 
For the average home user with a 50- to 
150-entry address list, though, this pro- 
gram should be more than adequate. 

(By the way, a RapidForms order blank 
is included with the program for ordering 
mailing labels if your local dealer doesn't 
handle them.) 



The Word Machine 
And the Name Machine 

These two Commodore programs come 



on disk in the same package for the 
Commodore-64 . 

The Word Machine is a mini word pro- 
cessor that allows you to write, save, edit 
and print documents or letters in your 
choice of formats. The Name Machine is a 
mini mailing list program that makes 
your computer an electronic telephone 
book, a source of mailing labels and a tool 
for generating a batch mailing list. As an 
added bonus, you get a copy of the DOS 
Wedge on the same disk. 

Both programs are written in Basic and 
are menu-driven for ease of use. You can 
use a datassette or a Commodore disk for 
data storage along with a Commodore 
printer for printed output. 

By the way, both programs actually 
will run on any PET or CBM system with 
16K memory (if you ignore the color 
prompts), even though they're packaged 
for the C-64. 



Word Machine, Step by Step 

The Word Machine's 14-page manual 
is divided into two sections. 

Section I is a tutorial that provides a 
step-by-step introduction to the essential 
functions of the program. It describes 
each of the options (which allow you to 
create, save, recall, print, display and 
edit documents) available from the main 
menu screen. Other options include glo- 
bal searches and replacements and form 
letter processing. 

When printing a document, you have 
three choices on format: formal, informal 
and draft. 

Formal provides 72-character lines 
with a letterhead and date plus salutation 
for formal letters. Informal provides 72- 



Address correspondence to Robert 
Baker, 45 Windsor Drive. Atco, NJ 
080Q4. 

Microcomputing, January 1984 19 



character lines with the name of the doc- 
ument at the top of each page. Draft pro- 
vides double-spaced, 60-character lines 
with the name of the document at the top 
of the page. 

Section II of the manual provides a user 
supplement that defines access to the 
program's more advanced features. It 
provides information necessary for per- 
sonalizing the program to your needs, 
and it describes how to use other print- 
ers, how to change the default letterhead 
and how to use tabs. 

Name Machine Features 

The Name Machine allows you to cre- 
ate, save, edit and print the name, ad- 
dress and telephone number of approxi- 
mately 150 correspondents at one time. 
The six-page manual is structured just 
like the one for the Word Machine, pro- 
viding tutorial and user supplement sec- 
Uons along with a quick reference guide. 

Both programs provide only the most 
basic functions with little or no options, 
but they are extremely simple to use. 

If you're willing to spend the time to 
learn how to use a full-function word pro- 
cessor, something like Easy Script, Word 
Pro or Paper Clip would be much more 
practical than the Word Machine. For 
mailing lists, EasyMail 64 would be a 
much better choice and not much harder 
to use. 

This assumes you're using them on a 
C-64, of course, since none of these will 
work on a PET or CBM, while the Word 
Machine and the Name Machine will. 



Vidtex 

CompuServe recently announced the 
availability of a new PET/CBM version of 
its intelligent terminal emulator pro- 
gram, Vidtex. 

This program makes the PET/CBM in- 
to a Vidtex terminal complete with cap- 
ture buffer, error-free file transfer using 



the CompuServe B protocol, ten pro- 
grammable function keys, a powerful au- 
tolog-on capability, full printer support, 
an ASCII standard keyboard and video 
driver, video cursor control and block 
graphics. 

Vidtex is supplied on disk with ex- 
ecutives for both the IEEE-488 modem 



CompuServe recently 

announced the availability 

of a new PET/CBM 

version of its intelligent 

terminal emulator 

program, Vidtex. 



and the user port-based RS-232C mo- 
dem. It requires 32K memory with at 
least one disk and will run on a 4032, 
8032, a FAT40 (modified for 80-column 
screens) and Graphics 80. The printed 
documentation is excellent— almost 40 
pages with a complete index and glos- 
sary plus several examples. 

Vidtex uses its own keyboard decoder, 
which redefines the OFF/RVS key as the 
control key found on most terminals. 
Thus, you can easily generate all of the 
normal control functions used for start- 
ing and stopping displayed output, inter- 
rupting the operating system, deleting 
characters or lines and so on. 

The keyboard decoder also provides 
"meta" keys by using CLR/HOME. The 
meta key is used for local operations only 



IG0 REM RE-NEW PROGRRM FOR THE C0MM0D0RE-64 

ue REM 

128 REM CRLL RE-NEW FUNCTION BV 'SVS 50060' 
130 REM 

14G : 

15© FOR 1=0 TO 62 i READ Dl POKE 50000+1,0: NEXT 
1 60 : 

1 70 DRTR 1 65 , 43 , 1 64 , 44 , 1 33 „ 34 , 1 32 . 35 
1 80 DRTR 1 60 „ 3 , 200 , 1 77, 34 , 208 , 25 1 , 200 
190 DRTR 152,24,101,34,160,0,145,43 
200 DRTR 165,35,105,0,200,145,43,136 
210 DRTR 162,3,230,34,208,2,230,35 
220 DRTR 1 77 , 34 , 208 , 244 , 202 , 208 , 243 , 1 63 
230 DRTR 34,105,2,133,45,165,35,105 
240 DRTR 0,133,46,76,99,166,96 
RERDV. 

Listing 1 . Re-New program for the Commodore-64. 



t. 



20 Microcomputing, January 1984 



and usually does not transmit anything 
to the host computer. 

Computer-Controlled Cursor 

Vidtex contains its own video driver 
that allows it to perform high-level video 
functions, such as not breaking words 
across lines. It also allows the host com- 
puter to control the position of the cursor 
on the screen through special cursor-con- 
trol sequences. 

Vidtex normally won't start a word on 
the right-hand edge of the screen and 
finish it on the beginning of the following 
line. Instead, the entire word will be 
moved to the start of the next line and 
any part of the word that was on the 
previous line will be erased. This makes 
it much easier for you to read text that is 
wider than your screen width. 

The video driver even lets you define 
the size and location of the text display 
window. Normally, the size of the win- 
dow is your enure screen, but you can 
limit it to any specific region. However, 
the window must be at least four lines by 
1 1 columns in size. When the window is 
in effect, all new text will appear inside of 
it, including the menu and help pages. 

If you have a printer connected to your 
system IEEE-488 bus, you can use it to 
obtain hard copy with Vidtex. Special 
meta keys are used to start and stop the 
printing of data. 

While printing received data, standard 
XON/XOFF flow control is used to ensure 
that no data is lost from the host computer, 
but this will tend to slow things down. You 
can also print a copy of the entire screen at 
any time via another meta key. 

Vidtex's Function Keys 

Vidtex provides ten function keys that 
you can define as any arbitrary text string 
you choose, such as frequently typed com- 
mands. The function keys are implement- 
ed via meta keys and you can display or 
modify the current definitions at any time. 
You can even keep several sets of defini- 
tions with different filenames on disk at 
one time. 

The load and save functions let you load 
different definitions for different needs, 
giving you a virtually unlimited number 
of function keys. The only restriction is 
that the total number of characters for all 
function keys within one set cannot ex- 
ceed 255. 

Vidtex allows you to save a copy of all 
characters received in the unused portion 
of RAM (the RAM buffer). This is also 
known as "data capturing," since data is 
saved instead of being discarded as soon 
as it is received. 

The RAM buffer allows you to capture 
text from the host so that you can save it 
for future reference. A number of meta 
keys allow for opening and closing of the 
RAM buffer, saving a copy of the screen in 
the RAM buffer, viewing the RAM buffer 
contents, transmitting the RAM buffer or 
saving the RAM buffer to disk. 



When transmitting RAM buffer con- 
tents, you can transmit the entire buffer 
or initiate a prompted transmission with 
one line transmitted at a time. When ex- 
ecuting a prompted transmission, Vidtex 
waits for receipt of your defined prompt 
character from the host computer before 
sending the next line. This makes it easy 
to enter messages into a special interest 
group on CompuServe. 

There are two ways to save the RAM 
buffer to disk— edited and unedited. The 
edited save converts the ASCII data in the 
RAM buffer to be PET/CBM printer com- 
patible. This mode should be used for 
saving data for processing by another 
program, such as VisiCalc or WordPro. 
The unedited save will save a copy of 
exactiy what is received. The unedited 
save should be used for keeping text that 
you want to view later with the Vidtex 
program. 

One of the most interesting features of 
Vidtex is its autolog capabilities. The 
autolog sequence is programmed to wait 
for a specified prompt string from the 
host and then to send a response string, 
normally used for logging onto the host 
system. However, autolog can be used for 
many other things as well. 

The prompt-seeking function allows 
Vidtex to act in the place of the keyboard 
to provide a response to a host program. 
The response from autolog can be any 
text, control characters or even a com- 
mand to Vidtex to perform almost any of 
the local meta functions. Special meta 
functions are also available for entering 
delays of a half-second, two seconds or 
any multiple or combination. 

As if that weren't enough, the execu- 
tion of a new autolog file may be started 
from an already executing autolog file. 
This capacity allows you to create an au- 
tolog sequence in multiple files, chaining 
from one to another. If you need to 
change part of the sequence, you only 
have to recreate the file containing that 
part. 

CompuServe Capabilities 

Most of CompuServe's Vidtex pro- 
grams contain the ability to transfer a file 
from the remote system's disk to Com- 
puServe or in the other direction. While 
this is a common feature found in many 
other terminal programs, most of them 
merely transmit the contents of the file or 
write exactly what is received. 

Vidtex uses an error-free communica- 
tions protocol to perform file transfers. 
This means that if noise occurs on the 
communications line, the error will be 
detected and corrected. 

There are three types of file transfers 
that can occur: text, binary and machine 
specific. 

A text transfer is used to transfer ASCII 
text files, such as untokenized Basic pro- 
grams and text files produced by word 
processing programs. A binary transfer is 
used to transfer eight-bit files, such as to- 



kenized Basic programs and machine 
language programs. This can also be 
used to transfer most systems' Basic data 
files. A machine-specific transfer is used 
to transfer machine-dependent files. 

List Before Running 

Before running the Vidtex program, 
you're instructed to list the program and 



Vidtex uses an error-free 

communications protocol 

to perform file transfers. 

This means that if 

noise occurs on the 

communications line, the 

error will be detected 

and corrected. 



cannot add or delete any characters to 
change the size of the Basic portion of the 
program. The major portion of the Vidtex 
program is written in machine language 
and resides immediately above the Basic 
portion. Any changes to the Basic pro- 
gram that modify its size will destroy the 
machine language portion. 

Unfortunately, the program does not 
support the particular RS-232C interface 
type I use, so I was not able to try 
it out. 

From the description of the various fea- 
tures in the manual, I would think that 
this is an excellent and almost necessary 
terminal package for any PET/CBM 
owner intending to use CompuServe. For 
more information, you can write Com- 
puServe's corporate headquarters at 
5000 Arlington Centre Blvd., PO Box 
20212, Columbus, OH 43220. 



check the options available in the first 1 1 
lines. These options allow you to specify 
such things as the number of columns 
per line to be output to the printer, the 
device number for the printer, modem 
cable-type specification and the interface 
baud rate. 

Be careful in making changes— you 



FOR COMMODORE-64 

BVl ROBERT BAKER 



16 REM ERSV SCRIPT SOURCE FILE PRINTER 

20 REM 

38 REM 

40 REM 

58 REM 

60 : 

70 LM=20 

30 PRINT"3ERSV SCRIPT SOURCE FILE PRINTER" : PR I NT 

30 INPUT "ENTER FILENAME" ;FL$ 

100 OPEN 15,8, 13 

110 OPEN 2..3.r2.r"0:"+FL*+" ,SEQ,R" 

1 20 I NPUT# 1 5 , EN , EM* , ET ., ES 

130 IF ENO0 THEN 270 

140 OPEN 7. ,4., 7: PRINT#7: CLOSE 7 

150 OPEN 4,4 

1 60 PR I NT#4 , SPC < LM ) ; : X«0 

170 GET#2.,C*: IF STO0 THEN 230 

180 IF C$="" THEN 170 

130 IF flSC<:C$> = 13 THEN 210 

200 PRIHT#4,C*;: X«X+1 I IF X<40 THEN 170 

210 PRINT#4 

22^ GET C*f IF C$="" THEN 160 

230 PRINT: PRINT "PRESS RNV KEV TO CONTINUE., 'Q' TO QUIT" 

240 GET C*: IF C*="" THEN 240 

250 IF C*="Q" THEN 300 

260 GOTO 160 

270 PRINT: PR I NT "DISK ERROR" 

230 PRINT EH:EM$.,ET.:ES: GOTO 300 

230 IF ST064 THEN PRINT "ERROR *** ST=";ST 

300 CLOSE 2: CLOSE 15: PRIHT#4: CLOSE 4 

Listing 2. Easy Script source file printer for the Commodore-64. 



Commodore-64 Utilities 

Commodore-64 owners may find these 
two short utility programs useful. 

The shorter program, Re-New (Listing 
1) is from the PET Benelux Exchange. 
When loaded and run, this Basic pro- 
gram stores a short machine language 
subroutine in high RAM, starting at loca- 
tion 50000 decimal. 

Once stored in RAM, this subroutine 
can be called using a SYS 50000 com- 
mand to reclaim a Basic program lost by 
accidentally typing New. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 21 






One disadvantage is that the subrou- 
tine must be loaded before it's needed. 
Also, the SYS call must be made immedi- 
ately after typing New or chances are that 
the Basic program will be destroyed. 

The second program provides a printed 
copy of disk source files created by Easy 
Script (Listing 2), including all imbedded 
commands. It makes editing extremely 
easy, especially when marking material 
for someone else to type for you. For any- 
one without a copy of Easy Script, this 
program provides a simple method of 
reading Easy Script files that may exist 
on various user group disks. 

Disk files created by Easy Script are se- 
quential data files, with data stored as 
standard ASCII characters. Any line not 
terminated with a return character when 
creating the Easy Script file is space filled 
to the end of the 40-column line. This is 
why Easy Script warns about leaving 
blank lines in files; 39 bytes per line are 
wasted. 

This program is set to print a 40-col- 
umn line centered on an 80-column page 
using a standard Commodore printer as 
device #4 on the serial bus. The variable 
LM in line 70 defines the offset from the 
left margin prior to printing each line. 

The filename of the desired Easy Script 
file is obtained in line 90 and the disk er- 
ror channel is opened along with the cor- 
rect file. If the specified file exists, the 
program then proceeds to set up the 
printer. 

The Open command in line 140 using a 
secondary channel number of 7 is used to 
set the Commodore printer into upper/ 
lowercase mode. This ensures that print- 
ed output is identical to what is displayed 
when running Easy Script and display- 
ing or editing a file. 

The program then cycles through the 
main loop (lines 160-210), reading and 
printing characters until the end of the 



file is encountered. Null characters are 
discarded while all others are counted to 
limit each line to 40 characters 
maximum. 

At the end of each line, a check is made 
for keyboard input to allow pausing of 
printed output. Once a key is pressed, 
you can press Q to quit printing the cur- 
rent file or press any other key to con- 
tinue printing. 



According to 

Commodore, the 

Bally Midway game 

Lazarian was the 
most difficult arcade 

version they've 
programmed to date. 



If you want to conserve paper, you can 
move the printout to the left margin and 
allow up to 80 characters per line. The 
only changes required are to switch the 
value of LM from 20 to in line 70 and to 
switch the 40 in line 200 to 80. Now large 
blocks of text will make full use of the 
80-column page, but your printed output 
will not match the Easy Script display. 

If you're not using a Commodore print- 
er, you'll probably have to delete line 140 
and possibly change line 150, especially 
if you're using a serial printer. The data 
probably will not print exactly as dis- 



played by Easy Script, but you should at 
least be able to read it. 

If you want to display the file instead of 
printing it, delete line 140 and change 
line 150 to Open 4,3 to open the output 
file to the display screen. 



Quickies 

In my November column, I mentioned 
Mike Todd's ICPUG piece on disk com- 
patibility. Apparently, Mike made two 
slight errors in calculating the addresses 
for the fixes. The first fix listed, for those 
using a 4040 disk to write a disk that has 
already been written on by a 1540/1541. 
should be: 

PRINT*15,"M-W";CHR$(157);CHR$ 
(16);CHR$(1);CHR$(8) 

The second fix, for those who already 
have a disk that produces read errors (Er- 
ror 22), should have been: 

PRINT#15,"M-W'';CHR$(92);CHR$ 
(52);CHR$(1);CHR$(31) 

This fix allows additional retries, giv- 
ing the drive a better chance of a suc- 
cessful read. 

If you're having difficulties using a 
1541 or upgraded 1540 disk with a 
VIC-20 system, remember to switch the 
drive from C-64 speed to VIC-20 speed. 
You can do this easily at the start of a pro- 
gram when the command channel is 
opened by: 

OPEN 15,8,15."UI-" 

Lazarian in Cartridge 

Commodore recently introduced a 
C-64 cartridge version of the Bally Mid- 
way arcade game Lazarian. According to 
Commodore, this was the most difficult 
arcade conversion they've programmed 
to date. 

No other company sells Lazarian for 



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22 Microcomputing, January 1984 



home use, and Commodore believes that 
conversions for any other computer 
could not match the standard of Lazarian 
on the C-64. The conversion requires so- 
phisticated graphics, elaborate musical 
arrangements and complex movement 
to precisely duplicate the arcade ex- 
perience. 

Lazarian presents game players with 
five different games to test their skill. In 
Mission 1, your task is to rescue a sister 
ship trapped in a circular force field of 
meteors. Once the ship is rescued, you 
have to shoot all of the meteors to escape. 

Mission 2 involves saving another ship 
trapped in the complex multilevel Tun- 
nel of Fear. You must overcome several 
unusual obstacles to free the trapped 
vessel. 

In Mission 3, you face Lazarian, a men- 
acing galactic leviathan. To triumph, you 
must free the controlling eye of Lazarian 
and then destroy the eye. 

Lazarian presents Commodore pro- 
grammers and game players with a spe- 
cial challenge. One of its features— and 
it's useful to novices and arcade veterans 
alike— is the Hit Fire To Continue option. 
This option allows the player to continue 
the game after losing all of his ships, con- 
tinuing at the same level with a new sup- 
ply of ships but a zero score. 

Direct-Mail CBM Club 

Commodore is establishing a com- 
puter club as a direct mail program for 
end users to provide mutual support and 
product availability. It'll be publishing a 
newsletter based on the concept of pro- 
viding a user group meeting within the 
pages, with exchange of letters, advice 
from experts and product profiles. In ad- 
dition, the newsletter will be supple- 
mented by an SIG on CompuServe avail- 
able exclusively for registered club 
members. 



The products part is a direct marketing 
program to supplement Commodore's 
current distribution. It will make its com- 
plete product line available at prices rea- 
sonable enough but still high enough so 
that dealers won't be hurt. Since most 
stores carry only a small fraction of the 
Commodore line, this will help people 
buy the products they want. 

Commodore will also be adding prod- 
ucts, such as third-party books, promo- 
tional goodies (T-shirts and dust covers) 
and specialty products (e.g., an auto- 
matic home weather station). 

At Income Tax Time . . . 

Northland Accounting has released 
three new income tax preparation pro- 
grams, collectively called TaxAid, for C-64 
and VIC-20 computers. These programs 
were written by experienced tax accoun- 
tants and are designed for home use. 

The programs come with a detailed 
manual that leads you, step-by-step, 
through the data entry. The tax data is 
then permanently filed on tape or disk 
and can be recalled at any time. The pro- 
gram will compute and prepare a line-by- 
line readout of the IRS 1040 form and 
related schedules. Updates for future tax 
years are also being planned on a yearly 
basis. 

TaxAid I runs on the unexpanded VIC- 
20 and prepares form 1040 and sched- 
ules A and G. This limited version pre- 
pares only screen displays and not print- 
ed output. It lists for $19.95 on tape and 
$24.95 on disk. 

TaxAid II runs on the VIC-20 with 16K 
memory expansion and can provide 
printed output besides the displayed in- 
formation. It computes form 1040 and 
schedules A, B and G and lists for $24.95 
on tape or $29.95 on disk. 

TaxAid III runs on the C-64 and can 
compute forms 1040 and schedules A, B, 



D and G. The program will output results 
to the screen or printer. List price for this 
version is $24.95 on tape or $29.95 on 
disk. 

For additional information, write to 
Northland Accounting, Inc., Software 
Development, 606 Second Ave., Two 
Harbors, MN 55616. 

Bowling, Anyone? 

Some time ago, I reviewed a bowling 
league secretary's program from Briley 
Software for PET and CBM systems. 
Well, the Leaguebowl series is now avail- 
able for Commodore-64 and VIC-20 sys- 
tems, and newer versions for the PET 
and CBM are available, too. Depending 
on which Commodore system you use, 
Leaguebowl will handle up to 40 teams 
and provides a bundle of options. 

Leaguebowl actually calculates league 
competition (in contrast to similar pro- 
grams that simply allow you to enter all 
individual scores and all team scores and 
all win/loss information, and then print 
the information for you). With League- 
bowl, you enter the schedule for one ses- 
sion and the individual scores just 
bowled to get complete results. This in- 
cludes handicaps, team competition, in- 
dividual highs, 10/25 and match point 
scoring. 

Leaguebowl retails for $160 on disk, 
while the optional Archivebowl and 
Recapbowl programs for season summa- 
ries and recap sheets are $45 each. 

The newer C-64 version is super; it 
handles up to 36 teams with 360 bowlers 
maximum. The VIC-20 version requires 
29K RAM memory and supports up to 
250 bowlers. 

For more information on these and 
other programs for the complete Com- 
modore line, write Briley Software, PO 
Box 2913, Livermore, CA 94550-029 1 . or 
see your local dealer. □ 



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Microcomputing, January 1984 23 



OVERVIEW 



By Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 



For Whom The Bell 
Toll Charges. . . 



. . . It Tolls 

For Thee, 

Modem 



"Under new 

legislation, we can 

shake a monthly charge 

out of your home phone for 

providing data quality service. 

And we can find out 

whether you're a 

modem user ..." 




Modem Alert 



X 



Here's an important message for t\^S' / 

cQ,y ® 



ly tested and conditioned to pass 
data traffic . 
all of you past readers of Dial-up Direc\J / (^Only your phone company knows for 
tory and present users of modems. Your*\ sure if your lines have really received this 
local telephone company may be getting \ special attention; there is no way you can 
ready to raise your monthly telephone J really tell. Frankly, this testing and condi- 
rate substantially simply because you / tioning would be a waste of time for most 
use a modem. ^\ of us Decause °f me transmission rates we 

As part of the break-up of AT&T, local \ use and error rates we can accept, 
telephone companies have received per- j The phone company can find out if you 
mission to impose special rates on any- * are a modem user either by checking the 
one using the local telephone network for /fy records of those who registered modems 
data communications. C with them or bv finding the tnnps ™-f^r»t 



dial equipment feeding your home, and 
they have high costs for upkeep and new 
installations, but they get no special por- 
tion of the money you pay to Compu- 
Serve for the long-distance transmission. 



data communications 

This near-sighted piece of legislation is^^ 
an attempt to repay local companies fori 1 
I the loss of revenues from long-distance 
toll charges. It may, however, have the ef- 
fect of severely slowing the communica- 
tions revolution and limiting the use of 
data communications in both the home 
and office. 

Heavy Levy? 

Basically, the phone company can levy 
a new monthly surcharge on your home 
phone for providing "data quality" ser- 
vice. This is supposed to mean that the 
circuits between the local dial central 
office and your phone have been special- 

24 Microcomputing, January 1984 



with them or by finding the tones present 
during routine maintenance. 

There is, however, a logical argument 
for this added charge. It may not be an ar- 
gument that appeals to you if you are a 
modem user, but it must be answered. 

Let's say that you live in Chicago and 
use a modem to contact the CompuServe 
information utility. Your call goes over 
the local telephone system to a Compu- 
Serve network entry point in Chicago. At 
that point your signal is mixed with 
many others and sent over privately 
owned or leased circuits to the Compu- 
Serve computer center in Ohio. 

Your local telephone company has a 
huge investment in the cable system and 



Your local telephone 
company may be getting 

ready to raise your 

monthly telephone rate 

substantially simply 

because you use a modem. 



Address correspondence to Frank J. 
Derfler, Jr., PO Box 691, Herndon, VA 
22070. 



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Bi-directional Printing 

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Toll Free 800 Telephone Number 
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The local telephone company may 
even acknowledge that your data call 
really doesn't cost any more to pass 
through its system than a standard voice 
call, but it claims it has to make a buck 
here and there to offset the otherwise un- 
dervalued cost of installation and main- 
tenance. 

You'd Better Watch Out 

If you quickly respond that each instal- 
lation charge should be based on the real 
costs, you had better watch out. Believe 
me, it costs a great deal more than the 
preset $20-$50 installation charge to ex- 
tend telephone service to your home. If 
installations are billed at their real costs, 
millions of Americans will not be able to 
afford a telephone, and a major pillar of 
our economy will be shattered. 

Americans consider reliable communi- 
cations to be a right. It's probably too late 
to convince them that it is a luxury af- 
fordable only by those in urban areas 
close to the telephone central office. If 
basic service is to be low-cost and afford- 
able, then special service must have a 

special cost. 

There isn't a clear answer to this dilem- 
ma. One thing is certain, however, and 
that is that you can still have a voice in 
this matter. A great deal of legislation is 
being developed by Congress, and local 
utility commissions will have some input 
into the problem. 

One alternative plan being considered 
would require long-haul carriers like 
MCI, Sprint and CompuServe to pay a 
high rate to local telephone companies 
for their service. Of course, MCI and the 
other alternative carriers wouldn't like 
this solution, but it might be a reasonable 
resolution. Note too that the new un- 
shackled AT&T has yet to weigh in. 

In the meantime, if you're hit with this 
new charge, I advise you to complain 
vigorously. Only squeaky wheels get 
greased. 



The Tax Man 
Wears a Red Suit 

You may think that it's the time for 
holiday decorations and colored lights, 
but many people think it's also time to 
get ready for the preparation of 1983 tax 
returns. There are some actions you have 
to take before December 31 to be ready 
for April 15. If you don't make the right 
decisions, you could pay hundreds or 
even thousands of dollars more in taxes 
than you need to. 

Make the Most of Tour Micro 

I recently studied the purchase of a 
new house. The tax considerations of fi- 
nancing a house are both big and com- 
plex. Over the past four years, I have writ- 
ten in this space that microcomputers 
are best used when they hold, sort and 
manipulate data for decision-making and 
problem-solving, so I decided to practice 

26 Microcomputing, January 1984 



what I preach and use my IBM PC to ana- 
lyze the options involved. 

Analysis of this kind requires the prop- 
er software. I set up a spreadsheet using 
1-2-3 to run the numbers, but I found that 
there was a great deal I still had to do on 
paper and that I was never certain that I 
had not forgotten some important factor. 

These nagging suspicions were rein- 
forced when I found that I consistently 
forgot to subtract the standard deduction 
from my itemized deductions when I did 
my first "what if" tests. I decided to look 
for some off-the-shelf software that would 
help me figure out what my tax picture 
would look like under various alter- 
natives. 

When you look for tax preparation soft- 
ware, you find that it is divided into two 
distinct classes: 1) very complete and 
very expensive, and 2) less complete but 
much less expensive. 



If you feel you can 

profit from a close 

analysis of your tax 

position, Tax Mini-Miser 

and Eagle Tax Decisions 

will certainly help you 

make that analysis. 



The first class of software is marketed 
for CPAs working with clients. It will do 
practically everything for the profes- 
sional tax preparer, including prompting 
for certain special schedules and printing 
all schedules and forms so they are liter- 
ally ready to sign and mail. These pro- 
grams cost several thousands of dollars 
and are certainly worth it to their profes- 
sional users. But most of us don't want to 
invest thousands of dollars just to save 
hundreds. 

The second type of software is aimed at 
the individual user or at the professional 
who wants to analyze different situations 
for clients interested in real estate, IRA or 
other investments. This type of software 
will help you to make some decisions by 
taking you through a series of questions 
and forcing you to find the answers. After 
you have developed the basic numbers, 
you can make changes to see how dif- 
ferent actions will affect your tax picture. 

These programs will add the numbers 
you provide, but they will not give much 
more in the way of advice. They assume 
that you know or are willing to learn how 
the income tax system works. Still, pro- 
grams like this add discipline and 
accuracy to the "what if" tax analysis 
process, and they also may improve the 
process by displaying the results in 
several useful ways. 



Tale of Two Tax Programs 

I tried two tax analysis programs that 
are available for several different com- 
puter systems. I found them both to be 
valuable, but let's see how they stack up 
against each other. 

• Tax Mini-Miser— This program is mar- 
keted by Sunrise Software in San Fran- 
cisco. It was first released in 1981 and is 
available for Apple II, Apple III and IBM 
computers. I used the IBM version. 

Tax Mini-Miser is written in Pascal and 
it comes ready to run. The disk is copy- 
protected, but Sunrise Software will send 
you a back-up disk when you register the 
master. 

Because of its Pascal environment, this 
package is not tailored to any one com- 
puter. For instance, the arrow keys on 
the IBM PC don't work with the program. 
You use the I, J, K and M to move the cur- 
sor, regardless of what computer you are 
using. This may keep things simple for 
the programmer, but it doesn't make you 
feel that you're using the full power of 
your system. 

The program is menu-driven, but the 
menu steps are clear, and you don't have 
to pass through too many menus before 
you get some work done. 

Tax Mini-Miser will allow you to con- 
struct six alternative tax plans per client. 
Data is entered through the use of vari- 
ous dedicated screen sets. Questions are 
flashed on the bottom of the screen, and 
you provide the needed answers. 

The first screen set gathers personal in- 
formation. This data is demographic — 
such as the number of dependents you 
have and your filing status. The second 
screen set deals with income, and the 
third wants to know all about your 
deductions. 

As you move through the screens, you 
find that the program just wants a num- 
ber to work with— it doesn't provide ad- 
vice. You have to know what deductions 
are allowable, how to compute such fac- 
tors as sales tax and what type of depre- 
ciation to take. The program can only 
crank out the results based on the num- 
bers you put in. 

After you answer the program's ques- 
tions, you can easily change items in the 
list to see the results. A special Sensitivi- 
ty Analysis menu selection allows you to 
see the results of any number of changes 
without permanently altering your basic 
data. This function is fast and certainly is 
the most useful and powerful part of the 
program. 

Tax Mini-Miser is strong in the area of 
tax computation. The program will com- 
pute your tax bill using the regular tables 
and schedules, the income averaging 
method or the alternative tax method. If 
you have computed your taxes using in- 
come averaging, you know what a te- 
dious job it is. This program does it 
quickly and provides you with a compari- 
son of the alternatives. 






The reports printed by Mini-Miser con- 
tain all of the data you put in for each ma- 
jor plan (but not the variables you tried in 
the sensitivity analysis). The reports are 
lengthy, but they can serve as a valuable 
aid when you actually sit down to make 
out your tax forms. 

The accounting firm of Price Water- 
house has looked at Tax Mini-Miser and 
has certified that it does what the manual 
claims it will do on the day it was tested. 
The program comes with documentation 
that provides helpful hints and includes 
an annotated description of how the pro- 
gram functions. 

For more information on Tax Mini- 
Miser, contact Sunrise Software, 1056 
Chestnut St., San Francisco, CA 94109. 
The program has a retail price of $295. 
Updates are expected to cost between 
$50 and $70. Don't ask me if the costs are 
deductible! 

• Eagle Tax Decisions— Eagle Software 
Publishing has released a number of pro- 
grams for persons interested in personal 
finance. Eagle's Money Decisions series 
can provide answers to many questions 
on loans, amortization rates, payments 
and those other funny numbers that are 
so important when you're making a buy- 
ing decision. It's a two- volume set with 
fine documentation. 

Eagle Software has expanded its series 
with a package called Tax Decisions. Tax 

Tax Decisions also has a useful output 
program. You can either print summary 
reports of the options you tried or you can 
print an entire 1040 for the option you 
like. The IBM PC version of the program 
will produce some nice bar charts on the 
system printer showing the differences 
between the plans you have developed. 

On the negative side, it's a little more 
tedious to do a sensitivity analysis using 
Decisions is similar in many ways to 
Mini-Miser— it won't make a decision for 
you and you have to know quite a bit 
about taxes before you can really use the 
program. It does, however, do a few 
things differently. The program comes 
with its own customized Basic inter- 
preter. Ready-to-run versions are avail- 
able for the IBM, DEC, Wang and Victor 
computers. 

The format for Tax Decisions revolves 
around the Federal 1040 tax form. As 
you fill in the numbers in this program, 
you are actually following the sequence 
of inputs in the 1040. This improves the 
ease of entry because the sequence is 
familiar to many of us, and you can easily 
pick unchanged data from an old 1040 to 
use in the program. 

A menu selection that can provide you 
with the forms that feed the 1040 is also 
available. You can enter data into any of 
16 schedules and forms. You aren't told 
when to use the schedules or their exact 
functions, but they are available if you 
know what to do with them. 
Tax Decisions. You have to run through a 
series of menus for each change, and that 



slows down the process. 

Also, although I'm no expert, it ap- 
pears to me that this program does not 
show you the differences in the alter- 
native tax methods as clearly as Tax 
Mini-Miser does. You're left with the deci- 
sion to proceed on income averaging in- 
stead of seeing the results immediately. 
(On the other hand, to compute income 
averaging, you need a lot of data that you 
might not really need to gather and 
enter!) 

The entire Eagle Software series has 
some of the most handsome documenta- 
tion in the industry. Screen photos, art- 
work and color are used to illlustrate 
points. The documentation is nicely con- 
tained in easily used binders. 

The Tax Decisions software package is 
available from Eagle Software Publish- 
ing, Inc., #409, 993 Old Eagle School 
Road, Wayne, PA 19087 (phone 215-964- 
8660). The retail price is $229. Updates 
are free for the first year and updates for 
new tax laws are scheduled to run about 
$99 per year. 

These tax computation programs 
clearly aren't for everyone, but if you feel 
you can profit from a close analysis of 
your tax position, they'll certainly help 
you make that analysis. 

Remember, though, that you have to 
supply the judgment— the computer can 
do only the computing. □ 



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Microcomputing, January 1984 27 



WHAT S NEW, 



? 



By Thomas V. Bonoma 



Thumbing Through And shuffling 

rs.- t * * ■ Through the 

Disk Magazines software stack 



Getting Personal 

The electronic age is starting to impose 
on me. In addition to enough PC maga- 
zines arriving on my doorstep each 
month to heat my house, there are now 
three disk magazines competing for my 
blurry eyes. In order of arrival, they are 
PC Disk Magazine, LB.Magazette and 
Mentor. 

The Message Is on the Media 

PCDM ($29.95/issue, $160/six issues) 
is a slick, hard-documentation-supported 
single disk that in its premiere issue of- 
fers ten programs and one data file. 

Among the more notable programs is a 
configurator for WordStar written by 
John Schnell. There is a nice little disk 
management utility from Peter Norton; 
PCDM also features a data file on demo- 
graphics from the Bureau of the Census. 

LB.Magazette (IBM— $15/issue, $80/ 
six issues) is by far the most hobbyist- 
oriented of the three electronic maga- 
zines and is structured to encourage a 
two-way running dialog between you and 
its editorial staff. Its programs are more 
reminiscent of early PC user's groups 
and public-domain software than either 
of the other two entries. It offers such 
titles as Regression and List but also in- 
corporates a novel demo mode so you can 
see how the program runs while you read 
the (disk-based) documentation. 

Mentor ($19.95/issue, $99/six issues) is 
the fattest of the three. It includes a Visi- 
Word demonstration disk and three mag- 
azine disks that allow you to modify your 
dBasell for full color, create a data file for 
the same program and get a new PRO- 
KEY file for Basic programming. 

4 

The Pros and Cons 

The main advantage of any disk-based 
magazine is that you don't have to key in 
the programs. The disadvantage is that 
in many ways the medium gets in the 
way of the message, unless the programs 
are really good and really useful. From 
what I've seen so far, I might be tempted 
to part with my money for Mentor, but 
not so tempted with regard to PCDM. I'll 
wait and see on LB.Magazette. I find all 

28 Microcomputing, January 1984 



three of them high-priced for what they 
deliver. 

Utilities and Stuff 

Bruce Marshall may be slick, but he's 
also good. He's the author of Readi- 
Writer, a good word processing system 
for the PC. His newest offering is Readi- 
Scope, a disk-alignment utility that elim- 
inates the need for a technician, oscillo- 
scope and a service visit. You can, as 
Bruce says, do it yourself. 

His package seems expensive until you 
get a price quote on a disk alignment and 
consider the down time involved when 
those platters stop spinning; then it looks 
pretty cheap. 

I delayed longer than Bruce was com- 
fortable with before recommending this 
package to you; it's not for the novice or 
even the casual user. But, if you belong to 
a user's group, have drives that are giv- 
ing you trouble or help others with hard- 
ware problems, you should look at 
Bruce's package. 

He makes disk alignment as easy as 
changing the oil in your car. If you're 
comfortable with taking the cover off 
your machine, this package is for you— if 
not, let a professional do your alignment. 

Punctuation and Style 

Perhaps you'll remember my review of 
the Word + , a spelling checker, anagram 
solver, synonym finder and the like for 
WordStar and other word processing pro- 
grams. Its companion program, Punc- 
tuation and Style, has been released, and 
it's good. 

P&S has two modules: Cleanup and 
Phrase. Cleanup finds incorrect, missing 
or extra punctuation, doubled words 
(Paris in the the Spring), missing capital- 
ization, incorrect abbreviation and other 
common punctuation errors. 

Phrase is a style checker; it's supplied 
with a dictionary of "wrong" phrases in 
several common error types (overuse of 
passive voice, awkward phrases, cliches, 
erroneous phrases, pompous or redun- 
dant ones and even wordy ones); it will (a) 
mark your document with its complaint 
and/or (b) suggest corrections (but not 



make them). 

The usefulness of Cleanup and Phrase 
depends on the skills of the writer com- 
posing the original manuscript. If he 
doesn't make the kinds of mistakes 
covered in Cleanup, for instance, that 
program isn't useful. As for Phrase, it is a 
more personal program . . . the program 
will flag as an error, for instance, the 
phrase "very, very nice" as redundant. 
As the program documentation notes, 
this may or may not be a redundant 
phrase, depending on the author's in- 
tent. From what I have seen in most 
business writing, and especially in pro- 
gram documentation and ads, P&S is 
sorely needed in the microcomputer 
community. 

Unfinished Business 

Let's raise our glasses in a toast to al- 
most completed software, then let's beg 
manufacturers to put in the extra effort it 
takes to drive their products to comple- 
tion. 

Office Writer is a $325 word processor 
(I evaluated version 1.5, a "preliminary 
test" release). Its packaging and support 
are amazingly well-executed. For in- 
stance, the Office Solutions folks invite 
you to call them, even to complain; and, a 
one-day training session is available from 
the company (I presume only to firms, 
and not to individuals). OW is supplied 
with a good function-key template and 
even a word processing ruler to check 
pitch and the like. 

But does it do anything? It does, but 
leaves out some features and angers 
serious users. For instance, while merge 
capabilities (form letter writing) and a 
wide range of print controls (underline, 
bold, compressed, wide type) are includ- 
ed, cursor commands don't allow word, 
sentence or paragraph movement 
through the text. Certain functions, like 
large cursor moves, take a little too long 
for my liking, making Office Writer act 



Address correspondence to Thomas V. 
Bonoma, 45 Drum Hill Road. Concord, 
MA 01742. 






more like a compiled Basic program than 
a machine language one. There are other 
strange things here as well. Like Multi- 
mate, pagination is not automated in 
OW- you have to end pages or run your 
file through a utility to do it for you (a 
bother). Top and bottom page margins 
are not setable, except as the lines on a 
page are increased or decreased. 

To the contrary, much of OW shows 
high professionalism in design and 
operation. The program uses a simple 
five-function menu for all of its actions. 
It's fully integrated with the PC function 
keys and it has document summary 
screens to help organize your files. In op- 
eration, there's little screen flutter, even 
on a color monitor (OW runs only in black 
and white). A relatively complete, al- 
though somewhat tedious, mail merge 
facility is provided standard with the pro- 
gram, and a good block extract facility is 
included. Functions used frequently, like 
text deletions, have been thought 
through carefully so that you can just 
point the cursor at the given range and 
then execute the function. Strangely, 
this ability woTks for only forward dele- 
tions—a flaw. There is, however, no "un- 
do" key to remedy mistakes. The manual 
is a marvel of clarity. 

The OW people will provide free 
upgrading to version 2.0 if you buy their 
product now. I like OW, but it has a way 
to go before I'll quit using WordStar for it; 
I'd wait for revision 2 on this one. 

FormManager (FM) is another product 
that is only 80 percent complete. FM 
combines data entry, management, pro- 
cessing and forms design in one integrat- 
ed package. Essentially, all you have to 
do is "paint" the screen with boxes and 
labels (32,767 records per form, ten 
forms per record), define the data 
categories and start entering data. FM is 
sophisticated in terms of capability; for 
instance, default values, minima and 
maxima and data types (e.g., telephone 
numbers) are all supported by the pro- 
gram. The program's calculated field 
abilities are awesome and incorporate a 
dBasell-like programming language that 
permits use of 26 general math functions 
and even "if" programming and loops. 
Best of all, FM supports column vectors; 
that is, you can define and operate on col- 
umns of numbers (like different orders 
from the same customer), updating their 
total, all at once. I've only seen this capa- 
bility in VersaForm. The program is fast 
(B-tree sorting and multiple indexing are 
supported), has on-line help, a tutorial 
disk, an Undo function and the ability to 
restructure data files once created. 

So where are the raves? Well, where's 
the report feature? Just what good is data 
entered into a stupid machine if you can't 
manipulate it and get it back out? FM's 
print function allows you to format and 
select fields for reports but not values 
within fields! For instance, you can easily 
search for records containing particular 



strings, and FM will display them on the 
screen or printer. What you can't do is re- 
quest a report for all accounts overdue by 
more than 20 days (or any other contin- 
gency); this is a major flaw in a program 
designed to aid information manage- 
ment. Also, you can't transfer existing 
data files (say from VisiCalc or WordStar) 
to the program (though the company 
hopes to have both these options 
available in the future as extra-cost 
items). A database manager you can't get 
data into or out of in the way you want is 
not a database manager at all. No amount 
of on-board calculators, autotime and 
date features or inverse video can substi- 
tute for that. I'd like to see both these 
companies push their development ef- 
forts toward complete user packages. 
I don't find dBase easy to use, but I can 



get the information I've put in back out, 
my way. 

Sleepers 

A sleeper is a program that, well . . is a 
sleeper; you might not buy it in a store 
because you've been burned before, but 
let it operate a little bit and wow! There 
are three this month— Friend, a report 
generator for dBasell, Bluebush Chess 
and Type Faces from Alpha Software. 

Friend clearly gets the sleeper-of-the- 
year award. Its name is strange; it's pro- 
duced by Friends Software and packaged 
in one of those oversized ring binders 
with the tiny type that lets you know in 
advance that you're in trouble; the press 
kit sent to me was a bunch of computer 
output with things circled that I couldn't 
understand. However, somehow on its 



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Apple II a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc 



Microcomputing, January 1984 29 







way to the wastebasket the disk wound 
up in Drive A. I'm here to tell you that 
these people may not be able to package, 
but they sure can write software. 

Friend tabulates your dBase file in any 
way you'd like, with any kind of output 
you'd like. Do you have a file containing 
fields of marital status by salary? Tell 
Friend to get you single and married cate- 
gories by 0-$ 10,000. $10,001 -$20,000 
and so on, and to count the percentages 
of people falling in each category by row, 
column and total. Similar things can be 
done to construct quarterly reports; 
Friend is as friendly with dates as it is 
numbers and requires only an English 
command to do it (e.g., tabulate payee 
(10) by month<l,3-5,7». 

The User's Friend 

Friend also does totalling, subtotalling, 
sorting and other usual extractions that 
you'd expect to be able to get with 
dBase's normal report command. The 
reason is that Friend isn't limited to 
dBase files, but it will and can handle any 
ASCII-type file for its application. So, if I 
weren't being so critical about Form 
Manager, I could have used Friend as the 
report generator for this program and 
been just fine. Both variable and fixed- 
length records are accommodated by the 
program, all commands are English-like 
and the program seems relatively im- 
mune to operator error. Despite the print 
job, the manual is well-done. If you have 
a reporting need, take a look at this 
package. 

Bluebush Chess— oh no, another stu- 
pid game? Well, no. Like CopyllPC, a disk 
utility I reported on several months ago, 
Bluebush Chess is about as close to per- 
fection as a program for the PC can come. 

I don't know whether you play chess. 



but if you do, the program is a marvel of 
quick, reliable operation in color or black 
and white. It has only an index-card-sized 
set of instructions to deal with, runs flaw- 
lessly and even includes a plastic disk 
holder that will accommodate ten disks. 

The program has options for postal 
chess, playing against the computer and 
for presetting the board for your own 
openings. It doesn't beep at you like some 
silly doorbell, and it does a reliable job. 

Type Faces, from Alpha Software, is 
one of those programs that makes you 
ask: "Did I really pay that much for just a 
printing program?" But, then you run it 
and see that your Epson, IBM, Prism or 
other dot-matrix printer can be turned 
into a multiple-font presentation device 
for slides or other materials. Type Faces 
itself not only takes WordStar files, but 
gives you its own range of dot commands 
to allow justification, filing, needed page 
breaks and the like so that you can write 
a letter in fancy script if need be, all in- 
side of Type Faces. 

Now, you should plan for a short letter, 
since TF has only two sizes of characters, 
both big. But, since the program also au- 
tomatically paginates (and numbers and 
has heading and footing ability), this size 
limitation isn't as bad as it first looks. The 
manual is short, sweet and clear, a depar- 
ture from much software documenta- 
tion. And, if that isn't enough. Alpha 
throws in a big plus— an audio training 
tape to teach you how to use the pro- 
gram. A lot of thought has gone into this 
program, and it's both a mini word pro- 
cessor in multiple fonts and a reason to 
put off buying that plotter for another 
year. Some sample output from Type 
Faces is shown in Fig. 1 . 

Data Base Manager n 

While I'm on Alpha Software, let me 



tell you about its Data Base Manager II 
(DBMSII), another good program and no 
sleeper. DBMSII is a clear and relatively 
simple-to-use DBMS program that is sup- 
ported with a marvelous manual and an 
audio training tape. It is capable of "talk- 
ing with" VisiCalc, 1-2-3, Multiplan and 
other spreadsheets and with WordStar 
and other word processors. That means 
you only have to enter data once in order 
to build an integrated spreadsheet, 
graphics and word processing system 
that should stand you in good stead for a 
long time to come. 

The program allows for wild card 
searches, quick sorts, restructuring of 
the database, report generation, form let- 
ter generation and other features than 
can be implemented on a wide variety of 
printers and with either DOS 1.1 or 2.0. 

There is no physical limitation to the 
length of a data file, except hard disk size, 
though there are restrictions on field 
sizes, labels and the like. For instance, 
each field can be only 60 characters in 
length and field names can contain up to 
just ten characters. Forty fields can be 
entered per record; this is another limita- 
tion for complicated applications. 

But, if you can live with those rules, 
you'll find it a fine, well-implemented 
DBMS. Can't spell very well? That's OK. 
DBMSII supports a "sounds-like" search 
facility that retrieves Bauer and Bower. 
And, without WordStar or another word 
processor, DBMSII lets you generate 
mail-merged form letters with keyboard 
input and file input at print time. There is 
also a good copy/reconfigure utility op- 
tion to change the database when you 
decide there aren't enough fields. And. 
like some other quality DBMS packages. 
DBMSII has a set of suggested applica- 
tions in the manual, so you can be up and 
running quickly. 



Circle 296 on Reader Service card. 




Now you can have the professional appearance 
of typeset text using WordStar's built in print 
capability.PS is easier to read and allows up to a 
third more text on a page without appearing 
cluttered Using it is as easy as turning on bold 
or underline and is done right in your document, 
then printed by WordStar automatically! 
Easy to read instructions for printing in PS, setting 
two or mora justified columns on a 

page, underlining spaces between words, and 
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WordStar, and will drive Diablo, Xerox, Qume, 
NEC, C.ltoh and other daisywheel printers. No 
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PB on WordStar - 8BO postpaid 

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Now move files and programs between your CP/M 80 system 
and your Intel Series I or II MDS! The ICX package provides 
complete bidirectional file conversion capability, and even 
allows execution of ISIS II programs under CP/M using the 
ISE emulator The ICX Package is composed of the following 
two programs: 

ICX A Deluxe bidirectional file conversion utility which 

works with your CP/M system and an 8 floppy drive to provide 
complete manipulation of an ISIS II diskette Takes directories, 
deletes files, and even initializes a blank disk with the ISIS file 
structure Complete C source included »89 

ISE An ISIS II Emulator which allows ISIS programs to run 

on any CP/M 80 system Support for all ISIS II system and 
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Supports banked memory Complete MAC source included »89 



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30 Microcomputing, January 1984 



All in all, this DBMS lives up to its sub- 
title of The Integrator. The photo shows 
the product. 

On the negative side, the product, as a 
compiled Basic program, often makes 
you wait for disk accesses while new 
modules are loaded. And the program's 
innovative file importation routines (for 
communication with Mail/Merge files, for 
instance), have less intelligence and re- 
quire more manual labor than they 
should. Still, DBMSII does communicate 
with spreadsheets, word processors and 
other programs. 

More Integration 

Say you're already hooked on Peach- 
Text 5000 and its good List Manager pro- 
gram. You're not going to want to learn 
another set of commands; you like the 
thesaurus and you still would like to be 
able to interact with other programs? 
Let's make it really tough and demand 
graphics, too. Well, fear not. Peachtree 
has responded with two packages that 
can stand alone, but they are much bet- 
ter employed as extensions to the Peach- 
Text 5000 package: Access Pak and Busi- 
ness Graphics. 

Access Pak is a program, or rather a set 
of programs, to convert files from Visi- 
Calc to PeachCalc and from WordStar or 
EasyWriter to Peach Text. In addition, AP 
serves as a bridge between the PeachPak 
8 accounting system's output and the 
PeachText 5000 modules, including 
PeachCalc, PeachText and List Manager. 

Essentially, AP integrates accounting, 
word processing, list management and 
calc-ing applications to let you write a 
form letter to all accounts with outstand- 
ing balances of $300 or more and print 
the mailing labels through List Manager. 
But I suspect the WordStar and other 
"foreign" conversion files will interest 



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MC6801 APPLICATIONS PROTOTYPE BOARD 

The APB is a small board which supports the MC6801 family ol microcomputers It is 
described in Motorola* application note AN799 A typical 6801 member contains an 
enhanced 6800 processor 2K bytes of ROM. 128 bytes of RAM a 16-bit programmable 
timer parallel I O and a serial communications interface In addition to the resources 
of the 6801 the APB provides an additional 2K bytes of EPROM (TMS2716) 2K bytes of 
RAM (2114L). and a full duplex RS-232 interface It also supports special versions such 
as the 6801G1 with its LILbug' monitor and provides on-board programming of the 
68701 EPROM version 

The APB is an excellent educational aid which allows for evaluation and familiarization 
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Besides being so practical it is a lun little board Order yours today 1 

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Microcomputing, January 1984 31 






Dvstin 






Photo 1 . The Data Base Manager II package. 



you the most. Outside of the fact that 
communication is one-way (from Word- 
Star, for instance) to the Peachtree pro- 
ducts, which shows (a) a lack of sense and 
(b) awesome arrogance, these conver- 
sions work, easily and quickly. They are 
well-documented and well-executed. 
Best of all, you can get them below cost 
with a coupon that is included in the 
PeachText package. 

Business Graphics is a strange pro- 
gram. It reads SuperCalc (whoops! I 
mean PeachCalc) files well and has a 
wide variety of graph types, including 
line, bar, area, pie, critical path, histo- 
gram, scatter chart and even word 
charts. The program has on-line help (a 
major plus) and good documentation. 
Yet, much of the time the program 
stumbles over its own code. For instance, 
you have to go back and forth from menu 
to menu just to get a graph displayed. 
However, the options on lots of the 
choices on those menus, such as text 
font, size and color, are nonintuitive and 
hard to remember without the manual in 
front of you. Also, strange programming 
restrictions, like having to create two 
files (one of labels and one of data) for 
each graph, impede use. 

In many ways. Business Graphics is 
more flexible than many graphing pack- 
ages on the market today. It is also in 



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CUTS EYE 
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Eye-Guard" is a VDT screen shield 
made of the same protective lead- 
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workers in x-ray rooms and nuclear 
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Cuts glare as well as most types of 
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32 Microcomputing, January 1984 



many ways harder to use. 

What About Me? 

But, what's in it for you if you're a con- 
vinced, confirmed or constant VisiCalc 
user? Well, how about two products, one 
from VisiCorp and one not from Visi- 
Corp? 

VisiTrend/Plot is a business graphics 
forecasting and statistical package that 
offers flexibility with some heavy costs. 

The program is made up of three mod- 
ules: a main one, which handles data 
loading, saving and other housekeeping; 
a plot subprogram, which communicates 
the data pictorially with six basic kinds of 
graphics formats; and a trend subpro- 
gram, which handles the computation of 
moving averages, data smoothing, per- 
cent change combinations, lead/lag mea- 
sures and cumulative totals. Trend also 
handles regression, t-test computations, 
F-distribution estimation and Durbin- 
Watson statistics as well as the univari- 
ate computations (mean, variance, corre- 
lation and so on) and trend-line analysis. 

If the statistical description above was 
confusing to you, don't worry. Many 
users have no use for Trend's advanced 
computations and will find the program 
unnecessarily sophisticated for what 
they want to do vis-a-vis analysis. How- 
ever, in many ways the plot subroutines 



are too unsophisticated for much of what 
a manager might want to do with words 
and data. There is, for instance, no text 
plotting facility in VT/P. This is a major 
flaw in what claims to be a business 
graphics package. While you can do line, 
bar, area, x,y, pie and hi-lo-close charts 
with the system, as well as combinations 
of these, all graphics are in black and 
white on an IBM color system, only a nar- 
row range of NEC and IBM/Epson print- 
ers are supported and no plotter support 
is included. 

VisiTrend/Plot: So Simple . . . 

This puts VT/P squarely in the camp of 
analytic graphics packages rather than 
presentation-quality ones. Like all of 
VisiCorp's software, this package is well- 
documented and has a menu structure so 
simple it's hard to go wrong. But that 
same structure gets tedious as you get 
more familiar with the program, because 
you get impatient with having to choose 
things all the time. 

In summary, if you want to know what 
your data means and have the skills to 
run/interpret the sophisticated trend 
analyses provided, this package is one of 
the most complete on the market. If you 
want to show your findings in a presenta- 
tion, you might be better off with another 
package. 



Viz-a-Merge works with both VisiCalc 
and the Lotus 1-2-3 package. The con- 
cept of the program is that it allows you to 
"cut and paste" your "flat files" (i.e.. 
two-dimensional data tables constructed 
with either VC or 1-2-3) into three-dimen- 
sional solids. 

To be a little less planar, you can, for in- 
stance, "cut" year-end totals from bud- 
get projections at the department, divi- 
sion and total company levels and then 
"paste" them together for an overall 
company analysis. Or, you can have a 
payroll model containing a year's ac- 
tivity for each person, then use Viz-a- 
Merge to create a payroll register by per- 
son and pay. 

The program manual includes system 
layout forms so that you can plan your 
merges, and the program itself follows 
these forms with a series of questions 
that makes the merging easy. You can 
even save the process of merging some 
spreadsheet files for future reference, so 
that if you'd like to repeat it, it can be 
done automatically. 

The program has a simple four-func- 
tion menu from which all its merge-pro- 
cess, merging and printing abilities are 
called. The manual is simple but com- 
plete. It even contains filled-in forms to 
show you how to do the 3-D merges. If 
you find yourself going back and forth 



Circle 166 on Reader Service card. 



Circle 189 on Reader Service card. 












SOLID STATE 
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Protect against 

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Microcomputing, January 1984 33 






BOOKS 




Rainbow Quest 

for the Color 

Computer 

A computer fantasy for 
young Color Computer 
users. Rainbow Quest is 
an adventure that 
combines fiction and 
programs. Readers must 
cross the planet 
Rainbow and master a 
series of challenges to 
succeed on the Quest. 
Each challenge is a 
program on cassette. 
Included are arcade 
games, puzzles, and 
mazes. Book and 
cassette sold together. 
$24.97 BK7391 128 pp. 






Converting to Timex/ 
Sinclair BASIC 

Convert programs to run on 
your T/S 1000 or 1500. This 
is a guide to translating 
from other BASICS into 
Sinclair BASIC. Fifteen 
types of instructions are 
covered. The T/S replace- 
ment is given for each, 
followed by a description of 
its use and an example. 
Much of the material applies 
to the T/S 2068. $14.95 
BK7396 206 pp. 



*s80* 

r asa 
Controller 




Computer Carnival 

For the TRS-80 Models I and 
III. These sixty programs for 
beginners will entertain and 
educate. Children will find 
mazes, word games, graph- 
ics, puzzles, and quizzes. 
Card games, logic tests, 
word and number quizzes, 
and letter guesses make 
Computer Carnival a learn- 
ing experience. The Carnival 
Companion cassette of all 
sixty programs is also avail- 
able. Computer Carnival and 
Carnival Companion $24.97 
CC7389 Computer Carnival 
$16.97 BK7389 218 pp. Cam, 
val Companion $9.97 TP7389 



40 Computer Games from Kilobaud 
Microcomputing 

Accept the challenge of some of the best games 
Kilobaud has published. This collection has every- 
thing from racing games and gambling to space 
adventures and calculator games for a variety of 
systems. Conversion instructions are given. $7.95 
BK7381 148 pp. 



Jerry WO Del PrtD 



TRS-80 as a Controller 

Learn to control outside de- 
vices with a TRS-80. This 
book is an introduction to 
interfacing, with simple, in- 
expensive projects. Applica- 
tions include controlling 
lights and switches, building 
a small computer, and sug- 
gestions for more complex 
applications. The book ap- 
plies to the Model III and, 
with minor conversions, the 
Model I. $12.97 BK7394 
192 pp. 



TRS80" 

DATA FILES 




Introduction to 
TRS-80 Data Files 

Learn by doing with this 
guide to writing a data base 
manager. This book, with its 
accompanying software, 
takes you through a simple, 
mailing list program to 
teach you about sequential 
and then random access 
files. The construction of a 
DBM and the techniques for 
moving data to and from 
disks are discussed. Book 
and TRS-80 disk $24.97 
BK7398 approx. 144 pp. 




Annotated BASIC, 
vols. 1 and 2 

This two-volume set teaches 
you the hows and whys of 
BASIC programming. TRS-80 
Level II programs are taken 
apart and described in de- 
tail. Each program is accom- 
panied by documentation, 
program annotation, BASIC 
concepts and definitions, 
and a flowchart. 
Vol. 1 $10.95 BK7384 160 pp. 
Vol. 2 $10.95 BK7385 125 pp. 






** A Hants on Appio^rh 




























bg 

George 

Young 

















The Selectric™ 
Interface 

You can turn an IBM 
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letter-quality printer for your 
computer. The Selectric 
Interface gives you the 
programs and step-by-step 
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Selectric models 2740, 2980, 
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modifications, the 
instructions will work for 
various chips. $12.97 
BK7388 124 pp. 



BOOKS 



TEXTEDIT 

a complete 
wora^roce^ing 
system in kit 
f$®m. 



by 

irwin Rappaport 



A WAYNE GREEN 
PUBLICATION 



Inside Your Computer TEXTEDIT 

Find out what goes on 
inside your machine. Inside 
Your Computer explains 
microcomputer circuits and 
how they work. Topics 
include chips, interpreters, 
circuits, machine language, 
binary numbers, algorithms, 
ASCII code, software, and 
what they all mean to the 
computer. Includes many 
photographs and 
schematics. $12.97 BK7390 
108 pp. 



Build your own word proces- 
sor with the TEXTEDIT kit. 
This TRS-80 Disk BASIC 
system is built in modules, 
so you can modify them or 
use only the parts you need. 
Features include complete 
editing, search, replace, and 
count, and upper/lowercase 
typing on an unmodified 
Model I. Model III users 
need the TRSDOS CON- 
VERT utility to use the disk. 
TEXTEDIT is compatible 
with any major DOS. It 
operates with one drive; two 
drives or copy utility needed 
to transfer programs to 
system disk. Book and disk 
package $24.97 CC7387 







TRS-80VZ80 Assembly 
Language Library 

Learn to use assembly 
language on the Model I to 
its full capacity. Two 
TRSDOS-compatible disks 
are included, with programs 
worth many times the 
book's cost. You'll learn 
about TRS-80 hardware and 
software, general Z80 
routines, and TRS-80 utility 
programs. Examples show 
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programming. Model III 
conversions are given. 
$34.97 BK7395 355 pp. 

Disks Included. 



Some of the Best from Kilobaud 
Microcomputing 

Get the programs for your PET or TRS-80 that 
readers chose as their favorites. Chapters include 
detailed programming techniques, reviews, building 
and interfacing, peripherals, and file structures. " 
Applications include word processors, data base 
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223 pp. 



Kilobaud Klassroom 

Learn electronics with this hands-on course. This 
collection of electronics projects starts with 
simple concepts and takes you on to building your 
own small computer. You'll learn electronics 
theory and get the practice you need to master 
digital electronics. $14.95 BK7386 393 pp. 




34 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Circle 367 on Reader Service card. 



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. I want to start my own collection of Microcomputing 



rOCO' 



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D Check enclosed for $24.97 for one year 
subscription to MICROCOMPUTING 






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I understand that with payment enclosed or credit card order I will receive a 
^UflKi^ f fee ' ssue m aking a total of 13 issues for $24.97. 



IV ***** 



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Canada & Mexico $27.97/1 year only, U.S. Funds drawn on U.S. Bank. 
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ise allow 6-8 weeks for delivery 



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BUSINESS REPLY CARD 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 73 PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 
POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 



Wayne Green Inc. 



MICROCOMPUTING 

Att. Mail Order 

Peterborough NH 03458 



NO POSTAGE 

NECESSARY 

IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATE! 



between 1-2-3 or VisiCalc files, or if you 
have often wished to be able to consoli- 
date such files, Viz-A-Merge is a quality 
product that brings much-needed inte- 
gration to the 2-D limitations of these 
popular spreadsheets. 



Business Decision-Making Aids 

The trouble with financial modeling 
systems is that they're so complicated 
and obtuse that they intimidate everyone 
but the DP specialist, who, unfortunate- 
ly, is often schooled in them but not in 
business decision making. What's need- 
ed is a financial modeling system that the 
manager can understand and manipu- 
late. Weiss Associates has made a good 
run at solving this problem with Venture, 
a financial planning and analysis system 
that allows complete business-level 
analysis but not in such an unstructured 
manner that the manager is confounded. 
Venture is a partially preformatted fi- 
nancial planning language that con- 
fronts you with only a limited need for in- 
puts. In return it gives you ten different 
kinds of reports of managerial value. 
These include income statements, per- 
cent of sales statements, detailed income 
statements, cash flow and return on 
assets, net present value/DCF, an 
NPV/DCF sensitivity analysis, long-term 
asset/depreciation analysis, working cap- 
ital, balance sheet preparation and a full 
slate of financial ratios. 

The Venture database is a shell you 
complete. While you have to have vari- 
able costs as part of the database. Ven- 
ture allows you to define custom ac- 
counts or categories of variable costs to fit 
your business. Similar flexibility is 
shown in all the other categories. Simi- 
larly, the program isn't picky about how 
you enter data, but will take it as abso- 
lute, projected or combination abso- 
lute/projected data. Best of all, "what if" 
analyses are as easy as entering a new 
value and rerunning the reports in ques- 
tion; the program also has extensive on- 
line help. 

If you have an 8087 chip in your com- 
puter, the Venture program will support 
it; however, except for one report (sensi- 
tivity analysis), the program runs more 
than enough without the 8087. The 
Weiss people, especially George Weiss, 
have extensive experience in producing 
minicomputer financial modeling sys- 
tems and have translated their expertise 
to the PC. They have also shown Cadillac 
user support and quick responsiveness to 
queries and bugs. Since I've had the 
package, I've seen no fewer than three 
free enhancement releases from the 
Weiss people; all are designed to catch 
small computation errors that I couldn't 
even find when they were pointed out to 
me! This is a package I strongly recom- 
mend to operating managers. 

You've seen the ads. "I bought this 
computer package and saved my 



business $1,000,000!" Well, Deci- 
sion~Analyst is the package, and it may 
well be worth its purchase price when 
you're trying to resolve complex deci- 
sions. The program is a structured 
decision-making aid that forces you to: 

(1) Define your problem or opportunity. 

(2) State the purpose of the decision 
you want to make in action terms. 

(3) Define which criteria the decision 
should satisfy, including specification as 
to whether the criterion is one you'd 
want to have or must have. 

The program will then print your cri- 
teria sorted by value and ask for a defini- 
tion of the decision alternatives facing 
you. 

You must then define your alternatives 
in terms of the criteria you specified as es- 
sential. The program weighs each alter- 
native by the criteria and shows you a 
listing of how each one came out. But 
that's not all; the adverse consequences 
of each alternative are taken into consid- 
eration before you draw your final con- 
clusions and make a choice. 

The power of this program isn't in its 
computational abilities, which are fairly 
simple subjectively expected value cri- 
terion weightings against alternatives, 
but is in the rigor it imposes on the deci- 
sion-making process and on the written 
record it produces on the thinking, 
weighing and evaluation process. 

Indeed, a complete written report, in- 
cluding text, weightings and conclu- 
sions, is generated for you by the pro- 
gram; this is one of its most valuable 
features. The program has good text-edit- 
ing capabilities, an exceptionally clear 
structure and manual and good error 
messages. It even warns you if you're get- 
ting close to running out of memory be- 
fore something bad happens. 

There is on-line help with on-line ex- 
amples of how to answer all of D~A's 
prompts as well. This is a marvelous pro- 
gram for simplifying those complicated 
decisions we all face with multiple alter- 
natives and multiple criteria, and if you 
use it, you just might "save yourself from 
disaster" with Decision ~ Analyst. 



A Hint for the Puzzle 
And a Word of Thanks 

Last month I told you about a puzzle in 
which pfs;Report bombs after you get a 
new TecMar board with RAMdisk and 
autodate/time facility. As this is being 
written, I've had no correct answers from 
readers, so I will extend the contest 
another month to see what happens. 
Here is a hint to help you out with the so- 
lution—it's very high up here. 

Before I end this month's column, let 
me thank all of you for requesting Desk- 
top, the desk organizer. The program, a 
Freeware one, is being distributed fast- 
er than I expected, which is gratifying. 
Copies can still be obtained by sending 
two preformatted, double-sided disks plus 



Circle 66 on Reader Service card 



MASTERMIND 
SPREADSHEETS 

TEMPLATE OVERLAYS 

for use with your 

PERFECT CALC.® SUPERCALC® 

or MULTIPLAN® 

All calculations done for you!!! 

■btt-Cr-b-Ct-Ct-Ctlt-Ci-k 

REAL ESTATE MASTER 

$79.00 

* Property Record & Balance Sheet 

* Monthly Expense & Cash Flow 
Summary 

* Annual Before & After Tax Cash Flow 
Summary 

* Personal Financial Statement 

* 5 & 10 Yr. Cash Flow & Sales Analysis 
with calculation of internal rate of return 

* Includes the following NIREB forms: 

- CID B - Property Analysis 

- CID C - Comparative Investment 

Analysis 

- CID D - Individual Tax Analysis 

- CID G - Excess Depreciation, Net 

Proceeds 

* Plus the following Text Files: 
-Offer to Purchase Real Estate Form 
-Rental Lease Agreement 

-Rental Application Form 

* Comprehensive Instruction Booklet 

■ir-ttitit'Ci'ti-iriiir-Ci 

1983 MASTERTAX 

Basic Forms $39.00 

* Form 1040-EZ 

* Form 1 040-A 

* Schedule 1 

* Complete Tax Table 

* Instruction Booklet 

Long Forms $79.00 

* Form 1040 
'Form 1040-X 

* Schedules A, B, C, D, E, and G 

* Schedules X, Y, and Z 

* Complete Tax Table 

* Instruction Booklet 

Supplemental Forms $79.00 

* Includes all of the corporate forms 
and other commonly used forms 
listed below: 

- Forms 1065, 1116, 1120, 2106 

- Forms 2119, 3468, 3903, 4562 

- Forms 4625, 4797, 4952, 5695 

- Forms 6251 , 6252 

- Instruction Booklet 

•k-tt-er-ir-b-Ct-k-Cr-CT-Cr 

All Instruction Booklets available 
separately for $7.00 each; price can be 
applied toward subsequent purchase. 
PLEASE SPECIFY COMPUTER, DISK 
FORMAT, & VERSION 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 

TO ORDER - CALL (317) 45 9-8537 
OR WRITE TO 






MASTERMIND co mP u«n e 

P.O. BOX 2673 • KOKOMO, IN 46902 

Check, Money Order, COD, VISA, MC 
Add $2.50 for shipping - Ind. res. add 5% 



Microcomputing, January 1984 35 



Circle 1 70 on Reader Service card 



CHIPS & 



DA LEO 



36 



41 16 200 ns 8/$ 12.00 100 + $1.18ea. 

4116 150ns8/$13.75 100 + $1.25ea. 
21 14L 300 ns 8/$ 12.00 
21 14L 200 ns 8/$ 13.00 
4164 200 ns $5.50 ea 100 + CALL 
4164 150 ns $5.95 ea 100 + CALL 
6116 150 ns $5.20 ea 100 + CALL 
6116 200 ns $4.85 ea 1 00 + CALL 
6116 LP 150 $5.85 

1791 Disk Controller $20.00 
1771 Disk Controller $ 1 6.75 

Z80ACPU $3.50 
Z80ACTC $3.50 
Z80A PIO $4.00 

8251A$4.00ea 

8255 $4.25 

27 1 6- 1 (5V) 350 ns 8/$4.25 ea $5.00 ea 

27 1 6 (5V) 450 ns $3.35 ea 1 00 + CALL 

2732 $3.85 ea 100 + CALL 

2532 8/$4.25 $5.00 ea 100 + CALL 

2764 5V 300 ns 28 pin $5.95 ea 

2564 $16.50 

68000 CPU $CALL 

8087 Intel Co-processor for 8088 

CALL 



COMPUTERS 

NEC APC Computers CALL CALL 

Altos Computers CALL CALL 

Sage II (16 bit) CALL CALL 

IBM P.C. complete sys. 

(with or w/out hard disk) CALL CALL 

IBM PERIPHERALS 

Baby Blue board CALL CALL 

Quadram board 

GQuadramll $275.00 CALL 

Davong hard-disk CALL CALL 

Davong board CALL CALL 

Amdek Monitors CALL CALL 

Princeton Monitors $700.00 CALL 

NEC 3550 Printer $2,297. CALL 

Call for other IBM Peripherals 

NEC Printer P.C. 8023 $695.00 $465.00 

Other NEC Printers — CALL 

Okidata Printers 

82A $748.00 CALL 

83A $995.00 CALL 

84A $1395.00 CALL 

DISK DRIVES 

Tandon 100-2 320K $240.00 

Shugart Drives SA-455-2 Va height 320K . $235.00 

PANASONIC Va height DSDD 320K $235.00 

Control Data Drives $249.00 

WE REPAIR & FIX DRIVES 

Allow up to 3 wks. for personal checks to clear. 
Please include phone number. Price subject to 
change without notice. Shipping & Handling for 
Chips $3.50. FOB Bellevue, WA for all else. Wash, 
residents add 7.9% Sales Tax. 

CHIPS & DALE 

10655 N.E. 4th St., Suite 400 
Bellevue, WA 98004 
1-206-451-9770 

Microcomputing, January 1984 



a prepaid mailer, or by sending a $20 do- 
nation to Microcomputer Management, 
45 Drum Hill Road, Concord, MA 01742. 
Revision 2 of Desktop is being completed; 
watch this space for more information. 
No program this month; your letters 



and these software packages are keeping 
me too busy to write one! 

How about sending your best, short 
effort to me! If it's good and of gen- 
eral interest, we'll publish it here in a 
future column. □ 



The "Big Blue" Black Book 



Prices and Addresses of This Month's 
Featured Products and Companies 



Access Pak ($525) 
Peachtree Software Corp. 
3445 Peachtree Road, N.E. 
Atlanta, GA 30326 



Bluebush Chess ($49.95) 

Bluebush, Inc. 

PO Box 3585 

Santa Clara, CA 95051 



Business Graphics ($295) 
Peachtree Software, Inc. 
3445 Peachtree Road 
Atlanta, GA 30326 



Data Base Manager II ($295) 
Alpha Software Corp. 
12 New England Executive Park 
Burlington. MA 01803 



Decision'VAnalyst ($295) 
Executive Software, Inc. 
2 North State St. 
Dover, DE 19901 



Friend:Report Generator ($295) 
Friends Software Co. 
Tioga Building, Suite 440, Box 527 
Berkeley, CA 94701-0527 



Form Manager ($195) 
Bit Software, Inc. 
Box 619 
Milpitas, CA 95035 



LB. Mogazette ($80/six issues) 
1306 Petroleum Tower 
Shreveport, LA 71 101 



Mentor ($99/six issues) 
1362 Pacific Ave. 
Santa Cruz, CA 95060 



Office Writer ($325) 
Office Solutions, Inc. 
PO Box 5146 
Madison, WI 53705 



PC Magazine ($29.95 per issue) 
CN 1916 
Morristown, NJ 07960 



Punctuation & Style ($125) 
Oasis Systems 
2765 Reynard Way 
San Diego, C A 92103 



ReadiScope ($295) 
ReadiWare Systems, Inc. 
PO Box 680 
W. Reading, CT 06896 



Type Faces ($125) 

Alpha Software Corp. 

12 New England Executive Park 

Burlington, MA 01803 



Venture ($495) 
Weiss Associates 
127 Michael Drive 
Red Bank, N J 07701 



VisTrend/Plot ($300) 

VisiCorp 

2895 Zanker Road 

San Jose, C A 95134 



Viz-a-Merge ($139.95) 
Abacus Associates 
6565 W. Loop S., Suite 220 
Beilaire, TX 77401 




MACBO 
TPM 
BASJCI 

zpgl 

SOFTWARE DESCRIPTIONS 




Software 




rpM (TPM I) - $80 A Z80 only operating system which is 

iapable of running CP/M programs. Includes many features not 

found in CP/M such as independent disk directory partitioning for 

lip to 255 user partitions, space, time and version commands, date 

[nd time, create FCB. chain program, direct disk I/O. abbreviated 

Commands and more! Available for North Star (either single or 

double density). TRS-80 Model I (offset 4200H) or II. Versafloppy 

or Tarbell I. 

.'PM-II - S125 An expanded version of TPM which isfully CP/M 
! 2 compatible but still retains the extra features our customers 
lave come to depend on This version is super FAST Extended 
Jensity capability allows over 600K per side on an 8" disk Availa- 
ble preconfigured for Versafloppy II (8" or 5"). Epson QX-10. 
)sborne II or TRS-80 Model II. 



CONFIGURATOR I 



This package provides all the necessary programs for 
customizing TPM for a floppy controller which we do 
not support We suggest ordering this on single den- 
sity (8SD) 

Includes: TPM-II (S125). Sample PIOS (BIOS) SOURCE 
(SFREE). MACRO II ($100) LINKER (S80). DEBUG I (S80) 
QED ($150) ZEDIT ($50) TOP I (S80). BASIC I (S50) and 

K^ NOW S250 



CONFIGURATOR II 

Includes TPM-II (S125) Sample PIOS (BIOS) SOURCE 

(SFREE) MACRO II (S100) MACRO III (S150) LINKER 

($80) DEBUG I (S80) DEBUG II (S100) QSAL (S200) QED 

(S150). ZTEL (S80) TOP II (S100) BUSINESS BASIC 

(S200) and MODEM SOURCE (S40) and DISASSEMBLER 

($80) 

$1485 Value 



NOW $400 



MODEL I PROGRAMMER 



This package is only for the TRS-80 Model I Note 
These are the ONLY CDL programs available for the 
Model I It includes TPM I (S80) BUSINESS BASIC 
(S200). MACRO I (S80). DEBUG I (S80). ZDDT (S40) ZTEL 
(S80). TOP I (S80) and MODEM (S40) 
$680 Value NOW $1 f O | 



— MODEL II PROGRAMMER 

This package is only for the TRS-80 Model II 
It includes TPM-II (S125) BUSINESS BASIC (S200) 
MACRO II (S100) MACRO III (S150) LINKER ($80) 
DEBUG I ($80) DEBUG II (S100) QED (S150) ZTEL (S80) 
TOP II ($100) ZDDT ($40) ZAPPLE SOURCE (S80) 
MODEM ($40) MODEM SOURCE ($40) and DISAS- 

SKIT NOW 8375 



BASIC I - S50 a 12K • basic interpreter with 7 digit precision 

BASIC II S100 A 12 digit precision version of Basic I 

BUSINESS BASIC - S200. A full disk extended basic with 
random or sequential disk file handling and 12 digit precision 
(even for TRIG functions) Also includes PRIVACY command to 
protect source code fixed and variable record lengths simultane- 
ous access to multiple disk tiles global editing and more 1 

ACCOUNTING PACKAGE - S300 Written in Business 
Basic Includes General Ledger Accounts Receivable/Payable 
and Payroll Set up for Hazeltme 1500 terminal Minor modifica- 
tions needed tor other terminals Provided in unprotected source 
form 

MACRO I - S80 A Z80/8080 assembler which uses CDL/TDL 
mnemonics Handles MACROs and generates relocateable code 
Includes 14 conditionals 16 listing controls 54 pseudo-ops 11 
arithmetic/logical ops local and global symbols linkable module 
generation and more' 

MACRO II - S100 An improved version of Macro I with 
expanded linking capabilities and more listing options Also inter- 
nal code has been greatly improved for faster more reliable 
operation 

MACRO III -S150 An enchanced version of Macro II Internal 
buffers have been increased to achieve a significant improvement 
in speed of assembly Additional features include line numbers 
c/oss reference compressed PRN tiles form feeds page parity 
additional pseudo-ops internal setting of time and date and 
expanded assembly-time data entry 



DEVELOPER I 

Includes MACRO I (S80) 
TOP I (S80) BASIC I (S50) 
S440 Value 



(S50) 



DEBUG I (S80) ZEDIT 
and BASIC II (S100) 

N0WS150 



.DEVELOPER II 



Includes. MACRO II ($100). MACRO III ($150). LINKER 
($80) DEBUG I ($80). DEBUG II ($100). BUSINESS BASIC 
(S200) QED ($150), TOP II ($100), ZDDT ($40). ZAPPLE 
SOURCE ($80), MODEM SOURCE ($40), ZTEL ($80). and 
DISASSEMBLER ($80). M - n 

$1280 Value NUW frODU 



.DEVELOPER III 

Includes QSAL (S200) QED (S150). BUSINESS BASIC 
(S200). ZTEL (S80) and TOP II (S100) 
$730 Value 



NOW $300 



— COMBO- ■ 

Includes DEVELOPER II ($1280) ACCOUNTING PACK- 
AGE (S300). QSAL (S200) and 6502X ($150) 
$1930 Value NOW $DUU 



LINKER - S80 A linking loader tor handling the linkable 
modules created by the above assemblers 

DEBUG I - S80 A tool for debugging Z80 or 8080 code 
Disassembles to CDL/TDL mnemonics compatible with above 
assemblers Traces code even through ROM Commands include 
Calculate Display Examine Fill Goto List Mode Open File Put 
Set Wait Trace and Search 

DEBUG II - S100 A superset of Debug I Adds Instruction 
Interpreter Radix change Set Trap/Conditional display Trace 
options and Zap FCB 

6502X S150 A 6502 cross assembler Runs on the Z80 but 
assembles 6502 instructions into 6502 object code' Similar features 
as our Macro assemblers 

QSAL S200 A SUPER FAST Z80 assembler Up to 10 times 
faster than conventional assembler Directly generates code into 
memory in one pass but also to offset tor execution in its own 
memory space Pascal like structures repeat until if then else 
while do begin end case of Multiple statements per line 
special register handling expressions long symbol names auto 
and modular assembly and more 1 This one uses ZILOG Mnemonics 

QED S150 A screen editor which is both FAST and easy to 
learn Commands include block delete copy and move to a 
named file or within text repeat previous command change 
locate find at start of line and numerous cursor and window 
movement functions Works with any CRT having clear screen 
addressable cursor, clear to end of line, clear to end of screen, and 
80X24 

DISK FORMATS 

When ordering software specify which disk format you would like 



ZTEL - S80 An extensive text editing language and editor 
modelled after DEC s TECO 

ZEDIT -S50 A mini text editor Character/line oriented Works 
well with hardcopy terminals and is easy to use Includes macro 
command capability 

TOP I - S80 A Text Output Processor for formatting manuals, 
documents etc Interprets commands which are entered into the 
text by an editor Commands include justify page number head- 
ing subheading centering and more 

TOP II S100 A superset of TOP I Adds embedded control 
characters in the file page at a time printing selected portion 
printing include/merge files form feed/CRLF option for paging, 
instant start up and final page ejection 
ZDDT - S40 This is the disk version of our famous Zapple 
monitor It will also load hex and relocatable files 
ZAPPLE SOURCE - S80 This is the source to the SMB 
ROM version of our famous Zapple monitor It can be used to 
create your own custom version or as an example of the features 
of our assemblers Must be assembled using one of our assemblers 
MODEM - A communication program for file transfer between 
systems or using a system as a terminal Based on the user group 
version but modified to work with our SMB board or TRS-80 
Models I or II You must specify which version you want 
MODEM SOURCE - S40 For making your own custom 
version Requires one of our Macro Assemblers 
DISASSEMBLER - S80 Does bulk disassembly of obiect 
files creating source files which can be assembled by one of our 
assemblers 

HARDWARE 

S-100 — SMB II Bare Board $50. System Monitor Board for 
S-100 systems 2 serial ports. 2 parallel ports, cassette inter- 
face 4K memory (ROM 2708 EPROM 2114 RAM), and power 
on jump When used with Zapple ROM below, it makes putting 
a S-100 system together a snap 

Zapple ROM $35. Properly initializes SMB l/ll hardware pro- 
vides a powerful debug monitor 

IBM PC — Big Blue Z80 board $595. Add Z80 capability to your 
IBM Personal Computer Runs CP/M programs but does not 
require CP/M or TPM Complete with Z80 CPU 64K add on 
memory serial port parallel port time and date clock with 
battery backup hard disk interface and software to attach to 
PC DOS and transfer programs Mtr d by QCS 
50% Discount on all CDL software ordered at the same time as 
a Big Blue (and for the Big Blue) 

APPLE II — Chairman ZBO $345. Add Z80 capability to your 
Apple ll/ll Plus computer Runs CP/M programs with our 
more powerful TPM Includes 64K memory add on (unlike the 
competition this is also useable by the 6502/DOS as well as 
the Z80) TPM QSAL assembler QED Screen Editor and Busi- 
ness Basic Mfr d by AMT Research 
Apple Special $175. Buy the Apple Z80 Developer at the same 
time as the Chairman and pay only S175 instead of S325 

— APPLE Z80 DEVELOPER 

Includes: 6502X ($150). MACRO II ($100). MACRO III 
($150). QSAL (S200). QED <$*50). LINKER ($80). DEBUG I 
(S80). DEBUG II (S10XVZDDT (S40) and BUSINESS 

BASIC (S200) 

VALUE $1250 NOW S3Z5 

$175 when purchased with AMT Chairman Board 



CODE 

8SD 
8DD 
8XD 

5SD 
5EP 
5PC 
5XE 
50S 
5ZA 



DESCRIPTION 

8" IBM 3740 Single Density (128 bytes/26 sectors/77 tracks) 

8" Double Density (256 bytes/26 sectors/77 tracks) 

8" CDL Extended Density (1024 bytes/8 sectcr/77 traceks 616KI 



ORDERING INFORMATION: 

VISA/MasterCard/C.O.D. , _ 
Call or Write With Ordering 
Information.... 



hD 



MastprCord 







5 25" Single Density (TRS80 Model I. Versafloppy 

5 25" Epson Double Density 

5 25" IBM PC Double Density 

5 25" Xerox 820 Single Density 

5 25" Osborne Single Density 

5 25" Z80 Apple (Softcard compatible) 



Tarbell I) 



OEMS: 

Many CDL products are available for 
licensing to OEM's. Write to Carl 
Galletti with your requirements. 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



TPM I 



TPM 



TPM INFO 

COOE 

NSSO/H 

NSSO/Z 

NSDO/H 

NSDO/Z 

TRS80-I 

TRS80II 

VIS 

VI5 

VII8 

VII5 

TRS80II 



or II in addition to Disk Format please specify one of the following codes 



When ordering TPM 

DESCRIPTION 

North Star Single Density tor Horizon I/O 

North Star Single Density for Zapple I/O 

North Star Double Density for Horizon I/O 

North Star Double Density for Zapple I/O 

TRS-80 Model I (4200H Offset) 

TRS-80 Model II 

Versafloppy I 8" 

Versafloppy I 5 25" 

Versafloppy II 8" (XD) 

Versafloppy II 5 25' 

TRS-80 Model II (XD) 
Prices and Specifications subject to change without notice 
TPM Z80 CP/M TRS80 are trademarks of CDL. Zilog. DRI and Tandy respectively 



For Phone Orders ONLY Call Toll Free... 

1 (800) 458-3491 

Ask For Extension #15 



(Except Pa.) 



For information and Tech Queries call 

(609) 599-2146 



Computer Design Labs 

342 Columbus Avenue/Trenton, NJ 08629 




Circle 18 on Reader Service card. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 37 



THE EDIT MODE 



By Jim Heid 



Jr Speaks 

For Itself 



On Product Introductions and PCjr 

IBM's introduction of PCjr last 
November 1 was a refreshing change 
from most new-product intros. 

In these days of intense competition 
and mammoth promotional budgets, 
new products from large firms usually 
are introduced in multimedia extrava- 
ganzas that look like a cross between a 
computer club meeting and a Mary Kay 
Cosmetics convention. Slide shows, pres- 
idents behind podiums, free buttons and 
four-course breakfasts in posh hotels— all 
of these gimmicks are used to convince 
the world that this product is, to quote a 
recent press release, ^' truly innovative, 
flexible and significant." 

Yes, personal computers are great for 
the hotel and catering industries. 

Ah, but IBM did it right. The largest 
computer company in the world didn't 
hire a Dixieland band or rent a velvety 
ballroom to introduce Junior. Without 
fireworks or fanfares, PCjr was unveiled 
in the Science and Technology Gallery of 
the IBM Building in mid town Manhattan. 
(That explains why IBM didn't have to 
rent a room.) 

There was no podium, no slide show, 
no buttons, no promoter's gimmicks at 
all— just Junior. 

Actually, there were several Juniors. 
Each was set up on its own table, and 
each was running a different software 
package. An IBM representative stood at 
each table, ready to answer questions 
and demonstrate the system. 

At one table, an engineer answered 
technical questions and explained some 
of the internal details of the two coverless 
Juniors in front of him. At another table, 
HomeWord, an icon-oriented word pro- 
cessor from Sierra On-Line, was on dis- 
play (see p. 40). Also demonstrated were 
a telecommunications package from Mi- 
crocom called Personal Communications 

38 Microcomputing, January 1984 



The Unveiling: 

No Hype, No 

Gimmicks, No Eggs 



Manager, a personal finances manager 
called Home Budget, jr, and numerous 
games. 

The whole production was set up to let 
people touch and use the new machine. If 
you wanted to talk to someone about it, 
they were there. But no one shoved hype 
disguised as eggs Benedict at you. Junior 
spoke for itself. 



Is It a Winner? 

We told you something of IBM's new 
machine in last month's "Overview" col- 
umn. For specifications, see "A Capsule 
Look at the IBM PCjr" on this page; the 
photo captions describe some of its 
details. 

From a technical standpoint, PCjr isn't 
a revolutionary machine. It compares 



A Capsule Look at the IBM PCjr 



Manufacturer 

IBM Corp., PO Box 1328, Boca Raton, 
FL 33444. 

Price 

$669 for entry model (64K, no disk 
drive); $1269 for expanded model 
(128K, one disk drive). 

System Unit Features 

Intel 8088 microprocessor running at 
4.77 MHz; PC DOS 2.1 operating sys- 
tem; 64K ROM, containing Cassette Ba- 
sic, system diagnostics and a keyboard 
tutorial; 64K RAM expandable to 128K. 
Input/output features: one serial port, 
two expansion slots, two cartridge 
slots, ports for light pen, joysticks cas- 
sette and video monitor. 
Size: 13.9 inches wide, 11.4 inches 
deep, 3.8 inches high; six pounds with- 
out disk drive, nine pounds with. 

Keyboard 

Wireless infrared link, approximately 
20-foot line-of-sight range; also can use 
optional six-foot connecting cable (rec- 
ommended where more than one com- 
puter is being used). Sixty-two keys, in- 
cluding function-control key and cursor 
keys; tilts at 5- or 12-degree slope; uses 
four AA batteries. 



Size: 13.45 inches long, 6.61 inches 
deep, 1.02 inches high; 22 ounces 
without batteries, 25 with. 

Disk Drive 

Half-height SV^-inch drive, 360K stor- 
age on double-sided disks, 512 bytes 
per sector, nine sectors per track, 48 
tracks per inch; 6 ms track-to-track ac- 
cess time; 250K bits-per-second trans- 
fer rate. 

Memory and Display Expansion 

User-installable; plugs into 44-pin con- 
nector on system board; adds 64K 
memory and 80-column display capa- 
bility. 

Internal Modem 

User-installable; plugs into system 
board; autodial, either touch-tone or ro- 
tary pulse; auto/manual answer and 
originate; user-programmable using 
ASCII characters; 300 bps data rate; 
built-in error detection and diagnostics. 

Software Available 

Includes EasyWriter, HomeWord, pfs: 
File, pfs:Report, Time Manager, Multi- 
plan 1.10, VisiCalc 1.20, Logo, Disk 
Librarian, Dow Jones Reporter, tele- 
communications package. 




A PCjr system consisting of keyboard, system unit with disk 
drive and monochrome monitor. Note the Selectric-style return 

key. 



more to the Commodore-64, the Atari 
800/1200 and the late Texas Instruments 
99/4A than to anything else. It does, how- 
ever, have a more powerful microproces- 
sor, more memory, a wireless keyboard 
and limited compatibility with the 
PC— all features the others lack. 



Is It Worth It? 

With a list price of $669, PCjr buyers 
will be paying substantially more for a 
home computer than Commodore, Atari 
or TI buyers. Besides what's under the 
hood, what will they be getting that the 
others won't? 

Guidance. The three computers just 
mentioned are sold mainly by mass mer- 
chandisers who don't have computer- 
knowledgeable salespeople to guide cus- 
tomers into making informed purchases. 
PCjr will be sold through IBM dealers, so 
prospective buyers will be able to ask 
questions and. hopefully, get intelligent 
answers. 

They'll also be getting products from 
manufacturers other than IBM, or third- 
party support. Most home computers 
have some third-party products available, 
but PCjr will no doubt create an industry 
just like the PC did. 

Expect most companies currently mak- 
ing products for the PC to come out with 
products for PCjr. IncompaUble software 
will be converted. More new software will 
be written that will run on both machines. 
Programs that exploit the power of the 
8088 chip will let PCjr leave the others 
fumbling for their joysticks. 

If that's not enough, consider the 
clones— expect to see PCjr-compatibles 
soon, selling for less than the real thing. 

PCjr buyers will be paying more for their 
machines. But they'll be getting 
more— better support, better quality and 
third-party support that can't even be 
imagined yet. 

Taken in that light, maybe PCjr is a rev- 
olutionary machine. 



A close-up of the keyboard. The keys have a stiff er feel than 
the PC's, and they don't 'click" when pressed. The key leg- 
ends aren't printed on the keytops— they're printed above and 
below the keys. 




The HomeWord word processor. The icons at the bottom of the screen represent 
printing, filing and editing functions. The box at the lower right of the screen shows 
how the final page will look. 




The Personal Communications Manager. This telecommunications package lets 
you send and receive electronic mail and features one-keystroke access of informa- 
tion services when used with an autodial modem. 

Microcomputing, January 1984 39 



IBM PCjr Users: HomeWord Bound? 

A Look at Sierra's Easy-to-Use Software for PCjr, Apple, C-64 and Atari Owners 



Thirty minutes ago I unwrapped a 
package containing HomeWord, a new 
word processing system from Sierra 
On-line. Now I'm writing this review on 
it— utilizing every option necessary for 
the writing, editing, filing and printing 
the text. 

PCjr Program Made 
For Other Machines 

This new entry is the program offered 
with the IBM PCjr. It should come as re- 



lief to owners of other machines— the 
Apple n, II Plus, ne, Commodore-64 and 
Atari— that they need not purchase a 
PCjr to enjoy one of the easiest to use 
word processors for the home market. 

HomeWord is significant because it is 
the first software specifically designed 
for the home computer that uses icons 
to guide you through the program. It's 
similar to the icon concept made pop- 
ular by the Apple Lisa last year. 

HomeWord comes with a 25-minute 







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audio cassette that guides the first-time 
user through the rudiments of turning 
on a computer and handling the disks. 
The narrator then demonstrates cursor 
moves and editing techniques. By the 
end of the first 15 minutes or so, anyone 
will be facile with HomeWord. 

Icon See the Difference 

Upon booting the program disk, 
you're greeted by a screen horizontally 
divided between work space and icon 
space. The "icon cursor" can then be 
positioned over any one of six icons 
along the bottom of the screen and an 
option chosen. 

To begin, you select the file cabinet 
icon (it's labeled as well as depicted). 
There is a sub-menu for filing that gives 
four further choices. 

To begin a new document, you only 
have to assign a name before being pre- 
sented with the typing screen. The Ap- 
ple version operates in the high-resolu- 
tion mode, providing very readable 
type in true upper/lowercase (with the 
shift mode installed) without the neces- 
sity for any special hardware. The lower 
left screen graphically displays the 
amount of free disk and free memory 
space. 

One of the most impressive and use- 
ful features of the edit mode is the page 
sketch in the lower right. As a doc- 
ument is typed, this sketch fills in a 
miniature page showing the relative 
spacing of type on the page. If the mar- 
gins are reset, the sketch, too, is reset to 
show how the document will look on 
paper. This interactive icon can save 
many a sheet of paper! 

Each of the other components of 
HomeWord are just as logical (and fun) 
to use. 

Prime-Time Processor 

This program is perfect for occasional 
home word processing. If not used for 
some time, relearning the program 
shouldn't take more than a few min- 
utes. This is a program that the entire 
family could easily use. 

Perhaps it's the harbinger of a new 
generation of simple, yet flexible, pro- 
grams for the home market. 

HomeWord is available for the Apple, 
Commodore and Atari. At $49.95, it's 
reasonably priced. Unfortunately, it is 
copy-protected with a hefty $10 fee re- 
quired for a back-up copy (that's 20 per- 
cent of the purchase price!) 

HomeWord is made by Sierra On- 
Line. Coarsegold, CA 93614. 

K.T. 



40 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Keep an Eye on Your Memory 

These two short Timex/Sinclair monitor programs take the tedium 
out of examining memory locations. So sit back and leave the 

peeking and poking to us. 

By Edward Rager 



A memory monitor for your Timex/ 
Sinclair 1000 is no big thing if all 
you want to do is examine memory lo- 
cations or change their values. You 
can do that yourself using Peek and 



Poke statements. However, that can 
become tedious if you want to look at 
more than a few locations. 

The program in Listing 1 does the 
peeking and poking for you. All you 




10 REM MEMORY MONITOR F TO LOOK FORWARD B TO LOOK BACK S TO STOP, 

OR ENTER A NUMBER TO POKE A NEW VALUE 

20 PRINT "START AT ?" 

25 INPUT L 

30 PRINT TAB 2;L;TAB 10;PEEK L;TAB 17;CHR$ (PEEK L) 

35 INPUT R$ 

40 IF R$ = "F" THEN GOTO 70 

45 IF R$ = "B" THEN GOTO 80 

50 IF R$ = "S" THEN GOTO 90 

55 POKE L.VAL (R$) 

60 GOTO 30 

70LETL=L+1 

75 GOTO 30 

80LETL = L-1 

85 GOTO 30 

90 STOP 

Listing 1. 




10 REM MEMORY MONITOR F TO LOOK FORWARD B TO LOOK BACK C TO 

CHANGE A VALUE S TO STOP 
20 PRINT "START AT ?" 

25 INPUT L 

27 SLOW 

30 LET R$ = STR$ (CODE (CHR$ (PEEK L) ) ) 

35 PRINT TAB 2;L;TAB 10;PEEK L;TAB 17;CHR$ (VAL R$) 

37 IF INKEY$ = " " THEN GOTO 37 

40 IF INKEY$ = "F" THEN GOTO 70 

45 IF INKEY$ = "B" THEN GOTO 80 

50 IF INKEY$ = "S" THEN GOTO 90 

52 IF INKEY$ = "C" THEN INPUT R$ 

55 POKE L.VAL (R$) 

60 GOTO 30 

70LETL = L+1 

75 GOTO 30 

80LETL = L-1 

85 GOTO 30 

90 STOP 

Listing 2. 



have to do is tell it where to start. AH 
values entered and displayed are in 

decimal. 

When you run the program, it asks 
for the address you want to examine. 
Type the value (in decimal) and press 
Enter. The display shows the location, 
the value stored at that location and 
the character or keyword represented 
by that value. Typing F and Enter 
displays the next location. To display 
the previous location, type B; S stops 
the program. 

If a number is entered, it will be 
poked in as the new value for that 
memory location. Any other key will 
cause a halt with an error. If you 
aren't embarrassed by error mes- 
sages, you can delete lines 50 and 90 
and still use S to stop. 

Listing 2 adds some frills but doesn't 
add any utility to the monitor. The 
main change is that the INKEY$ func- 
tion is used instead of the Input state- 
ment. This means you don't have to 
keep pressing Enter. Memory loca- 
tions advance and are displayed as 
long as you keep pressing F. At the 
end of the screen, you have to press 
Cont and Enter to continue. Line 27 
puts the computer in its slow mode so 
you can see the values as they're 
displayed. 

To change a value, first press C, 
then type the new value and press 

Enter. 

Line 30 allows you to press a wrong 
key without any harm. If a wrong key 
is pressed, the program falls through 
to line 55, but it pokes the original val- 
ue of the location back in— no changes 
have been made.B 



Address correspondence to Edward Rager, 9360 
Tasmania Ave., Baton Rouge, LA 70810. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 41 




Writing Off 
Your Computer 



With April 15 rapidly approaching, you will 
be glad to learn that your micro may be tax- 
deductible! The authors, two tax experts, 
detail who qualifies and for how much. 



By Donald V. Saftner and Cherie J. O'Neil 



Many common uses of your per- 
sonal computer may qualify it 
for a tax deduction, which can effec- 
tively reduce its cost. If you subtract 
the tax savings associated with a pur- 
chase from the out-of-the-pocket cost 
of the computer, it's possible to deter- 
mine the after-tax cost of a computer. 
Maybe you can afford that computer 
or peripheral that seemed out of reach 
or, if you have already made a pur- 
chase, perhaps you're in for a pleasant 
surprise when you prepare your tax 
return! 

Who Qualifies? 

There are two major classes of use 
that make it possible to list your com- 
puter as a tax deduction: 

•Trade or business. 

•Production or maintenance of in- 
come. 

In the first category, the Internal 
Revenue Code permits a deduction for 
all of the ordinary and necessary ex- 
penses paid or incurred during the 
taxable year in carrying on any trade 
or business. 

Since "trade or business" isn't de- 
fined in the code, the everyday usage 
of these terms applies. Generally, a 
trade or business is some line of work 
or form of occupation carried on with 
the intent of making a profit. 

42 Microcomputing, January 1984 



It isn't necessary to show that a pro- 
fit was made, only to show that the 
intent was to make profit. Expenses in- 
curred by an employee or a profes- 
sional person also qualify as trade or 
business expenses. Examples of uses 
that fall into this trade or business 
category include: a businessman 
maintaining records, such as inven- 
tory or payroll; a teacher maintaining 
grade records or preparing class plans; 
a professional writer who uses a word 
processor package; an executive who 
uses the computer to catch up on "pa- 
perwork" at home; or even the aspir- 
ing programmer who hopes to sell his 
video game creation. 

In the second category, the Internal 
Revenue Code permits a deduction for 
all of the ordinary and necessary ex- 
penses paid or incurred during the 
taxable year for the production or col- 
lection of income; for the manage- 
ment, conservation or maintenance of 
property held for the production of 
income; or in connection with the de- 
termination, collection or refund of 
any tax. 

Although you may not be using your 
personal computer for a trade or busi- 
ness, you may still qualify for tax sav- 
ings for a wide variety of nonbusiness 
activities. 
For example, investors who own se- 



curities and/or real estate qualify if 
they use the computer for selecting in- 
vestments or maintaining records of 
their investments. Individuals using a 
personal computer to maintain rec- 
ords necessary for the preparation of 
their tax returns also qualify. There- 
fore, tax savings from the purchase of 
a personal computer are available to a 
wide range of computer users— busi- 
nessmen, professionals, employees, 
investors and even taxpayers. 

Program Notes 

At this point, you should have a gen- 
eral understanding of which tax sav- 
ings are available. 

The following section is an over- 
view of a program that can help you 
maximize tax savings associated with 
the purchase of a computer. The pro- 
gram is written in advanced Basic (Ba- 
sicA) for an IBM PC with at least 64K 
and an 80-column display. Inputs, 
processing and output are covered in 
detail. The discussion of the outputs 
centers on using it to complete the ap- 
propriate federal income tax forms. 



Donald Saftner and Cherie O'Neil (307 Pamplin 
Hall, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061} are 
assistant professors of accounting at Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute and State University. 



Some special situations also are re- 
viewed. 

The program begins by displaying a 
title screen while variables are initial- 
ized. It then writes the main display. 
Refer to Fig. 1 to see the four parts, la- 
beled I through IV, of the main dis- 
play. 

Part I is the output of the program. 
Part II displays data that you supply 
to the program. The data is actually 
entered one item at a time on the line 
labeled Part III. Error messages are 
displayed on the empty line labeled 

Part IV. 

The main display initially appears 
as shown in Fig. 1. The program re- 
quests values for lines 1-5. In Fig. 1, 
Part III, you can see this process be- 
ginning with a request for line 1 infor- 
mation. After these five values have 
been entered, the program calculates 
the optimal tax treatment and fills in 
the values for Part I. At this point, the 
display appears as shown in Fig. 2. 

The program then allows the data to 
be changed, one item at a time, so that 
alternative situations can be explored. 
To do this, the program goes into a 
loop that consists of three steps. 

First, the program asks which line 
you wish to change (shown at the bot- 
tom of Fig. 2). The program then re- 
quests an amount for that line, recal- 
culates the top values and displays 
them. This loop repeats until a line 
number of zero is entered, which 
causes the program to end. 

Program Prompts 

Prompts 1 and 2 require an estimate 
of the percent of time the computer is 
used for "trade or business" and "pro- 
duction or maintenance of income," 
respectively. The sum of these two 
categories and the use of the computer 
for personal (e.g., entertainment) rea- 
sons should add up to 100 percent. 

The greater the percent of use for 
personal reasons, the less the total 
tax savings will be. You should be es- 
pecially careful in estimating the 
amounts for prompts 1 and 2. These 
percents and the cost figure in prompt 
5 are the numbers you must be able to 
substantiate if the IRS audits your re- 
turn. 

Line 3 is the interest rate the pro- 
gram uses in a process known as dis- 
counting. Essentially, discounting re- 
flects the fact that most people prefer 
to receive a dollar now rather than in 
the future. To decide what figure to 
use here, consider the interest rate 
you are currently earning on savings 
or paying on loans. For instance, if 



date: n-04-1983 tihe:oo:3i:32 
tax treatment: 

EXPENSE 

CAPITALIZE WITH REDUCED BASIS. 
CAPITALIZE WITH REDUCED ITC... 
IGNORE BECAUSE PERSONAL USE... 

TOTAL . ♦ 

LESS ITC ♦ 

LESS OTHER TAX SAVINGS (EXP./ACRS) 
AFTER TAX COST OF COMPUTER 



COST 



TAX 
SAVING 



ACRS 
BASIS 



2. 



income (0- 



II 



X 

100) . ,x 
x 



inputs: mM ^ % 

1. X of cost for trade or business (0-100)... 
X of cost for production or maintenance of 

X of cost for personal use 

interest rate for discounting (typically 3-25) (0-100) X 

marginal tax bracket (0-65) ♦ ....... ••••••11! * 

total cost of computer and related materials (0-97799) 

maximum expense amount (1983:5000, 1984:7500, 1985:10000)... 



0.00 

0.00 

100.00 



3. 
4. 

5 . 
6. 



100. 


00 


0. 


,00 





,00 


to 


,00 


$5000 


.00 



|J 1. X of cost for trade or business (0-100) 

Fig. 1. Four parts of main display of tax treatment program. 



x ? 



DATE : 1 1 -04- 1983 T IhE ! 00 t 38 : 3! 



TAX 



treatment: 

EXPENSE". 

CAPITALIZE WITH REDUCED 
CAPITALIZE WITH REDUCED 
T6N0RE BECAUSE PERSONAL. 



BASIS 
ITC. . 
USE. . 



TOTAL 
i res 



ITC 



LESS OTHER TAX. 
Al I ER TAX COST 



SAVINGS (EXP./ACRS) 
OF COMPUTER 



.»».»». 



COST 



5000.00 

2000.00 

0.00 

0.00 

7000.00 

200.00 

3256.93 

3543.07 



TAX 
SAVING 

2500.00 

956.93 

0.00 

0.00 

3456.93 



ACRS 
BASIS 



1900.00 
0.00 

1900.00 



! V . J PS'^'.W 



'X 









J 



vegg in 






o.oo 
o.oo 



inputs: .. .._ __ 

•/. of cost for trade or business (0-100).. '- 

% of cost for production or maintenance of income (0-100)..% 

Z of cost for personal use ♦ y - 

interest rate for discounting (typically 5-25) (0 100) Z 

marginal tax bracket (0-65) ♦ * 

total cost of computer and related materials (0-99999) 

amount (1983 J 5000, 1984:7500, 1985:10000)... 



1. 

*.. ♦ 

3. 

4. 



o » 
6. 



maximum expense 



100.00 

12.00 

50.00 

$7000.00 

$5000.00 



Kev line number you wish to change (1-6) or to exit program... ? 



Fig. 2. Request for line number change. 



r~~ 4562 

<H«V. S.pt.mb.r 1S82) 
D.Mrtm.M .( It. TiMtunr ... 
Ii»,»il »wwm Stnr.c. l" J 



Depreciation and Amortization 

p» See separate irsstruct.ons. 

a> Attach this form to your return. 



OMSK*. imvc:?2 



67 



Name(a) •» ihown on return 



JOHN SMITH 



Identifying nu.iiber 

123-45-6789 



Bmin«*» or activity to which thi* 1orm rtisvae 



C5?j7" r ;.l Depreciation 



SMITH SQEMARE ^ovirrs m 



Section A Elect ion to etpense recovery property (Section 179) 

(L C au .1 pr.p»rtT 



Computer" 



a. Co.: 



C. C-;.«i. («jC » 



7000.00 



1 Total (not more than $5,000). Enter here and on line 8 (Partnerships— enter tn,» amount on Schedule K 



TGoOTdu" 



5G00.nn 



Section B Depreciation of recovery property 


• 






k. tim at ajajajaj 


a. D.t. 

t<*M4 la 

•.nice 


c tag i 


o a*. 

mmrr 

rSBt 


I. M.IM 
.1 

fliiii*. 

eapMfcaa 


r. tm 

C*M.f* 




2 Accelerated Coat Recovery System 


[ACRS) (See instr 


uctions): 


****** 




', 1 


■f 


(a) 3-year property 










































12-10-82 


1900.00 


5 


ACRS 


15 


28b. 00 


(b) 5-year property 
































I 









Fig. 3. This example, along with Fig. 4., shows how information from Fig. 2 would be reported. 



your tax bill is reduced, will the tax 
savings mean that you won't have to 



borrow as much as you would have 
previously? If so, then the loan interest 

Microcomputing, January 1984 43 



rate will probably be appropriate to 
use for discounting. If a reduction in 
your tax bill would mean that you can 
put more in savings, then the return 
on your savings will be a reasonable 
number to use for discounting. 

Prompt 4 is the marginal tax bracket 
percent. To decide what percent 
should be entered, refer to tax rate 
schedules in the instructions to your 
federal income tax forms for the cur- 
rent year. If you don't have these han- 
dy, you can approximate the percent 
by using the tax rate schedules from 
the previous year. 

Prompt 5 is the total cost of the com- 
puter and related materials. When de- 
termining the total cost of a personal 
computer system, include the cost of 



all the hardware— the computer's cen- 
tral processing unit, monitor and 



Purchased software 

can be included 

as part of the 

cost of the 

personal computer. 



keyboard plus peripheral equipment, 
such as tape or disk drives, printer and 
modem. 



Another important part of the per- 
sonal computer system that can be 
included in the total is the cost of pur- 
chased software and instruction man- 
uals. The Internal Revenue Service 
holds that, where the cost of purchas- 
ed computer software is a part of the 
total cost if a computer, the total cost 
may be capitalized (i.e., it may be used 
in figuring the total cost as an input to 
this program). 

When software is purchased sepa- 
rately from hardware, the appropriate 
tax treatment is not as clear cut. The 
IRS indicates that where costs are sep- 
arately stated, software should be 
treated as an intangible asset and 
amortized over 60 months. This places 
software outside the realm of this 



A Few Tips on Deducing Your Deductions 



In order to understand the processing 
of the program, it's necessary to under- 
stand certain basic tax rules. 

Broadly speaking, there are two kinds of 
tax savings associated with acquiring a per- 
sonal computer: a deduction that reduces 
taxable income and a credit that reduces tax 
liability. The tax savings associated with a 
deduction are based on a marginal tax rate. 
For example, a $100 deduction to a taxpay- 
er in the 40 percent marginal tax bracket re- 
sults in a $40 reduction in the tax liability; a 
$100 tax credit results in a $100 reduction 
in the tax liability. 

When comparing the tax savings of de- 
ductions versus credits, it's first necessary 
to reduce the deduction to its after-tax sav- 
ings (i.e., multiply the deduction by the ap- 
propriate marginal tax rate). 

The cost of tangible personal property (a 
personal computer, for example) used in a 
trade or business may be recovered in one 
of two ways. First, the purchase price may 
be capitalized as an asset with a percentage 
of the cost deducted annually. For personal 
computers purchased after December 31, 
1980, the five-year accelerated cost-recov- 
ery period normally applies. 

The Internal Revenue Code specifies the 
recovery percentages to be used in each of 
the five recovery years: 15, 22, 21, 21 and 
21 percent in years 1-5, respectively. The 
15 percent recovery allowance for year 1 
applies, regardless of which day in the year 
the asset was purchased. For example, a 
$1000 five-year cost -recovery asset yields a 
$150 tax deduction in the year of purchase, 
provided it was placed in service by the last 
day of the tax year. 

Also note that the five-year recovery per- 
iod has nothing to do with the useful life of 
the asset. It's an arbitrary period of time 
that has been specified by the tax law. A 
personal computer is five-year property 



whether or not its useful life is five years. 

When a personal computer is recorded as 
an asset and the annual cost-recovery 
deduction is taken, the ten percent invest- 
ment tax credit is available in the year of 
purchase. The purchase of a $1000 five- 
year cost-recovery asset results in an invest- 
ment tax credit of $100. When an invest- 
ment tax credit is taken on a cost recovery 
asset purchased after December 31, 1982, 
the amount of the asset subject to the cost- 
recovery allowance is reduced by one-half 
of the regular investment tax credit. For a 
$1000 asset on which a $100 investment tax 
credit was claimed, the cost-recovery de- 
ductions are computed using an adjusted 
basis of $950: 

[$1,000- (y 2 x(l,000x. 10))]. 

The taxpayer may elect to use the full ba- 
sis of $1000 in computing the cost-recovery 
deduction, but, if this is done, the allowable 
investment tax credit percentage is then re- 
duced by two percentage points to eight 
percent. For a $1000 asset, the investment 
tax credit will be $80. The total tax savings 
when the asset is capitalized is the sum of 
the investment tax credit plus the present 
value (i.e., discounting future cash flows 
back to the present) of the after-tax cost sav- 
ings of cost-recovery deductions. 

If a 40 percent marginal tax rate is as- 
sumed, the tax savings in the first year asso- 
ciated with the purchase of a $1000 asset, if 
the full investment tax credit is taken, is 
$157: 

[($1,000 x .10) + ($1,000 - (y 2 x ($1,000 x 
.10)) x .15 x .4)]. 

If the reduced investment tax credit is 
taken, the first-year tax savings is $140: 

[($1,000 x .08) + ($1,000 x .15 x .4)]. 



In years 2-5, the tax savings from the cost 
recovery deduction will be $83.60 in year 
two and $79.80 in years 3-5, respectively, if 
the full investment tax credit is taken, or 
$88 in year 2 and $84 in years 3-5 if the re- 
duced investment tax credit is taken. 

As you can see from the example, com- 
puting the total savings using the acceler- 
ated cost-recovery deduction and the in- 
vestment tax credit requires present value 
analysis, since the cash flows in each of the 
five tax years are different. 

A simpler alternative, found in the Inter- 
nal Revenue Code, permits the "expensing" 
of recovery property in the year in which it 
is acquired. The code limits the applicabil- 
ity of the expensing provision to any recov- 
ery property that meets the definition of 
property used in a trade or business. The 
option isn't available for property held 
merely for the production of income. 

For those taxpayers using a personal com- 
puter in a trade or business, the election to 
expense permits the entire tax savings to be 
recognized in the year of purchase. For a 
taxpayer in the 40 percent marginal tax 
bracket, the purchase of a $1000 asset will 
yield a first-year tax savings of $400: 

($1,000 x .4). 

While the expensing provision is easy to 
compute and understand, it may not, in the 
long run, result in maximum tax savings, 
because "expensed" assets do not qualify 
for the investment tax credit. Thus, you 
must decide which method offers the great- 
est after-tax savings. 

Such a decision requires a comparison of 
the net present value of the tax savings that 
can be achieved under each alternative. 
This comparison is essentially what the pro- 
gram does for you. 

D.S. 
CO. 



44 Microcomputing, January 1984 



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Name 



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Age 



Street 



City/State/Zip 

Accredited by the Accrediting Commission of the National Home Study Council 



Microcomputing, January 1984 45 



article (i.e., don't include it in the total 
cost as an input to the program. 



The courts have chosen not to fol- 
low the IRS lead in two recent court 



Form 



3468 



OcMtrrtnf el ?*«t 1-tti.ry 
l«l*rnil ki.mjf Stry :» iq) 



Computation of investment Credit 

► Attach to your tax return. 
► Schedule B (Busmets Enerpy Investment Credit) on bach. 



Name(s) as shown on return 



oui Ne mv-ms 



*)C2 

27 



JOHN SMITH 



if 

51 



Identifying number 

123-45-6789 



A The corporar.on elects the bas.c or bas.c and match.ng em P :oyee plan percentage under sect.on 43(n)(l) p 

B I elect to .ncre»« my q.ai.f.ed investment to 100% 'or c-rta.n commuter highway veh-des unoer sect.on 46(c)f6) . :n 



-, ....„„>..., ; ., l , u 1W „ , or c .na,n co-nmuter mgnway vehcies unaer section 46(c)(6 

C I e'ect to «cn»M my Q(J ai.f.ed .nvestmem by an qual.f.ed pro e ress e«penj tures maoe this •* all later tax years 

Enter total quji.f.ed prepress expend tures included in column (4). Part II ► 
D I cla.m full creo t on certj.n s^.ps order sect.on 46(g)(3) (See Instruction B for detaMs.) ".".""."/".' "."".' . "." n 



U 

n 



1 Recovery Property 



E 

> 



3 



Lin* 



Regular 
Percentage 



|4»(q) Civction to R-a.,c* Cird.t 

(i->Vt»j3 ( I »-|i,ltir^ t i%,%, 
f* 1982-63 l.;«r» on>y ise« .n»|r ) 



New 
Property 



Used 
Property 



New 



(a) 
(b) 



(c) 



(6) 



(e) 



Used 
Property 



J1L 
(?) 



(D 

Class of 

Prop«rt)r 



3 year 



Other 



3 year 



Other 



3 year 



Otner 



(2) 
Unadiustrd Basis 



2QQ0 • QQ 



<3> 

Applicitl* 
Pc ctiiii|f 



60 



(h) 



3 year 



Other 



100 



60 



100 



40 



80 



(4) 

Q-ia'.f rd lnv**trr»nt 
(Ccl--rn 2 x ccltMlift 3) 



2000.00 



40 



2 



2 Nonrecovery property—Enter total qualified investment (See instructions for l.ne 2) . 

3 New commuter highway veh.cle— Enter total qual.f.ed investment (See Instruction 0(2)) . 

4 Used commuter highway veh.de— Enter total qual.f.ed investment (See Instruction D(2)) 

5 Total quaM.ed .nvestment .n 10% property— Add lines 1(a) through 1(h). 2. 3. and 4 
(See instructions for spec.al limits) 

6 Qualified rehabilitation e«pend.tures— Enter total qual.f.ed investment for: 
a 30 year old buildings 

b 40 year old buildings 

e Cert.f.ed h.ttor.c structures (Enter the Dept of Intenor tu.fr.ed protect number \ 

7 Corpcrtt.cns check. n t election tot A ax>ve— add |,p t , 5 fo 6b and 6c . I 7 | 



80 



6a 



6b 



2000.00 



8 10% of Ime 5 

9 15% of line 6a 



:on.oo. 



Fig. 4. Together with Fig. 3, this example shows how information from Fig. 2 would be reported. 



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46 Microcomputing, January 1984 






cases (32 AFTR 2d 73-5094 and 551 
F2d 599). It has been suggested by 
some writers that mass-marketed (not 
custom-written) software should be 
treated in the same way as hardware 
for tax purposes. By following the line 
of reasoning expressed by the courts, 
purchased software can be included 
as a part of the cost of the personal 
computer. 

Prompt 6 is the maximum expense 
amount. It is preset at $5000, which is 
the appropriate amount for the 1983 
tax year. This figure should be chang- 
ed to $7500 for tax year 1984 returns 
and to $10,000 for 1985 returns. 
Program Output 

You can receive a personal comput- 
er tax benefit in one of three ways: 

1. Expense the cost of the personal 
computer. 

2. Record the purchase of the per- 
sonal computer as an asset, claim the 
regular investment tax credit of ten 
pecent, reduce the basis by one-half 
of the investment tax credit and apply 
the five-year cost recovery percent- 
ages to the net basis. 

3. Record the purchase of the com- 
puter as an asset, claim the reduced 
investment tax credit of eight per- 
cent and apply the five-year cost- 
recovery percentages to the full basis. 
The program uses the input values 
to attempt to determine which combi- 
nation of the above alternatives will 
result in maximum tax savings for 
you. In Fig. 2, the three alternatives 
are labeled Expense, Capitalize with 
Reduced Basis and Capitalize with Re- 
duced ITC, respectively. 

In the first column, Cost, the total 
cost of the computer from Prompt 5 is 
allocated among the three alternatives 
and the personal use category. In the 
column Tax Saving, the amount your 
tax bill is reduced by or your refund is 
increased to is displayed. (The column 
labeled ACRS BASIS will be discussed 
later.) 

Figs. 3 and 4 are examples for a ficti- 
tious John Smith showing how the in- 
formation from Fig. 2 would be re- 
ported. The amount shown in the Cost 
column on the Expense line should be 
placed on Form 4562, part I, section A, 
column C. The total cost of the com- 
puter (from prompt 5) should be plac- 
ed in column B of that same section. 

In Fig. 2, the amount on the line la- 
beled Capitalize with Reduced Basis 
in the column ACRS BASIS should al- 
so be placed on Form 4562. This 
amount is placed in part I, section B, 
line 2, column C. line 2 of this form 



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must be completed in the current year 
and in each of the following four 
years. In the first year, column F is set 
at 15 and then 22, 21, 21 and 21, re- 
spectively, in each of the following 
four years. Column G is the product of 
columns C and F. 

Form 3468 Computation of Invest- 
ment Credit (see Fig. 4) must also be 
completed for the example in Fig. 2. 
The amount on the line labeled Capi- 
talize with Reduced Basis in the Cost 
column should be placed in Part II on 
line 1 (b) or (d) in column 2 and col- 
umn 4. The amount is also placed on 
line 5. Line 8 is ten percent of line 5. 
Note that the number on line 8 also 
appears in Fig. 2 on the line labeled 
LESS ITC. 

Fig. 5 is another example of the out- 
put of the program. Figs. 6 and 7 are 



examples for a fictitious Mary Smith 
showing how the information from 
Fig. 5 would be reported. Form 4562 



Tax savings can 

dramatically reduce the 

after-tax cost 

of a computer. 



Fig. 6) is completed in a manner simi- 
ar to the earlier example. Form 3468 
(Fig. 7) is also completed in a similar 



DATE : 1 1 04- 1 983 T I ME J 00 : 34 I 21 

tax treatment: 

EXPENSE 

CAPITALIZE WITH REDUCED DASIS. 

CAPITALIZE WITH REDUCED ITC... 

IGNORE DECAUSE PERSONAL USE... 

TOTAL. 

LESS ITC 

LESS OTHER TAX SAVINGS (EXP./ACRS) 
ALTER TAX COST OF COMPUTER 



COST 



0.00 

0.00 

2400.00 

600.00 

3000.00 

192.00 

904. 74 

1823.26 



TAX 
SAVING 

0.00 
0.00 

1176.74 
0.00 

1176.74 



ACRS 
BASIS 



0.00 
2400.00 

2400.00 



inputs: 

1. "/. of cost for trade or business (0-100) y. 0.00 

2. "/. of cost for production or maintenance of income (0-100)'.!% 8o!o0 

/- of cost for personal use z ?0 . 00 10 o.oo 

3. interest rate for discounting (typically 5-25) (0 100) 7. « 00 

4. marginal tax bracket (0-65) v 4o!oO 

5. total cost of computer and related materials (0-99999) •••!! • *300olo0 

6. maximum expense amount (1983:5000, 1904:7500, 1985:10000)... *5000.'oO 



Key line number you wish to change (1-6) or to exit 



Fig. 5. Example of output. 



p rogram ... ? 



r~» 45S2 

(Wev S«pterrber US?) 
D*9*OntM of !-• Irrtuiry 
Irta'fll r«.?i u , s»-» c* "" 



Depreciation and Amortization 

► See **r>.»rate -ns*ruct:ons. 

► Attach tfis form loyojr r-turn. 



Name(s) at Whjwti on return 



OMt He. JS4J-3172 

tm tm i/Ji %i 



67 



MARY SMITH 



Business or activity to which this form relates 



Identifying number 

987-65-4321 



{jT'V y 1 Depreciation 



SMITH REAL ESTATE CO. 



Section A Ejection to expense recovery property (Sectio n 179) 

a. C.ia *f preaeny 



•■ CM 



C. (mim -!•.'. ci.ja 



1 Total (not more than $5,000). Enter hero and on line 8 (Partnerships — enter this amount on Schedule K 
(Form 1Q6S)) . . 



Section D Depreciation of reco 

a. Oat* ef araswsj 


very property 

B. Data 

•Jac** la 

M»»ca 


atkar kaaia 


*• 

aartaa 


I. M,lh«4 

at 

r,|yfi»» 
St *rac<*l>aa 


». Par 


C Pt.'fcKt r« 
*•' t:..| y—t 


2 Accelerated Cost Recovery System 


[ACRS) (See instr 


actions): 




: ■'//■/■■ ■ /, 
''MS,,,..-.,, 




>* 


(a) 3-year property 












































9-30-83 


2400.00 


5 


ACRS 


15 


360.00 


(b) 5-year property 
































1 . 









Fig. 6. Sample Depreciation and Amortization form. 



48 Microcomputing, January 1984 



manner, except now the cost figure is 
placed on line 1, (f) or (h). 

Fig. 8 is a summary of how the per- 
sonal computer is reported on the fed- 
eral income tax forms. There are three 
categories of taxpayers for this 
purpose: 

• Trade or business, self-employed; 

• Trade or business, employee; 

• Production or maintenance of in- 
come. Categories 1 and 2 are subsets 
of the trade or business classification 



discussed earlier in reference to input 
line 1. Class 3 is the same classifica- 
tion discussed in reference to input 
line 2. 

Special Situations 

This article was written using the 
tax laws as of November 1, 1983. 
Check the Important Tax Law Changes 
section of your Federal Income Tax In- 
structions to make sure that the basic 
alternatives mentioned at the beginning 



Circle 260 on Reader Service card. 



3468 



IM«<»t< Hiii'k' Seme* '0) 



Computation of Investment Credit 

+■ Attach to your tax return. 
fe> Schedule B (Business Energy Investment Credit) on baefc. 



0MB «• !S«»-0««* 



%2 

27 



Name(») as shown on return 



MARY SMITH 



Identifying number 

987-65-4321 






A The corporat.on elects the tm.c or bas.c and matching employee plan percentage under section 48(n)(l) Q 

B I elect to increase my quaM.ed investment to 100% for certain commuter highway veh.cles under section 46(c)(6) . . g 
C I elect to increase my qua-' ed .nves-ment by all qualified progress expenditures made this and all later tax years . 

Enter total qualified progress expenditures included in column (4). P.vt II ► 

D I claim full cred.t on certan sh.ps under section 46(g)(3) (See Instruction B for details.) 



□ 



v 
E 

I 

> 



3 



1 Recovery Property 



Regular 
Percentage 



l4B'a> tiect'On le R*d>ic« Cred.t 
FY 1967-83 tiltc* only iwr inttr ) 



New 
Property 



Used 
Property 



New 
Property 



Used 
Property 



Lin* 



ill 



(b) 



SsL 



(d) 



(e) 
(f) 



Cl»»' of 
Properly 



3year 



Other 



3 year 



Other 



3 year 



Other 



SfL 

(h) 



3 year 



Other 



(2) 
Unadiu«t*d Bait* 



2400.00 



(3) 



ApplKtb't 
Ptrctn:»(t 



60 



100 



60 



100 



40 



80 



40 



80 



2 Nonrecovery property— Enter total qualified investment (See instructions for line 2) 

3 New commuter highway veh.de — Enter total qualified investment (See Instruction D(2)) 

4 Used commuter highway vehicles — Enter total qualified investment (See Instruction D<2)) . 

5 Total qualified investment in 10% property— Add lines 1(a) through 1(h). 2. 3. and 4 
(See instructions for special limits) 

6 Qualified rehabilitation expenditures — Enter total qualified investment for: 

• 30-year-old buddings 

b 40 year-old buildings 

c Certified hutonc structures (Enter the Oept. of Interior assigned protect number ) 

7 Corporations check.ru taction tot A »bo»e— «dd Imes S I* 6b. end 6c . ■ I 7 I 



(4) 

(Column 2 x eo'oT.n i> 



1920.00 



6b 



'/"/,:■ 



1920.00 



/ 



S 10% of line b 

9 15% of line 6a 

10 20% of line 6b 



10 



.192. 00. 



Fig. 7. Sample Computation of Investment Credit form. 



1. Trade or Business, Self -Employed 



Expense 



-► Form 4562- 



(Line 32) 
(Schedule C 
((Line 12) 



r 



t (Line 12) 
(Form 1040 



Capitaliz 




Form 4562- 



Form 3468- 



I (Line 43) 
(Form 1040 



2. Trade or Business, Employee 



Expense- 



-► Form 4562- 



(Line 30) 
(Schedule A 
((Line 26) 



r 



i (Line 34A) 
(Form 1040 



Capitalize 




Form 4562 



Form 3468' 



{(Line 43) 
Form 1040 



3. Production or Maintenance of Income 
Expense (not applicable in this category) 
Capitalize (same as for category 2 above) 



Fig. 8. Summary of reporting requirements. 



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Visa/MC/Check/MO/PO accepted 
Add $3.50 shipping, AZ: 7% tax 

Formats 8"SSSD/Osborne/Kaypro/Apple/ 

Hoathkit/Northstar/VT180+Rainbow/Xerox 820/ 

Micro Decision/Superbrain/NEC-8001 

*10% restocking fee 



Thoughtware, Inc. 

800-821-6010 602-327-4305 

Orders Technical 

PO Box 41436 
Tucson. AZ 85717 



Microcomputing, January 1984 49 






Listing 1. Program to help maximize tax savings when buying a microcomputer. 

oiV t -M M ThlS P ro 9 rom attempt* to maximise the present value of tax c-i^nn* 
20 REM associated with the purchase of a personal compuJer. savin s 

40 REM Hon Saftner and Chetie O'Nei] (1983) 
50 REM 

60 REM Copyright 1983 
70 REM 



100 

200 

300 

400 

500 

600 

975 

980 

985 

990 

995 

1000 

I 1 30 

1140 

1150 

1160 

1180 

1 '00 

1240 

this 
l 280 
I 290 
1 300 
1 320 
I 340 



GOSUB 
GOSUB 



1 000 
2000 
3000 
4000 
5000 



output title screen and initialize 
output main screen except for top values 
force answers to lines 1-5 
calculate top values and output 



request line * and amount 



output title screen and initialize 



D0SUB 

GOSUB 
;UB 
GOTO 400 
REM 
REM 
REM 
R| M 
REM 
KEY 0FI- tCLS 

L0CAT! 4, It PR INI SRC < 28) 'ATTEMPT TO MAXIMIZE THE* I PRINT ' ■ 
INI 3PC<26) 'PRESENT VALUE OP TAX SAVINGS ■ J PRINT ■ ■ 

"WHEN BUYING A PERSONAL COMPUTER "J PRINT ■ 'SPRINT ' ■ 
' by "S PRINT ' ■ : PRINT " ■ 

•DON SAFTNER X CHERIE 'NEIL ■: PRINT ■ "SPRINT ■ ■ 
■ (C0PYRI8H1 1983) " 

"Read the documentation by the above authors before 



i (24) 
! 
SPC(26) 
SPC<31 ) 



PRINT 

IP INI 
PRIN1 
I'PINI 
I DCATI 21,1 SPR irvi 

p rog roil. . " 

LOCATI 23»i:PRINl "PI- wa-tt while variables are initialized... 

"II INI irnil FNR(X)=INT(X*100+.5)/10C 

DIM CCR<S):CCR<1 ) . 15SCCR<2>-.22SCCR<3>-,21SCCR<4>-.21SCCR<5>-.21 

MM MSGt(20) , ICOL (20) ,IR0U<20) 

•**#*##.##■ :r$ -"#««***.•»• :r s •#*#.#♦ • 

BLANKS't " 



using 



i36o ptrade °ospmaint-ospintrt»osptaxbr*oscost>ospvpers-o 

1300 II I RS loorpiorAL -ioo 

moo mi > >oosm# 99*994* shcapb-naxsncap I *max 

1420 HOP 11 in 19: READ IR0W( I ) , TCOL(I) ,MSG*(I) SNEXT I 

1440 BAT" A 14,1," 1. X of co»t for trade or business (0 100) 

1460 BAT" A l':.,l," '.>. V. of cost for production or maintenance of income (0-100). 

1400 BAT A l'',1," 3, interest rate for discounting (typically 



,7. 
.7. 



1500 DATA 1 . 



5 25) (0-100) 7. 

ith t (j in a 1 tax brocket (0-65) y m 



MATA 19,1," r :.. total cost of computer and related materials (0-99999) 

1540 DATA 20,1,' 6. maximum expense amount (1983:5000, 1984:7500, 1985:10000)... 



1620 BATA 16,1,' 



% of cost for personal use. , y m 



1640 

1650 

1660 

1680 

1700 

1720 

1740 

1760 

1780 

1800 

1820 

1840 

1850 

1860 

1965 

1970 

1975 

1980 

1985 

1990 

1995 

2000 

2035 

2040 

204 5 

2050 

2055 

2060 

2065 

2070 

2085 

2099 

2100 

2200 

2300 

2400 

2500 

2600 

2900 

RN 

2975 

2980 

2985 

2990 

2995 

3000 

3030 

3035 

3040 

3045 

3050 

3075 

3080 

3085 

3090 

3095 

3100 

3110 

S=0 



BATA 
BATA 
BATA 
DATA 
BATA 
BATA 
BATA 
BATA 
BATA 
BATA 
BATA 
BATA 



1,5, 'BATE 
2,47, "SAV 



3, 

4, 

5, 

6, 

7, 

8, 

9, 

10, 

11, 

13, 



» 
1 
1 
1 
23 



output main screen except top values 



LOCATE 

ANS*=INKEY* 

RETURN 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

CLS 

FOR 1 = 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

GOSUB 

RETURN 

LOCATE 

LOCATE 

LOCATE 

LOCATE 

LOCATE 

LOCATE 

LOCATE 



: time: 

ing basis' 
■tax treatment:" 

EXPENSE • 

CAPITALIZE WITH REBUCEB BASIS." 
CAPITALIZE WITH REBUCEB ITC..." 
IGNORE BECAUSE PERSONAL USE..." 

"TOTAL • 

•LESS ITC ■ 

,'LESS OTHER TAX SAVINGS (EXP./ACRS)" 
, "AFTER TAX COST OF COMPUTER ■ 

, "inputs: " 

,1 SPRINT "Press any key to continue. 
IF ANS*="" THEN 1860 



COST 



TAX 



ACRS" 



1 TO 
9900 
2100 
2200 
2300 
2400 
2500 
2600 
2900 



195LOCATE IR0U< I > , ICOL < I > SPRINT MSG*(I):NEXT I 



14,66:P 
l5,66tP 
17,74tP 

18, 74 5 F 
19,7i:F 
20,71 :f 
16,66.*F 



RINT 
RINT 
RINT 
RINT 
RINT 
RINT 
RINT 



USING 



p*;ptrabe: return 
p*;pmaint: RETURN 
p*;pintrt: RETURN 

using p$;ptaxbr: return 

using d*; cost: return 
ing b*;mexps: return 

p»;ppers i sprint spc(2)j 



USING 
USING 



USING 



: PRINT USING PtSPTOTALSRETU 



REM 

REM 

REM force answers 1--5 

REM 

REM 

II. INE=1 :gosub 

iline=2:gosub 

iline=3:gosub 

iline=4:gosub 

iline=5jg0sub 

RETURN 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 



3100 
3200 
3300 
3400 
3500 



the following subroutines accept amounts for lines 1-6 and edit 



them 



gosub 710o.'if amt100 then gosub 9200:g0t0 3100 
ptrade=amt:ppers=ioo-ptrade~pmaint:if ppers <o then pmaint=pmaint+ppers:ppep 




50 Microcomputing, January 1984 



of the Program Output section of this 
article have not changed. 

If you expense and/or capitalize a 
computer on your tax return and then 
sell it before five years have passed, 
you should consult a tax specialist. It 
will be necessary to recapture some of 
the tax benefits. This will also be true 
if you increase your personal use of 
the computer above your initial esti- 
mate. 

In many states, expense and capital- 
ize rules are similar to federal tax 
laws. In those states, your state mar- 
ginal tax rate can simply be added to 
your federal marginal tax rate and the 
sum entered on line 4. 

If your state's rules are significantly 
different than federal tax laws, you 
may want to consult a tax specialist to 
determine if the program's choice of 
alternatives would be best for your 
state return (and federal return, if 
your state requires the same treat- 
ment on both). 

The program assumes that you have 
sufficient income to take the full in- 
vestment tax credit in the current 
year. If the program suggests capitaliz- 
ing your computer and you don't have 
sufficient income, a tax specialist 
should be consulted. You may want to 
choose another alternative or consider 
an Investment Tax Credit carryfor- 
ward. 

If you are in category 2 or 3 in Fig. 8, 
the program, in choosing among the 
alternatives, assumes that you are al- 
ready itemizing your deductions. Note 
the use of Schedule A (for itemizing 
deductions) in Fig. 8. 

The program also assumes that a 
single discount rate and single margin- 
al tax rate are applicable over the next 
five years. If you're able to see into the 
future well enough to know that your 
rates will be changing and if you can 
estimate these changes, then the sub- 
routine at line 4900 of the program 
should be changed to accept arrays for 
RTAXBR (i.e., marginal tax ratio) and 
RINTRT (i.e., 1+ discount rate ratio). 

Conclusion 

While some purchasers of personal 
computers acquire their machines 
strictly for personal use, a great num- 
ber of purchasers use their machines 
in some business- or investment-relat- 
ed activity. 

It's this latter category of individ- 
uals that have tax savings opportuni- 
ties when purchasing a personal com- 
puter. Tax savings can dramatically 
reduce the after-tax cost of a 
computer. ■ 



Circle 359 on Reader Service card. 



Listing continued. 



3120 

3140 

3200 

3240 

S=0 

3260 

3290 

3300 



GOSUB 9400:GOSUE< 9800 

RETURN 

GOSUB 7100JIF AMTMOO THEN GOSUB 9200IGOTO 3200 r ,. tArr r , T ,. Ar , F . pp ™ . P ,. FR 

PMMNT-WITtPPERS-lOO-PTRADE-PHAIMTtIF PPERS THEN PTRADf =PTRADE+FFERS.FFER 



GOSUB 9400 : GOSUB 9800 

RETURN 

GOSUB 71 00 : IF AMT 
l"i20 GOSUB 9800tPINTRT 
3340 RETURN 

GOSUB 7100 J IF AMT 



100 THEN GOSUB 9200 J GOTO 3300 
AMT : R INTRT »P I NTRTY 1 00+ 1 I GOSUB 



300 



65 (HEN GOSUB 9200 1 GOTO 3400 
GOSUB 9800tPTAXBR«AHl tRTRXBR=PTRXBR/100t GOSUB 2400 
RETURN 

GOSUB 7100IIF AMT MAX 1HFN GOSUB 9200:0010 3500 
GOSUB 9800 :C0ST«AMTI GOSUB 2500 
RETURN 

DOSUB 7100-: IF AMT 10000 THEN GOSUB 
OVSUB 9800 



9200 : GOTO 3600 



IF AMT MEXPS I HE N BOSUB 9600 
IF AMT 5000 



THEN BOSUB 9800 :LOCRTE 25, 1 : PRINT "WARNING: YOU HAVE EXCEEDED 
Una A nbOV«> a ;:lF AMT 7500 THEN LOCATE 25,35IPRIMT 



3400 
3420 
3440 
3500 
3520 
3540 
3600 
3610 
3615 
3620 
HI 1983 EXPENSE I IMF! («•• 

4*; 

3660 REXPS-RHT: GOSUB 2600 

3680 RETURN 

3975 REM 

3980 REM 

3985 REM calculate? top values and output 

3990 REM 

TRAIiE = ENR(RTRAIiE *COST ) : MAINT-I NR ( RMAINT*COST ) : SUMTM- I RADE I MA I NT 

PERS»C0ST-SUHTH:EXPS»SUHTH:CRP] II -SUMTMtCAPKAS-SUMTM ' temporary values 

BOSUB 4 650 *. GOSUB 4 1 5 : B S U B 4 8 5 

IF POCAPI ivTAPfc THEN I0RDER»2 ELSE I ORDER- 1 

IF POCAPI PVEXP8 IIIEN I0RDER=I0RDER+2 

IF PVCRPB PVEXPS THEN [0RDER«I0RDER+4 

ON [ORDER GOSUB 8 1 00 t 8200 t 8300, 8400 t 8500, 8600 » 8700, 8800 

AMT^EXPSfCArBAS + CAITIC J,tro*»iTr! 

PER8-C0ST-AM1 tPV-PVEXPS+POCRPB+PVCAPI :BR8IS«BRSISB+BRSISI JXITC-XITCBfXITCI 

GOSUB 9900 

USING R9JEXPS, PVEXPS | 

US I NG R$ J CAPBAS , POCAPB , PAS I SB J 

USING R9|CRPITC,PVCRPI,BRSIS] ; 

LIS [NG RtJPERS,PVPERSJ 

US I NG R* ; COST , PV , BAS I s ; 

USING RtlXXTC; 



4000 
4120 
4140 
4160 
4180 
4 200 
4220 
4240 
4260 
4280 
4300 
4 320 
4340 
4360 
4380 



LOCATE 
LOCATE 

LOCATE 
LOCATE 

LOCATE 
4400 LOCATE 
4420 LOCATE 

LOCATE 

RETURN 

REM 



4440 

4460 

4575 

4580 

4585 

4590 

4595 

4600 

4A40 

4645 

4650 

4670 

4675 

4680 

4685 

4690 

4695 

4700 

4745 

4750 

4765 

4770 

4775 



4, 35: PR I NT 
5 9 35:PRIN1 
6,35:PRINT 

7, 35: PRINT 
8, 35: PRINT 
9, 35: PR INT 
10, 35: PRINT 
11, 35: PRINT 



using RfiPv- * i rci 

USING R4JC0ST-PV! 



REM 

REM find PV of EXPS (expense) 

REM 

REM 

IF EXPS: TRAUE THEN 

IF EXPS>MEXPS THEN 

IF I 



EXPS* TRADE 
EXPS»HEXPS 



1 h m i b d a < ■ d b a s i s a 1 1 e r n a t i ve ) 



■G .005 THEN EXPS-OJPVEXPS=Ot RETURN 
F'VEXPS = FNR ( RTAXBRBEXPS ) 

RETURN 

RPM 

REM 

rem find po of capbas (capitalize using 

REM 

RE M 

IF CAPBAS; MCAPB THEN CAPBAS=MCAPB 

IF CAPBAS:.005 THEN CAPBAS=0 : BASISB-0 : XITCB-0 : PVCAPB-0 : RETURN 

tmp=capbas*. 95: gosub 4900 
basisb=fnr<tmp):xitcb-fnr<.i*capbas):pocapb=pvtmp+xitcb 

RETURN 
REM 



4780 REM 



find PV of CAPITC (capitalise using the reduced ITC alternative) 



REM 

REM 

REM 

IF CAPITC: MCAPI THEN CAPITC-HCAPJ 

IF CAPITC :. 005 THEN CAPITC = : BASISI=0 : XITCI 

THP=CAPITC: GOSUB 4900 



=o:pvcapi=o:return 



BASISI-FNR(TMP):XITCI = FNR(.08*CAPITC):FA)CAPI=--P0TMPPXITCI 



recovery (CCR) rules 



4785 

4790 

4795 

4800 

4845 

4850 

4865 

4870 RETURN 

4875 REM 

4880 REM 

4885 REM calculate present value (PO) using capital cost 

4890 REM 

4895 REM 

4900 PVTMP=TMP*CCR< 1 >*RTAXBR:DEN=RINTRT 

4960 FOR 1=2 TO 5 I PVTHF-PVTHP4 ( ( TMP*CCR( I ) *RTAXBR ) /HEN ) : DEN=DEN*RINTRT : NEXT 

4965 FVTMP-FNRCPVTMP) 

4970 RETURN 

4975 REM 

4980 REM 

4985 REM request 

4990 REM 

4995 REW 

5000 LOCATE 23,1 

5110 GOSUB 7300 ## 

5120 LOCATE 23,i:PRINT 'Key line number you wish to change (1-6) or o 

og ram. . . * , 

5130 GOSUB 7500:G0SUB 7900 : ILINE=VAL ( KBS ) 

5140 IF ILINE>6 THEN GOSUB 9200:G0T0 5000 

5150 GOSUB 9800 

5155 IF ILINE = THEN KEY ON:CLS:ENIi 

5160 ON ILINE GOSUB 3100,3200,3300,3400,3500,3600 

5180 RETURN 
7000 REM 

7040 REM input amounts avoiding edit responses associated with BASIC'S INPUT 

7060 REM 
7080 REM 
7095 REM output request for line information and accept amount 

"JtSS lScatI niifSlNT msmulIne^bosub 7200 :AMT= V AL(ANSS):AMT=FNR( AMT): return 
7195 REM input up to 12 digits and store in ANSS /TT 

7200 GOSUB 7500 (More 



line number and amount 



:PRINT BLANKSSJ 



to exit pr 



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~ Detailed Income St 

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• Sensitivity Analysis 

• Working Capital 

• Model Summary 

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Loan Amortization Schedule* Debt Structure Report 




It's on-Line NOW / Forecasts the 
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have an interest in VENTURE 

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Microcomputing, January 1984 51 



Circle 1 15 on Reader Service card. 



NOW: 








RATE BASE: 

130,000 

ISSUE DATES: 

• Nov. /Dec. • May /June 

• Jan. /Feb. • July/Aug. 

• Mar./Apr. • Sept./Oct. 

The complete publication for 
the beginner or inexperienced 
computer owner Targeted to 
reach the impressive computer 
market of the future . . . people 
who are planning to buy. . . or 
owners of hardware ready to 
upgrade. Computers 84 talks to 
them in plain language, explaining 
your products and suggesting 
applications. 
For further information, contact: 

Ed Knobloch, Advertising Director 

1515 Broadway. New York, NY 10036 

212-719-6572 

A CBS PUBLICATION 



Circle 283 on Reader Service card. 

80 COLUMNS! 
25 LINES! 

A FULL PROFESSIONAL 
DISPLAY FOR 

Commodore 64 

with 

Screenmaker 

Screenmaker is a video display generator 
module that plugs into the expansion connector 
of the Commodore 64. 

V WORD PROCESSING 
v 7 CALCULATIONS 
v 7 BASIC PROGRAMS 

Screenmaker provides a B & W video signal 
that connects to your video monitor to provide 
a full 80 characters on each line. With Screen- 
maker, Screen displays will appear the same 
as the printer output. Trial printouts can be 
eliminated. Word processing is easier. Forms 
and reports can be set up faster. Screenmaker 
features a bank switched memory, 40/80 video 
switch, and a full character set including graphics 

SCREENMAKER $1 79.95 

Copy-Writer Word Processor. . . $ 99.95 

SCREENMAKER/ 

Copy-Writer Package $239.95 



TM 



(MICROTECH J 



P.O. Box 102 
Langhorne, Pa. 1 9047 



Listing continued. 



on screen 



:iix=iix+2 



THEN 7900 



20 FOR II»1 TO 12:G0SUB 7900SIF KB»-CHfi*(13> THFN RETURN 
7240 ANSt-ANSt-fKBftNEXT II 
'J 60 RETURN 

7295 REM clear input buffer 

7300 KBS«INKEY*:iF K»$0" 1HEN 7300 

7340 RETURN 

749S REM inititalize before putting cursor 
100 ANS$ -" " 

7520 I J Y- 23: I IX -66: LOCATE 1 1 Y , I IX tPRINT »?■ 

7540 RETURN 

7Q9"r> REM input, single nameri. c: value 

7700 LOCATE IIY,IIX,i:KBt*INKEY«!IF KB$» 

--'920 IF LEN<KBS>«2 THEN KB* >RIGHTt<KBt, 1 ) 

7930 IF KBS>V" ANU KH$ * : ' THEN 7990 

-'940 IF KBf='." THEN 7990 

794S IF KBS*CHR*<13> THEN RETURN 

lln«*llr£* % l CHW<8) ,MEN LOCATE 2S»1 SPRINT 'NOTE: ONLY NUMBERS, DECIMAL POINT, 

BACKSPACE i PrtSc AND RETURN ARE ACCEPTED' I SGOTO 7900 

7960 ILNGTH=»LEN<ANS*> UF ILNGTH»0 THEN 7900 

79.-0 ILNGTH=ILNGTH- 1 I ANSt«LEFT*<ANSS , II NGTH) 

7980 1 1 X= I I * 1 : 1 OCA IE I I Y , I I X J PR INT ■ • ; : GOTO 7900 

7990 LOCATE 1 1 Y , I IX J PRINT KB9S UX-IIX + 1 

7999 RETURN 

0000 REM 

8020 REM 

8040 rem these Bub routine* calculate the prevent value, basis and itc distributi 

on among the expense and capitalize options (the REM statement which precedes th 
e subroutine indicates the optimum order) 
8060 REM 



8080 
B095 

8100 

8140 

8160 

8180 

8195 

8200 

8240 

8260 

8280 

8395 

8400 

8440 

8480 

8490 

8495 

8500 

8540 

8580 

8600 

8695 

8700 

8720 

8740 

8760 

8780 

8795 

8800 

884 

8860 

8800 

9000 

9020 

9040 

9060 

V080 

9195 

9200 

9220 



REM 

REM expsi cap has, cap itc 

GOSUB 4600 

CAPBAS SUM T M EXES : GOSUB 4700 

CAPITC-SUNTM-EXPS-CAPBASSGOSUB 4800 

RETURN 

R E M e x p s , c: a p 1. 1 c: , c: a p b a S 

GOSUB 4600 

CAP I T C ■ SUH TM- E X P S : G S U B 4 B 

CAPBAS-SIMTH-CAPITC-EXPSSGOSUB 4700 
RETURN 

REM cap itc, expSf capbas 
GOSUB 4800 

EXPS">SUMTH-CAPITC: GOSUB 4600 



: GOSUB 4700 



4800 



CAPBAS-SUMTM-CAPITC 

RETURN 

REM capbas, expSf capitc 

GOSUB 4700 

EXPS = SUMTM-CAPBAS .* GOSUB 4600 

CAPITC = SUHTM--CAPBAS-EXPSJGOSUB 
Rl TURN 

REN capbas, capitc:, exps 

GOSUB 4700 

GOSUB 4 700 

C A P I T C ■ S U M T M A I ' B A S 5 G S U B 4800 

EXPS=SUHTN-CAPBAS-CAPITC: GOSUB 4600 

Rl TURN 

R E M c Q p 1 1 c , c a p b a s , e ►: p s 

GOSUB 4800 

C A P B A S ■ S U M T N-C A P I T C : G 5 U I < 4 7 

EXPS-SUMTH-CAPITC -CAPBAS! GOSUB 4600 

RETURN 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

GOSUB 

LOCATE 



miscellaneous subroutines for screen display 



t y p l c a 1 
9800 



answe r to ed it che< I" 



RETURN 

9395 REM 

9400 

9440 

9480 

9595 

9600 

MAY 



1 : P R INT ' E R R R i AM UN'! ENTERED I S N I W ! I IT I 



N MIL ALLOWED RANGE 



calculate rates and output percents 
RTRABE = PT RADE/1 00 : RMA INT ■■■■■■ I 'MA I NT/1 00 
GOSUB 2100: GOSUB 2200: GOSUB 2900 
RETURN 

REM warning if reduce size of ma:' i mums 
LOCATE 25,i:pRINT 'WARNING: MAXIMUM BELOW 
RESULT' J : RETURN 



UPPER LIMIT, NUNORTIMAL SOLUTION 



9795 REM erase error line 

9800 LOCATE 25, 1 , : PRINT BLANKS* * : RETURN 

9895 REM initialize date and time at top of screen 

9900 tdate«-date*:ttime»«times: LOCATE i,io:print tdateislocate 

: RETURN 



1,27:PRINT ttime* 



Circle 161 on Reader Service card. 



>A 



^1A« 



.S 



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52 Microcomputing, January 1984 



3702 N. Wells St. 

D&N MICRO PRODUCTS, INC. F «*"«ra**" 808 



TERMS $3.00 shipping, Foreign orders add 15%, Indiana residents add 5% sales tax. 



(219)484-6414 



COMPUTER 



MICRO-80 COMPUTER 

Z-80A CPU with 4Mhz clock and 
CP/M 2.2 operating system. 64K 
low power static memory. Cen- 
tronics parallel printer port. 3 serial 
ports. 4" cooling fan. Two 8" single 
or double sided floppy disk drives. 
IBM single density 3740 format for 
243K or storage, double density 
format for604K of storage. Double 
sided drives allow 1.2 meg on 
each drive. Satin finish extruded 
aluminum with vinyl woodgrain 
decorative finish. 8 slot backplane, 
48 pin buss compatible with OSI 
boards. 
MODEL 80-1 200 $2995 

2 8" Single sided drives 
MODEL 80-2400 $3495 

2 8" Double sided drives 

MICRO-65 COMPUTER 
6502 CPU with 2Mhz clock and 
DOS-65 operating system. 48K of 
low power static memory. 2 serial 
ports and 1 Centronics parallel 
port. 2 8" single or double sided 
drives. Satin finish extruded 
aluminum with vinyl woodgrain 
finish. 8 slot backplane, 48 pin buss 
compatible with OSI. Will run OSI 
65D and 65U software. Includes 
Basic E/65 a compiled BASIC for 
6502 CPU. 
MODEL 65-1 $2995 

2 8" Single sided drives 
MODEL 65-2 $3495 

2 8" Double sided drives 

BP-580 8 Slot Backplane $ 47 

OSI 48 pin Buss compatible 
MEM-CM9 MEMORY/ 
FLOPPY CONTROLLER 

24K memory/floppy controller card 
uses 21 14 memory chips, 1 8K and 
1 16K partition. Supports OSI type 
disk interface 

24MEM-CM9 $325 

16MEM-CM9 $260 

8MEM-CM9 $180 

BAREMEM-CM9 $ 50 

Controller on assembled unit 
add $ 90 

BIO-1600 Bare IO card $ 50 

Supports 8K of memory, 2 16 bit 
parallel ports, 5 serial ports, 
with manual and Molex 
connectors. 

Circle 293 on Reader Service card. 



PRINTERS 



Okidata 

ML82A,120cps,10" .$409 

ML83A,120cps,15" .$895 

ML84 Parallel, 200 caps,15". $1150 

C. loth 
8510APProwriter, parallel ...$419 

120 cps, correspondence quality 

8510APDProwriter, serial $585 

F10-40PUStarwriter, parallel $1319 

Letter quality daisy wheel 
F10-40RU Starwriter, serial . . $1319 
F10-55PU Printmaster $1610 

parallel, Letter quality daisy 

wheel 
F10-55RU Printmaster, serial $1610 

DISK DRIVES AND CABLES 
8"ShugartSA801 $385 

single sided 
8"ShugartSA851 $585 

double sided 
FLC-66 ft cable from D&N $69 

or OSI disk controller to 8" drive 
5 1 /4"MPIB51 disk drive with. .$450 

cable, power supply and 

cabinet. Specify computer type. 
FLC-5V4 cable for connection .$75 

to 5 1 /4 drive and D&N or OSI 

controller, with data separator 

and disk switch. Specify 

computer type 



HARDWARE 



OSI COMPATIBLE 

IO-C A1 OX Serial Printer Port . . $1 25 

Specify Device #3 or #8 

IO-C A9 Parallel Printer Port . . $1 50 

CMOS-MEM 
64K CMOS static memory board, 
uses 6116 chips, 3 16K, 1 8K and 2 
4K blocks, Partitionable for multi- 
user, OSI type disk controller, 2 IO 
mapped serial ports for use with 
D&N-80 CPU. Ideal way to upgrade 
from cassette to disk. 

64K CMOS-MEM $490 

48KCMOS-MEM $390 

24K CMOS-MEM $250 

16KCMOS-MEM $200 

BARECMOS-MEM $ 50 

Controller add.$ 90 

2 IO mapped serial ports add. $125 

on assembled memory board 
Z80-IO 2 IO mapped serial $160 

ports for use with D&N-80 CPU 

card 
FL470 Disk Controller $155 

Specify SVfr or 8" drive 




STANDARD 
CP/M FOR OSI 



D&N-80 CPU CARD 

The D&N-80 CPU allows the owner 
of an OSI static memory computer 
to convert to Industrial Standard 
IBM 3740 single density disk for- 
mat and CP/M operating system. 
Double density disk operation is 
also supported for 608K of storage 
on an 8" diskette. When used with 
a 5 Va " disk system 200K of storage 
is provided. Includes parallel 
printer and real time clock. Also 
available for polled keyboard and 
video systems. Compatible with 
C2, C3, C4 and 200 series OSI com- 
puters. 

N / 

D&N-80- P $349 



CP/ M 2.2 



$150 



64KCMOS-MEM with D&N-80 
CPU card $450 

HARD DISK DRIVER $140 

Allows D&N-80 CPU board to con- 
trol OSI 40 or 80 meg hard disk unit. 
Will not destroy OSI files. Will also 
allow for a true 56K CP/M system. 
Specify 40 or 80 meg drive. 
BUSS TRANSFER $135 

Allows for D&N-80 and OSI CPU to 
be in the computer at the same 
time. Toggle switch provides for 
alternate CPU operation. 
DISKTRANSFER $100 

Utility program to transfer OSI 
CP/M format disk to IBM 3740 
single density format. Will also 
transfer IBM to OSI format. 
SYSTEM HARDWARE 
REQUIREMENTS 
D&N-80 CPU, D&N FL470 or OSI 
470 controller, 48K memory at 
0000-BFFF, 4K memory at D000-- 
DFFF, two disk drive cables. 
FORMAT TRANSFER $1 5 

You supply software on 8" diskette 
D&N will transfer OSI CP/M format 
to IBM 3740 CP/M format. Can also 
transfer IBM 3740 CP/M format to 
OSI CP/M format. Original diskette 
returned. 

Microcomputing, January 1984 53 



The SMC-70: 

More Than a Micro 

Sony's one and only microcomputer is an impressive system, 

but the SMC-70 (and SMC-70G) has a big advantage over the 

competition (especially when you're talking graphics)— 

its manufactured by Sony, a company whose name is 

synonymous with video products. Author Guy Wright offers a 

glimpse of what Sony has up its sleeve. 



By Guy Wright 



When you build a new computer, 
you start with a CPU, develop 
the interfacing necessary to power it, 
connect it, supply it with data, com- 
municate with it and create an envi- 
ronment in which it can work. Throw 
in some graphics capabilities and give 
it some sort of input and output so that 
people can communicate with it. Usu- 
ally, when you have your computer 
built, the final step is hooking it up to a 
CRT of some kind. 

If you were going to build a Sony 
SMC-70 or SMC-70G, you would fol- 
low the same procedure only in re- 
verse. You would design a CRT, a 
very good CRT, and then build a com- 
puter that can utilize that CRT. This 
may sound a little backward, but in a 
sense this is what Sony has done with 
the SMC-70. 

For a long time, Sony has been in 
the video/audio/television/electronics 
business and has done well . . . very 
well. 

Known for Quality 

One thing that Sony has always 
been noted for is the quality of its 
products. (Sony monitors are used in 
nearly every television studio in the 
world.) The company may wait until a 
number of other companies have been 
selling something for a while before 
coming out with its own version— a 
version that performs better than all of 
the others and that uses new technol- 

54 Microcomputing, January 1984 



ogy. The SMC-70 and the SMC-70G 
are no exceptions. 

On the surface, the SMC-70 (and 
70G) seems to be just another com- 
puter. There's a nice silver case that 
makes it look a little like a stereo com- 
ponent, cute little microfloppy drives 
that "piggy-back" in a clever modular 
style, a sleek silver-gray dot matrix 
printer and, of course, a beautiful 
Sony monitor that makes the entire 
system look sexy (if electronic hard- 
ware can be considered sexy). 

But at $995 for the unit itself, $500 
for a single floppy drive ($795 for 
dual-floppies and $875 for cache disk), 
$725 for the printer and $895 for the 
monitor ($60 extra for the monitor 
stand), you would hope for more than 
a one-night stand. With a Z-80A at the 
heart of the SMC-70, it's tempting to 
think that Sony just wanted to cash in 
on an exploding computer market by 
putting out a Volkswagen in a Ferrari 
body. This is definitely not the case. 

The Rolls Royce of Micros? 

It might be closer to say that the 
SMC-70 is a Rolls Royce in a Ferrari 
body. You don't buy a Rolls Royce for 
the engine (even though a Z-80A may 
not be a supercharged turbo like a 
68000, it is a powerful chip like the 
Rolls Royce engine); you buy a Rolls 
Royce for the fine detail and work- 
manship. 

The SMC-70 is also a subtle ma- 



chine in that every special feature is 
not immediately apparent. It's not un- 
til you begin to really explore the ca- 
pabilities that Sony built in that you 
find it seems to have thought of nearly 
every contingency. And just in case 
Sony missed something, it made the 
SMC-70 so flexible that you can usual- 
ly get the desired results even if they 
aren't part of the normal operating 
system. 

Sony Disk Basic has nearly every 
command that you could want, plus a 
few more. There are facilities to con- 
nect up to 13 additional add-ons, in- 
cluding a "supercharger" board (for 
less than $1000) containing an Intel 
8086 and an 8087 coprocessor, which 
will run CP/M-86 software and has an 
additional 256K (expandable up to 
768K). 

The 3V2-inch microfloppy disk 
drives are more than slick, and they 
are nearly twice as fast as a normal 
floppy drive (if you'd rather use nor- 
mal floppies, Sony does sell an eight- 
inch drive that will work on the 
SMC-70). Sony also has what it calls a 
cache disk, which has 256K of solid 
state volatile memory storage. The list 
of add-on equipment available for the 
SMC-70 could go on a long time and 
has been the subject of other articles 

Guy Wright (39 Pleasant St, Apt. B-17, Northboro, 
MA 01532) is technical editor for Wayne Green 
publications RUN and HOT CoCo. 



(with standard RS-232C and IEEE 
ports, it is possible to connect almost 
any peripheral device). 

The software available is extensive 
and that list is also growing. As a com- 
puter, the SMC-70 is an exceptionally 
capable machine, as many have al- 
ready stated in other places. (See Mi- 
crocomputing, July 1983, "Sony's Mar- 
ketable Micro," p. 66.) 

Why This Article? 

So why are we doing another re- 
view of the SMC-70? For one reason: 
the graphics capabilities of the 
SMC-70 are remarkable, and this is a 
graphics issue. The SMC-70 has 38K 
of video RAM divided into 2K char- 
acter RAM, 2K attribute RAM (char- 
acter color, background, flashing. . .), 
2K of programmable character RAM, 
and 32K graphics RAM. 

The display screen is generated in 
three sections: the border, graphics 
display screen and character display 
screen. The advantage of this system 
is that graphics and characters cannot 
only be displayed on the screen at the 
same time, but that they are complete- 
ly independent of each other. 

Many computers have some or all of 
the SMC-70' s features but Sony is fa- 
mous for its video equipment, and 
simply connecting the SMC-70 to a 
Sony Trinitron monitor doesn't even 
come close to what it had in mind for a 
computer/video mix. 

Sony's Video Advantage 

As mentioned at the beginning of 
the article, most computers seem to 
have been built with input and output 
being the last priorities. Sony seems to 
have worked in the opposite direction. 
If one word could describe the main 
advantage of an SMC-70 over any 
other computer, it would have to be 
video. 

Sony is famous for its video and 
audio. They started with video equip- 
ment: recorders, cameras, disk play- 
ers, editors and equipment found only 
in television studios. All of this equip- 
ment is usually brought together (us- 
ing other equipment) to produce a 
video image. With the development of 
these video devices, Sony has also 
brought the price down to a point 
where the public can afford complete 
video systems. 

The SMC-70 is the crossover be- 
tween video and computer. There is 
no other computer on the market that 
can do a fraction of the things that the 
SMC-70 can do with video (although 




The Sony SMC-70 and SMC-70G represent new horizons in computer graphics and video. Through 
developments in interactive video technology, the SMC-70 will make things like visual databases a reality. 
Sony's commitment to the marriage of micros and video should result in radical changes in the ways com- 
puters are used. 



the Apple computer does have the 
ability to interface with some video 
equipment). 



If one word 

could describe 

the main advantage 

of an SMC-70 over 

any other computer, 

it would have to be 

video-the SMC-70 

is the crossover 

between video 

and computer. 



With the SMI-7044 NTSC superim- 
poser the SMC-70 can be connected 
directly to the Sony LDP1000A Laser 
Disk Player, and through Basic, the 
computer can access any segment of 
video (and audio) either frame by 
frame or forward and backward. It 
also features three different playback 
speeds, search, freeze frame and any- 
thing else that can be done with a 



video disk player, all through Sony's 
Video Utility package software. (The 
SMC-70 can also act as a controller of 
audio, slide and film equipment.) 

With 54,000 frames of random ac- 
cess video information on a single 
video disk and an additional 40 sec- 
onds of digitized audio information 
per frame, the visual possibilities are 
impressive, but the real value in this 
kind of system is its ability to be the 
center of an interactive video system. 

Ford Motor Company currently 
uses video disks for training, and Sony 
is developing an interactive video 
training system so that a person won't 
just sit there and watch but will be 
asked questions, through the com- 
puter, and be shown different seg- 
ments of the disk according to his 
answers. 

John Hartigan, national marketing 
manager of Sony's Interactive Video 
Products Division, said that on one 
video disk they can put almost every- 
thing known about a piece of machin- 
ery and, using a light pen or other in- 
put device, you can build or take apart 
something and have it displayed on 
the screen in exactly that way for you 
to look at. 

If, for example, a company wanted 
to teach its workers about transmis- 
sions, the disk would contain thou- 
sands of video images of transmis- 
sions in every state of assembly, so 

Microcomputing, January 1984 55 



you could "build" a transmission 
piece by piece and not only see the re- 
sults of your work on the screen but, 
with the help of the computer pro- 
gram, you could be lead through the 
procedure step by step, encouraged 
when right and corrected when 
wrong. 

Hartigan says that the main uses of 
the SMC-70's interactive video capa- 
bilities will be in the training/educa- 
tion areas, but he was quick to admit 
that most of the uses for a system like 
this haven't been thought of yet. 

A Cross-Over Hit 

This is where the Sony SMC-70 
stands out as a new product. In re- 
views, the SMC-70 has been consid- 
ered only from its computer stand- 
point, but the SMC-70 crosses over 
into areas that have not even been 
talked about. 

From a video point of view, the 
SMC-70 brings all the advantages of a 
computer science to an area that only 
used computers peripherally. Now 
video can be completely changed. As 
Hartigan said, things will start to 
change when people realize that they 



tat 




no longer have to sit back and just 
watch TV. Now they'll be able to use 
it, learn from it and have it adapt and 
react to their actions and reactions, as 



The SMC-70 crosses 

over into areas 

that have not even 

been talked about— 

programmers are going 

to learn they can 

do more than 

just compute. 



in the video-arcade game Dragon's 
Lair, where the player controls the ac- 



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tions of an animated warrior as he bat- 
tles through a fantasy fortress. The 
graphics are on a video disk, not com- 
puter generated. 

As the player pushes a joystick, the 
internal computer decides which vid- 
eo sequence to show next. 

At the same time that people are 
learning that they can do more with 
TV than just watch, programmers are 
going to learn that they can do more 
with a computer than just compute. 
The SMC-70 is basically a delivery ve- 
hicle in that it can use information 
already stored on a video disk. It can 
use that information in ways that no 
one has dreamed of, but it takes the 
SMC-70G to put that information on 
the disk to begin with. 

SMC-70, SMC-70G: 
What's the Difference? 

The primary difference between the 
SMC-70 and the SMC-70G is the abil- 
ity of the SMC-70G to use a device 
known as a Genlocker. (If you are fa- 
miliar with video production equip- 
ment, the Genlocker is similar to a gen 
lock sync generator.) 

The other difference is the price. 
The SMC-70G is roughly twice as ex- 
pensive as the SMC-70, but a TV cam- 
era is more expensive than a TV set. 
The SMC-70G is more of a "develop- 
er's tool," said Hartigan. It is used to 
organize and construct the video/soft- 
ware/audio into a package that can 
then be put onto video disks and later 
used by the SMC-70 owner. 

What Does the Future Hold? 

In summary, the SMC-70 and SMC- 
70G can be considered breakthroughs 
in the fields of video and computing. 
The challenges for programmers to 
develop interactive packages will 
open areas with outcomes that cannot 
be predicted. 

The Sony computer does everything 
that a personal computer should and 
then some. The graphics possibilities 
are new and exciting: visual data- 
bases, animation, education, market- 
ing, training and on and on. 

As the technology develops, the en- 
tire field of interactive video program- 
ming as well as traditional computer 
programming will feel the changes. (A 
single video disk can hold approx- 
imately five gigabytes of digital infor- 
mation). 

With RS-232C interfacing, a series 
of LDPlOOOAs used with SMC-70s 
could mean radical changes for cable 
TV, universities, telecommunication 
and hundreds of other areas. ■ 



56 Microcomputing, January 1984 



ircle 169 on Reader Service card. 



PRODUCTS FOR ATARI* 400/800 
FROM ELCOMP 



BOOKS: 

ATARI BASIC - Learning by Using 

An excellent book for the beginner. Many short programs 
and learning exercises. All important features of the ATARI 
computers are described (screen drawings, special sounds, 
keys, paddles, joysticks, specialized screen routines, graphics, 
sound applications, peeks, pokes, and special stuff). Also 
suggestions are made that challenge you to change and write 
program routines. 
Order #164 87.95 

Games for th« ATARI Computer 

This book describes advanced programming techniques like 

player-missile-graphics and use of the hardware-registers. 

Contains many ready to run programs in BASIC and one 

called GUNFIGHT in machine language 

Order #162 S7.95 



9 




< = : 






Programming in 6502 Machine Language on your PET+CBM 

2 complete Editor/Assemblers (Source code 3 hexdump + 
description plus a powerful machine language monitor 
(Hexdump) ). 
Order #166 619.95 

How to program your ATARI in 6502 machine language 
Introduction to machine language for the BASIC programmer 
Order #169 S9.95 



SOFTWARE IN BASIC FOR ATARI 



Invoice Writing for Small Business 
This program makes writing invoices easy. Store your 
products in DATA statements with order-number, 
description, and price. The program later retrives the 
description and price matching to the entered order- 
number. The shipping cost and the discount may be 
calculated automatically depending on the quantity 
ordered or entered manually. The description to the 
program tells you how to change the program and 
adapt it to your own needs. Comes with a couple of 
invoice forms to write your first invoices on to it. 
Order #7201 cassette version 829.95 

Order # 7200 disk version 839.95 

Mailing List 

This menu driven program allows the small business 

man to keep track of vendors and customers. You can 

search for a name or address of a certain town or for 

an address with a certain note. 50 addresses are put 

into one file. 

Order #7212 cassette version S19.95 

Order #7213 disk version 824.95 

Inventory Control 

This program is menu driven. It gives you the 
following options: read/store data, define items, 
entry editing, inventory maintenance (incoming- 
outgoing), reports. The products are stored with 
inventory number, manufacturer, reorder level, 
present level, code number, description. 
Order #7214 cassette version $19.95 

Order #7215 disk version 824.95 

Programs from Book #164 

The programs from book no. 164 on cassette. (Book 

included) 

Order #7100 S29.00 



Game Package 
Games on cassette, 
fodder, etc.) 
Order #7216 



(Bomber, tennis, smart, cannon 

89.95 



Microcomputer Hardware 
Handbook (845 pages) 
Descriptions, pinouts and 
specifications of the 
most popular micropro- 
cessors and support 
chips. 

A MUST for the hard- 
ware buff. 

Order-No. 29 
814.95 



Care and Feeding of the Commodore PET 

Eight chapters exploring PET hardware. Includes 
repair and interfacing information. Programming 
tricks and schematics. 
Order #150 S9.95 




Payment: check, money order, VISA, MASTER- 
CHARGE, Euroscheck. 

Orders from outside USA: add 15% shipping. CA 
residents add 6.5% tax 

"ATARI is a registered trademark of ATARI Inc. 
*VIC 20 is a registered trademark of Commodore 



SOFTWARE IN MACHINE LANGUAGE for ATARI 

ATMONA-1 

This is a machine language monitor that provides you 
with the most important commands for programming 
in machine-language. Disassemble, dump (hex and 
ASCII), change memory location, block transfer, fill 
memory block, save and load machine-language pro- 
grams, start programs. Printer option via three 
different interfaces. 

Order #7022 cassette version 819.95 

Order #7023 disk version 824.95 

Order # 7024 cartridge version 859,00 

ATMONA-2 

This is a tracer (debugger) that lets you explore the 
ATARI RAM/ROM area. You can stop at previously 
selected address, opcode, or operand. Also very 
valuable in understanding the microprocessor. At 
each stop, all registers of the CPU may be changed. 
Includes ATMONA-1 . 

Order #7049 cassette version 849.95 

Order #7050 disk version 854.00 

ATMAS 

Macro-Assembler for ATARI-800/48k. One of the 
most powerful editor assemblers on the market. 
Versatile editor with scrolling. Up to 17k of source- 
Code. Very fast, translates 5k source-code in about 5 
seconds. Source code can be saved on disk or cassette. 
(Includes ATMONA-1) 

Order #7099 disk version 889.00 

Order #7999 cartridge version 8129.00 



ATAS 




Same as ATMAS but without 


macro-capability. 


Cassette-based . 




Order #7098 32k RAM 


849.95 


Order #7998 48k RAM 


849.95 



ATEXT-1 

This word processor is an excellent buy for your 
money. It features screen oriented editing, scrolling, 
string search (even nested), left and right margin 
justification. Over 30 commands. Text can be saved 
on disk or cassette. 

Order #7210 cassette version 829.95 

Order #7216 disk version 834.95 

Order #7217 cartridge version 869.00 

GUNFIGHT 

This game (8k machine-language) needs two joysticks. 
Animation and sound. Two cowboys fight against 
each other. Comes on a bootable cassette. 
Order #7207 819.95 



FORTH for the ATARI 



FORTH from Elcomp Publishing, Inc. is an extended 
Fig-Forth-version, Editor and I/O package included. 
Utility package includes decompiler, sector copy .Hex- 
dump (ASCII), ATARI Filehandling, total graphic 
and sound, joystick program and player missile. 
Extremely powerful! 

Order #7055 disk 839.95 

Floating point package with trigonometric functions 
(0-90°). 
Order #7230 disk 829.95 

Learn-FORTH from Elcomp Publishing, Inc. 

A subset of Fig-Forth for the beginner. On disk 

(32k RAM) or on cassette (16k RAM). 

Order #7053 $19.95 



Expansion boards for the APPLE II 



The Custom Apple ♦ Other Mysteries 

A complete guide to customizing the 
Apple Software und Hardware 
Order-No. 680 S24.95 

We also stock the boards which are 
used in the book "The Custom 
Apple . . " (barebords) 
6522 I/O Board No. 605 S39.00 

EPROM Burner No. 607 S49.00 

8K EPROM/RAM Board 

No. 609 $29.00 

Prototyping board for the 
Apple II No. 604 $29 00 

Slot repeater board for the Apple II No. 606 S49.00 

Order two boards and aet the book free ' 

COMING SOON ! ORDER NOW ! 
A Look in the future with your ATARI 

(Astrology and how to do your own horoscope on the 
ATARI 800. Order No. 171 S9.95 

FORTH on the ATARI - Learning by Using 
Order No. 170 S7.95 




ELCOMP PUBLISHING. INC 

53 Redrock Lane 

Pomona, CA 91766 

Phone: (714) 623 8314 



Books 



Software 

for 

ATARI 

VIC 20 

0SI 

SINCLAIR 

TIMEX 



Hardware - ADD-ONS for ATARI 

PRINTER INTERFACE 

This construction article comes with printed circuit 
board and software. You can use the EPSON printer 
without the ATARI printer interface. (Works with 
gameports 3 and 4). 
Order #7211 Si 9.95 

RS 232 Interface for your ATARI 400/800 
Software with connector and construction article. 
Order #7291 S19.95 

EPROM BURNER for ATARI 400/800 

Works with gameports. No additional power supply 
needed. Comes compl. assembled with software 
(2716,2732,2532). 

| Order #7042 Si 79.00 

EPROM BURNER for ATARI 400/800 KIT 
Printed circuit board incl. Software and extensive 
construction article. 
Order #7292 S49.00 

EPROM BOARD (CARTRIDGE) 

Holds two 4k EPROMs (2532). EPROMs not included. 
I Order #7043 829.95 





EPROM BOARD KIT 

Same as above but bare board only with description. 
Order #7224 S14.95 



ATARI, VIC 20, Sinclair, Timex and OSI 



New - for your ATARI 400/800 
Astrology and Biorythm for ATARI (cass. or disk).] 
Order #7223 829.95 1 

Birth control with the ATARI (Knaus Ogino) 
Order # 7222 cass. or disk 



819.95 

814.95 

89.95 

89.95 

814.95 

89 .95 1 

89.95 

819.95 

89.95 

89.95 



829.95 

Books + Software for VIC 20 (requires 3k RAM Exp.) 
#4870 Wordprocessor for VIC-20, 8k RAM 
#4883 Mailing List for VIC-20, 16k RAM 
#141 Tricks for VICs-The VICstory Progr. 
#4880 TICTACVIC 
#4881 GAMEPACK I (3 Games) 
#4885 Dual Joystick Instruction 
INPUT/OUTPUT Programming with your VIC 
Order #4886 

#4896 Miniassembler for VIC-20 
#4881 Tennis, Squash, Break 
#4894 Runfill for VIC 
Universal Experimenter Board for the VIC-20 
(Save money with this great board). This board 
plugs right into the expansion slot of the VIC-20. 
The board contains a large prototyping area for your 
own circuit design and expansion. The construction 
article shows you how to buili yr.ur own 3k RAM 
expander and ROM-board. 

Order #4844 S18.95 

Software for SINCLAIR ZX 81 and TIMEX 1000 
#2399 Machine Language Monitor 89.95 

#2398 Mailing List " 819.95 

Programming in BASIC and machine language with 
the ZX-81 (82) or TIMEX 1000. 
Order #140 (book) 

Books for OSI 
#157 The F irst Book of Oh io 

# 1 58 The Second Book of Ohio 
#159 The Third Book of Ohio 

# 1 60 The Fourth Book of Ohio 
#161 The Fifth Book of Ohio 

#151 8K Microsoft BASIC Ref. Man. 

#152 Expansion Handbook for 6502 and 6802 

#153 Microcomputer Appl. Notes 

Complex Sound Generation 

New revised applications manual for 
Instruments SN 76477 Complex Sound 
Order # 154 
Small Business Programs Order #156 
Complete listings for the business user. Inventory, 
Invoice Writing, Mailing List and much more. Intro- 
duction to Business Applications. 814.90 



89.951 

87.95 

87.95] 

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87.95 

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the Texas 

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86.95 




Graphics 



A Decision 
For Business Graphics 



With the swing toward sophisticated 

business graphics, the Decision Mate V (a 12-inch 

green phosphor monitor) is a powerful and important tool 

By David D. Busch 



We've seen the microcomputing 
industry swing sharply toward 
electronic spreadsheets and database 
programs. Now, look for business 
computer graphics as the next up- 
and-coming aid. All three tools are 
geared to help business people cope 
with the trend toward information 
overload. 

Too much information can have as 
negative an impact on decision mak- 
ing as too little data. Before personal 
business computers began appearing 
on desktops, managers made some 
crucial decisions blindly. The infor- 
mation they needed wasn't available, 
or it was in a large mainframe com- 
puter database, accessible in a timely 



fashion only by the data processing 
staff. 

Too Much Info? 

Today, executives who are using 
microcomputers or terminals have 
more information than they can han- 
dle at their fingertips. In fact, it's easy 
to become overpowered by a flood of 
data, unsure of which screenful of 
numbers contains significant figures. 

Many software products are de- 
signed to help organize and extract 
data. Financial spreadsheet programs 
like SuperCalc and CalcStar arrange 
figures in orderly columns that can 
be more easily absorbed and studied. 
Database management programs, 




such as dBase II or InfoStar, permit 
searching of data files by user-speci- 
fied parameters. 

Computer graphics is yet another 
tool for handling and presenting in- 
formation. In the past, both hardware 
and software limitations kept busi- 
ness graphics from gaining wide ac- 
ceptance. Graphics routines were 
slow and clumsy with some opera- 
ting systems, and a lack of standards 
made it nearly impossible for pro- 
grammers to write graphics programs 
that were portable. 

All of that is beginning to change. 
Digital Research, which markets the 
CP/M operating systems, has intro- 
duced badly needed graphics rou- 
tines for programmers. And hard- 
ware manufacturers such as NCR are 
acknowledging the need for micro- 
computers with business graphics. 

New entries in the personal com- 
puter market include the NCR Deci- 
sion Mate V. 

Come to a Decision, Mate 

The Decision Mate V's 12-inch 
green phosphor monochrome moni- 
tor, or its optional color monitor, can 
display a matrix of 640x400 dots, a 
total of 256,000 dots. This is double 
the 640x200 dot monochrome reso- 
lution of other popular personal com- 
puters. The NCR computer retains 
this same resolution in color mode. 

The speed with which the Decision 



With a resolution of 640x400 pixels in both color and monochrome modes, the NCR Decision Mate V 
lends itself to many different business graphics applications. 

58 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Address correspondence to David D. Busch, 
5217-C Cline Road, Kent, OH 44240. 



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12 contracting products letters 

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4 media letters 

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2 sympathy letters 
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Mate V paints the screen is another of 
its advantages. 

This speed is attributable to several 
factors. The computer uses a separate 
NEC 7220 graphics microprocessor 
chip and dedicated graphics memo- 
ry, so its CPU is not slowed by graph- 
ics housekeeping. The separate 
graphics memory, 32K in mono- 
chrome mode and 96K in color, stores 
the bit-map screen image without 
costing the user any available pro- 
gram memory. 

With the high resolution provided 
by the Decision Mate, half of user 
RAM in a 64K machine would be 
consumed by graphics routines if a 
separate memory were not used. The 
combination pays off both in high- 
resolution and fast-moving graphics. 
High-resolution graphics, of course, 
translates into more information on 
the screen, presented in a form that is 
easier for the user to understand. 
Smaller characters make it possible 
to label charts and graphs in a more 
detailed manner than if only the 
80x24 screen configuration were 
used. Better distinctions can be 
drawn between different elements of 
a graphics display as well. A bar chart 
can contain not only simple bars, but 
ones that have been shaded, cross- 
hatched or marked to distinguish 
them from others on the screen at the 
same time. 

High-resolution graphics also can 
display finer gradations of informa- 
tion than systems using larger pixels. 
The data can be presented more ac- 
curately. "Stair-stepping" of diagonal 
lines won't be mistaken for uneven 
graph curves, for example. 



tra memory as purchased. There is no 
need to open the computer case and 
upgrade should graphics be desired. 

A seven-slot bus on the back of the 
computer accepts all of the peripher- 
al adapters required to expand mem- 
ory from the stock 64K up to 512K. 
You can even begin with an eight-bit 
version and upgrade to a 16-bit opera- 
tion simply by plugging an adapter 
into one of the slots. One of the seven 
slots is designated for a diagnostics 
module, while a second is reserved 
for memory expansion. 

Hardware Features 



60 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Configurations 

The Decision Mate V personal 
computer can be configured either as 
an eight-bit device, using a Zilog 
Z-80A, or as a dual processor com- 
puter, with a 16-bit Intel 8088 added. 
The popular CP/M-80 operating sys- 
tem is available for eight-bit applica- 
tions, while the 16-bit user has a 
choice of CP/M-86 or MS DOS. 

Only two cords are needed to set 
up the Decision Mate. A keyboard 
cable connects the detached key- 
board to the CPU/monitor, which 
contains either two 5Vi-incn drives 
with up to 360K of storage each or 
one SVi-inch drive with a ten-mega- 
byte Winchester hard disk. The sec- 
ond cord is an ac power cord. 

The Decision Mate V includes all of 
the necessary graphics boards and ex- 



Other hardware features of the ma- 
chine also make it suitable for graph- 
ics. A joystick port in the keyboard 
can be used, with the proper applica- 
tions packages, to manipulate a cur- 
sor and graphics characters on the 
screen. Graphics tablets, light pens 
and other peripherals can also be 
plugged into this port or into the com- 
puter's RS-232C serial interface 
adapter. 

Graphics applications software that 
makes use of the machine's NEC 7220 
GWBasic, a low-cost ($60) program- 
ming language, is available. GWBasic 
has software support for graphics and 
standard Basic features and a variety 
of preprogrammed call routines. A 
zoom routine, for example, lets you in- 
stantly increase the size of a circle. 

This language is available only 
with the 16-bit processor and oper- 
ates under MS DOS. GSS Graph is a 
utility program that accepts user in- 
put of numbers and develops repre- 
sentative pie charts, bar graphs and 
other graphics automatically. These 
software packages allow you to use 
the same applications programs for 
viewing graphics on the screen or 
directing to a plotter or bit-mapped 
printer for hard copy output. 

Graphics provides a way of con- 
densing many numbers into an easily 
visualized and interpreted form. Bar 
graphs and pie charts make it simple 
to compare one group of numbers 
with another and to see how one pa- 
rameter affects another. Sales versus 
advertising dollars spent by media, 
research and development costs com- 
pared to manufacturing costs, and in- 
ventory levels as they affect service 
can all be portrayed simply with 
graphics. 

In the future, powerful desktop 
tools like the Decision Mate V will 
bring these graphics capabilities to 
more users. ■ 



PALANTIR WORD PROCESSING 
WE DONT HAVE TO BEEF UP OUR GUARANTEE 

WITH A LOT OF BULL 



Other software companies give 
you disclaimers. Palantir gives you a 
real guarantee: Palantir backs its soft- 
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call, we won't tell you to ask your 
dealer or read your manual; we'll 
answer your question, free of charge. 
If we can't solve your problem, we'll 
replace your Palantir Software with 
any competitive software of compar- 
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We couldn't make an offer like 
this if we weren't confident about 
Palantir word processing. It's easy to 
learn, easy to use, easy to live with. 

Palantir word-processing soft- 
ware is designed for microcomputers. 
Yet it gives you all the features of a 
dedicated word processor. You 
won't find a better system on the 
market today. 



To find out more about Palantir 
software, call toll-free: 1-800-368-3797. 
In Texas, call 713-520-8221. 

We'll respond with detailed 
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a free "No Bull" 
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Circle 263 on Reader Service card. 



Palantir Software 3400 Montrose Blvd. Suite 718 Houston, Texas 77006 

Palantir is a trademark of Palantir, Inc. 



TM 






For scintillating hi-res color graphics, try Telidon. 



What high-resolution color graph- 
ics subsystem connects easily 
onto micros, minis and mainframes 
alike, can operate semi-independently 
from its host, can be used with little or 
no training and was invented by the 
Canadian government? 

Why have AT&T, Time, Inc., DEC, 
Sony and others announced formal 
adoption of Telidon as the North 
American Presentation-Level Protocol 
Syntax (NAPLPS)? 

What Is NAPLPS? 

NAPLPS (pronounced nap-lips) rep- 
resents a breakthrough in graphics 
standards. It is a shorthand binary lan- 
guage for encoding graphics images. 

It also sets standards that manufac- 
turers of graphics decoders must ad- 
here to in order to maintain compati- 
bility across the technological gulfs of 
resolution, color generation, text 
fonts, blinking attributes and other 
potential variances that generally 



force graphics applications to be 
machine-specific. With NAPLPS, com- 
patibility is the key. 

Originally derived as a form of vid- 
eotex (graphics-enhanced telecom- 
munications), Telidon has evolved in- 
to the NAPLPS graphics language. 
NAPLPS was designed to allow digital 
communication of graphics informa- 
tion over telephone lines or other low- 
band-width channels. NAPLPS pro- 
vides methods of compressing images 
into short blocks of digital information 
using picture-description instructions 
(PDI). PDIs are used to express the 
geometric properties of an image. 

NAPLPS is efficient when it comes 
to storing graphics codes. Where a 
screen might represent 24K of display 
memory, the list of single-byte com- 
mands to the decoder might be only 
about IK long. This makes NAPLPS 
well-suited to videotex applications. 

NAPLPS is inherently resolution-in- 
dependent; in other words, it does not 



require a specific pixel count to 
operate. The NAPLPS standard allows 
for more than 512 different colors and 
supports more than 20 graphics primi- 
tives. The syntax also supports 
definable macros, built-in scaling, 
definable brush width (line thickness), 
downloadable character sets, bit-map- 
ping and, to maintain compatibility 
with other forms of videotex, alpha- 
mosaic (character-oriented) display 
techniques. 

Implementation Requirements 

Although NAPLPS can be imple- 
mented on a microcomputer using 
software only, ideal configurations 
use a combination of both hardware 
and software. Telidon decoder ter- 
minals are available in a variety of 
shapes, configurations and prices, 
from such manufacturers as Electro- 
holme, Rolm, Northern Telecom, 
Microtel, Norpak and Sony. 

Some devices are integrated with 







Graphics 






By Jerry R. Waese and Jim Heid, Microcomputing Technical Editor 



RGB monitors; others are designed to 
fit into common TV sets. The future 
will bring decoders built into cable 
converters as well as microcomputers 
with decoders included as standard 
equipment. 

Norpak is the only manufacturer 
currently producing an off-the-shelf 
microcomputer with NAPLPS capa- 
bility built in. Its 6809-based GC-1000 
provides a resolution of 256x200 pix- 
els and can receive and display 
NAPLPS information. It also can be 
used in a stand-alone mode to gener- 
ate frames. 

Apple is marketing a Telidon card 
for the Apple II. The Apple II Telidon 
Graphics System consists of an inter- 
face card containing a 6809 micropro- 
cessor and serial connector, a disk 
containing graphics system software 
and a reference book. The system 
runs on a 48K Apple II or Apple II Plus 
with one disk drive and DOS 3.3. 

Because Apple's Telidon card uses 



Apple II display routines, however, it 
does not provide full implementation 
of NAPLPS. 

Possible Applications 

For the most part, Telidon has been 
touted as a two-way video trick for 
buying products and reading the news 
without leaving your living room. 
Although this technology is operating 
in some areas, it is only one of many 
possible applications of the invention. 

Telidon has many applications in 
the broadcasting industry. Some cable 
TV companies are using it to create 
colorful, sometimes animated graph- 
ics screens that make their text and 
community-service channels much 
more interesting to watch. 

A commercial television station in 
Toronto, for instance, uses a large, 
Telidon-generated weather map in 
place of a conventional map. 

Telidon can also be used to produce 
logos and animated graphics sequenc- 




es for commercials. 

The military was first to catch on to 
the importance of NAPLPS (even be- 
fore the standards were set). One can 
only speculate that, using Telidon, the 
military is building elaborate combat 
simulators that can be monitored by 
instructors at a remote station. 

Besides simulations, real-time te- 
lemetry can be displayed in a variety 
of formats, screen locations and colors 
to enhance performance in combat or 
on the moon. 

limicon's Offerings 

Limicon, Inc., focuses on business 
graphics as well as computer art appli- 
cations of Telidon. Telecalc II takes 



Jerry R. Waese, 512 King St. E., Third Floor, 
Toronto, Ontario, M5A 1M1, Canada, is an 
employee at Limicon, Inc., Videotex Graphics. 



-~ -. A " 





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PASCAL TOOLS FOR 
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SFP includes 34 indispensable scientific functions such as cir 
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CAP includes 26 complex algebra functions with basic arithmetic, 
exp, sqrt, log and conversions among reals, polar and rectangular. 
Allows complex value equations to be expressed in natural nested 
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SIGincludes: A fast FFT and inverse Simultaneous complex 
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Subscription. 
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raw VisiCalc or SuperCalc serial files 
(/pf- or /pd-generated data files) and 
automatically creates NAPLPS-coded 
charts and graphics. Telecalc II ac- 
cepts up to 21 columns by 16 rows of 
data, with all titles and column and 
row labels embedded in the VisiCalc 
data. 

Unlike other programs that gener- 
ate graphics from VisiCalc data, Tele- 
calc II doesn't need precompiled files; 
it automatically generates a chart, in 
color, after simply being told the 
name of a data file. 

All fields are sized and positioned to 
best use the Telidon screen. Only 
when generating pie charts does the 
program require additional user input 
(to determine which slices to explode), 
and even these prompts require sim- 
ple one-key answers. Within two min- 
utes, the finished chart is displayed 
and the NAPLPS code is ready to 
store. 

By pressing the return key, you can 
rotate the default color pallet through 
96 permutations to select the most 
appropriate colors for your presenta- 
tion. Storing the finished graph is as 
easy as typing a suitable name when 
prompted. 

Telecalc II comes with page-crea- 
tion utilities that you can use to edit 
charts and graphs, add logos, create 
text pages or create art. The page-crea- 
tion utilities aren't hard to use, but 
they do require some practice and 
forethought. 

After you've created and edited a 
number of graphics pages, Telecalc 
II's slide show routines can be brought 
into play. They let you set up an index 
file that stores the name and timing in- 



tervals for each "slide." The slides can 
then be displayed sequentially or ran- 
domly simply by typing the name of 
the appropriate index file. 

The "slide show" terminology is a 
bit misleading in that a Telidon screen 
need not necessarily be cleared before 
displaying the next slide. Indeed, 
much of the fascination in this method 
of presentation is in the way a Telidon 
picture can be built by artistic overlap- 
ping of colored forms and text. A 
series of Telidon pages can be de- 
signed as stepped additions to a devel- 
oping scene or graphics concept. 

Lastly, because most of the Telecalc 
II software is written in Basic, it can 
be customized. In a computer-assisted 
instruction application, for example, 
the software can be altered to display 
certain slides at certain times, de- 
pending on student response. 

The Telecalc II graphics presenta- 
tion system combines the Telecalc 
software with the Norpak MK IV 
videotex decoder to make a complete 

graphics-development system for less 
than $ 1400. 

The Future 

In the works at Limicon are an inter- 
ior designer's toolkit, a resolution-free 
drafting system for engineers and ar- 
chitects and software to permit inter- 
active, real-time game playing— in col- 
or, over the telephone and between 
different brands of equipment. 

NAPLPS can, and should, be in the 
hands of the populace to best vitalize 
the medium. There are thousands of 
microcomputer users who can and are 
willing to participate in this new tech- 
nology and to partake of its fruits. ■ 



64 Microcomputing, January 1984 




Graphics 



What a CAD! 



Robographics computer-aided drafting system [CADI) 
offers drafting features previously associated only with 

minicomputers and mainframes. 



By Allan H. Schmidt 



Computer-aided drafting (CAD) is 
one of the most widely used appli- 
cations of computer graphics today. 
Until recently the cost of such systems 
has been more than $100,000. These 
systems have increased the productiv- 
ity of draftsmen and engineers so sig- 
nificantly that in large firms they often 
have paid for themselves within a 

year. 

The benefits that a CAD system 
provides for working with graphics 
data are analogous to those that a 
word processor offers when working 
with text or a spreadsheet with num- 
bers; work can be completed more 
quickly and flexibly with an associ- 



ated increase in the quality of the 
final product. 

One of the major benefits of indus- 
trial CAD systems is that they elimi- 
nate the need to completely recreate 
a drawing when major changes are 
introduced. With CAD, as with word 
processing, it's possible to "cut and 
paste" information from one drawing 
to another and to experiment with 
the creation of alternate graphics in 
less time than required for the manu- 
al creation of a single drawing. Stan- 
dardization of drawings has also re- 
sulted from the increased discipline 
of work methods associated with any 
computer application. 




Enter Robographics 

Robographics CAD-1 is one of sev- 
eral recently announced microcom- 
puter-based CAD systems. CAD-1 
offers a number of capabilities re- 
quired for computer-aided drafting, 
although on a more limited scale than 
is expected on a minicomputer or 
mainframe-based system. Graphics 
data is input by use of the Robograph- 
ics handheld graphics controller and 
displayed on an Apple monitor. The 
system also includes interfaces to 
other graphics input devices (elec- 
tronic digitizers) as well as to pen plot- 
ters (see Photo 1). 

As you create a drawing with 
CAD-1, the system records a list of 
x,y coordinates describing the lines 
and symbols that make up the draw- 
ing. That data is used to compute a 
"bit map," which is displayed as an 
image on the screen. The bit map is 
actually a grid of picture cells (pixels) , 
each of which is on (light) or off (dark). 

The screen image may be saved on 
disk for future display, modification 
or printing with a dot matrix printer. 
Resolution of the display screen as 
well as the corresponding image pro- 
duced on a dot matrix printer is lim- 
ited to 256 columns by 192 rows. Ac- 
tually, there are 280 columns, but 24 



Address correspondence to Allan H. Schmidt, 199 
Cambridge Turnpike, Concord, MA 01 742. 



The Robographics CAD-1 Computer-Aided Design System. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 65 




are used for CAD-1 menus. 

The list of x,y coordinates initially 
recorded by the system may also be 
saved on disk. These coordinates con- 
tain the full six-digit precision for the 
x and y coordinates of each point 
used to define the vertices that make 
up the lines and symbols in a picture. 
The storage space required for saving 
a typical picture as a list of x,y coor- 
dinates is normally much less than 
that required for a bit map of the en- 
tire screen. 

By sending the coordinate list to a 
pen plotter, you can create drawings 
with a resolution to 0.001, depending 
on the plotter, containing far more 
detail than the Apple screen can dis- 
play. A diagonal line displayed on a 
screen might look a little like a stair- 
case; no such effect is created by the 
pen plotter, however, because it's 
drawing a continuous line between 
discrete points. 

Because CAD-1 stores a picture as 
both a bit map image and a list of x,y 
coordinates, it allows you initially to 
create a precise x,y coordinate data- 
base. You can view that data as a rela- 
tively low-resolution image on the 
Apple screen, print the picture on a 
dot matrix printer or draw it in full 
detail on a pen plotter. Because of the 
accuracy of the x,y coordinate list, 
you can zoom in on any portion of the 
graphics database and have it effec- 
tively magnified on the screen in 
order to see or add detail that isn't 
visible at full scale on the Apple's 
monitor. 

Screen image data files may be re- 
called and modified by adding addi- 



tional data or by removing data by 
tracing over any existing line with a 
black line. Since most drawings ap- 
pear on the screen as white or colored 
lines against a black background, an 
existing line can be hidden by tracing 
over it with a black line. Since you're 
working with an image on the screen 
rather than the x,y coordinate list, 
however, operations such as Zoom, 
Pan, Rotate, Scale, Stretch, Flip and 
other list-dependent functions don't 
work. 



To retrieve 
a drawing, just 

point at the 
desired picture 
with a joystick. 



What You Can Do 

When you work with pictures 
saved as a list of x,y coordinates you 
can add to them, selectively erase 
parts of them (line by line) and use 
the Zoom, Pan, Rotate, Scale, Stretch, 
Flip and Paint options as well as any 
other operation available when creat- 
ing a new picture. 

When you boot the CAD-1 system, 
a menu appears offering the follow- 
ing options: 




Fig. 1. The Robographics commands, pallette of graphics symbols and cursor. 
Microcomputing, January 1984 



1— Run graphics program 
2— Format library disk 
3— Format archive disk 
4— Format buffer disk 
5— Set up controller 
6— Set up printer 
7— Set up digitizer 
8-Exit 

The library disk contains pictures 
provided by Robographics as sam- 
ples that can be displayed and manip- 
ulated. Several of these pictures are 
referred to in the tutorial provided in 
the user's manual. Space is also avail- 
able on the disk to store your images. 
File directories for cataloged draw- 
ings are shown as a matrix of minia- 
ture pictures. You retrieve a drawing 
by pointing at a desired picture with a 
joystick. Additional library disks con- 
taining symbols used for specific 
types of drawings are available from 
Robographics. You can also create an 
archive disk to provide additional 
storage space for saving pictures. 

A buffer disk is required by the sys- 
tem when you run the program. This 
provides additional memory work 
space. The buffer disk, together with 
the second disk drive, can be re- 
placed by a 128K memory card con- 
figured as a disk emulator. This func- 
tions much faster than a disk drive, 
virtually eliminating delays in data 
transfer to and from the buffer. 

Plug It In an Apple 

Setting up the graphics controller 
involves plugging it into the Apple's 
16-pin game I/O port and then adjust- 
ing six potentiometers on the bot- 
tom of the controller. Well-designed 
graphics screens are provided to guide 
you through each alteration. 

Printer setup involves telling the 
software which matrix printer graph- 
ics interface card is installed in your 
computer. Setting up the digitizer 
similarly involves specifying which 
manufacturer's device is being used. 
Plotter setup requires installation of a 
separate asynchronous serial inter- 
face card, which comes with the Ro- 
bographics pen plotter. A floppy disk 
is provided that contains the driv- 
er software for use with a specific 
plotter. 

Selecting menu option 1, Run 
graphics program, causes the system 
to load the graphics software. You 
then remove the system disk and re- 
place it with the library disk in Drive 
1. A formatted buffer disk is inserted 
into Drive 2. 

The next display that appears is 
shown in Fig. 1. It contains a menu of 



commands along the right edge and a 
palette of graphics symbols along the 
bottom. The remainder of the screen 
is referred to as a "work page," 
which is the drawing area for the pic- 
ture you are creating. The work page 
contains a graphics cursor that you 
manipulate with the handheld graph- 
ics controller. 

This device contains five controls: a 
joystick for positioning the cursor, a 
control disk for changing the size and 
orientation for the cursor and three 
function buttons for selecting and ex- 
ecuting specific operations. The key- 
board isn't used except for the occa- 
sional entry of numeric values or text 
labels. 

Cursing 

The cursor initially appears as a 
line that can be manipulated like a 
rubber band. The end marked with 
an X can be fixed on the screen while 
the other end, marked with a plus 
sign, is moved around the screen. To 
select a particular operation from the 
menu, move the plus sign to the 
name of the operation and then press 
a function key to confirm selection. 
Then press another function key to 
begin the operation. 

The default mode, called Draw, 
lets you construct figures composed 
of straight, curved or circular lines. 
You select the specific line type from 
the palette at the bottom of the 
screen, and the cursor changes shape 
to reflect the type of line currently 
being drawn. 

Using the Draw command, a figure 
composed of a series of straight lines 
may be defined by positioning the X 
cursor with the joystick. Indicate the 
position for each of the subsequent 
vertices by moving the plus end of 
the cursor to each vertex location and 
pressing a function key. The result is 
similar to what would be achieved by 
drawing with a straight-edge drafting 

tool. 

Curved lines may be constructed 
automatically by using tangent arcs 
or compass arcs. Tangent arcs are 
arcs of a circle whose first point and 
starting direction are based on a 
straight line connecting the last two 
points drawn. The radius of the arc is 
controlled by use of the joystick, 
which locates the ending point of the 
arc. The process is somewhat like 
using a French curve to draw a 
curved line. 

Compass arcs allow you to define 
the center point of an arc and to fix its 
radius, again by using two function 



keys and the joystick. The result is 
similar to arcs drawn with a compass. 
Circles are drawn by using the joy- 
stick to locate a center point and then 
rotating the control disk to vary the 
radius of the circle. You then press a 
function key to draw the circle at the 
size and location indicated. Addition- 
al circles are drawn by repositioning 
the center of the circular cursor 
and/or changing the cursor size with 
the control disk and then pressing the 
function key once for each new cir- 
cle. It's like using a circular rubber 
stamp of variable size. Circles can 
also be stretched and rotated to con- 
struct ellipses. 



As a sketching 

and drawing aid, 

the system is 

quite versatile 

and easy to use. 

As a precision 

drafting tool, 

the system has 

many capabilities. 



Drawings normally appear on the 
screen as white lines on a black back- 
ground. Other line colors, including 
purple, blue, green and orange, can 
be selected from the Draw palette at 
any time. Lines are normally solid 
but you can also choose dotted lines 
with three different dot spacings. Al- 
though only one line weight for solid 
lines is available, there's the capabil- 
ity to draw with a nib. This produces 
a variable stripe line, much like a 
straight stroke with a flat brush hav- 
ing a tip that can be varied in width 
and rotated during each stroke. 

The resulting graphics include rect- 
angles, trapezoids, triangles and 
twisted ribbons. The starting and 
ending position of each nib stroke is 
determined by use of the joystick and 
two function buttons. Stroke width is 
varied by rotating the control disk. 
The areas created by each nib stroke 
may be filled with any of five differ- 
ent line spacings or a solid fill. 

Freehand Freedoms 

In addition to drawing straight 
lines between selected points, circles, 



arcs and nibs, freehand drawing also 
is possible with CAD-1 using the 
Trace mode. Freehand drawings are 
constructed using either the joystick 
or a digitizer tablet. 

Positioning the X cursor at an ini- 
tial point, pressing and holding a 
function button and freely moving 
the joystick produces a continuous 
line on the screen. The same opera- 
tion can then be repeated from anoth- 
er starting location. The effect is one 
of freehand sketching with solid or 
dotted lines of varying color. The 
user's manual suggests that preexist- 
ing artwork on transparent paper or 
film can be taped to the screen and 
then "traced" using this technique. 

Freehand movement of the joystick 
in Trace mode is difficult to control if 
you want precise drawings. But free- 
hand sketching is still quite possible 
and can be enjoyable in this mode. 

You can also use a digitizer in Trace 
mode. Point-to-point definition of 
lines is also possible. Point-to-point 
operations are similar in their effect 
to straight lines created in the Draw 
mode with the joystick except that 
you use controls on the digitizer tab- 
let (function buttons, pointer and 
pointer button) rather than the hand- 
held graphics controller and joystick. 
For accurate tracing of many draw- 
ings, the digitizer tablet is easier to 
use than the alternative transparent 
drawing taped to the screen. 

Text mode lets you enter alphanu- 
meric strings, such as labels, dimen- 
sions and notes, at any location on a 
drawing directly from the keyboard 
or from a library disk of symbols. 



MENU 

DRAW 

PAINT 



ERASE 
FIND 

novE 

OUPL 
EXCH 



MENU 

!N Y 

I 98 

ORTH 
N-TAN 



ZOOM 

PAN 

PACE 

UTILS 

UIPE 

FULL 

3000 




3000 



Menu 1 



Menu 2 



Fig. 2. An additional menu of commands is pro- 
vided for precision drafting operations. 

Microcomputing, January 1984 67 






Keyboard entry provides for five 
sizes of text in any of four orienta- 
tions: horizontal, and in 90 degree in- 
crements. 

Greater flexibility of text size, rota- 
tion and proportion is achieved by 
using blocks of text that are first 
stored on a library disk and then re- 
called for placement on the drawing. 
In this manner, size, rotation and pro- 
portion of the text are continuously 
and independently variable, which 
allows complete freedom of construc- 
tion and placement. 

Zoom and Pan modes allow you to 
magnify a screen image by graphical- 
ly framing any part of the work space 
and then having it redrawn at full 
screen size. You can repeat this oper- 
ation to achieve any degree of magni- 
fication. Once magnified, the image 
can be panned in a stepwise fashion 
to examine parts that may have moved 
off the screen as a result of magnifica- 
tion. This feature is valuable for add- 
ing or examining detail within a draw- 
ing. Such detail may not be visible on 
the Apple's screen at full scale but is 
contained in a drawing produced with 
a pen plotter. 

One of the most difficult jobs in 
drawing is ensuring that lines that are 
supposed to meet at a point actually 
do so without gaps or overshoots. 
CAD-1 has an automatic Find mode 
you can use to locate the start of new 
lines at any previously drawn point. 

Precision Assistance 

CAD-1 offers features specifically 
intended to assist the user in carrying 
out precision drafting operations. A 
separate menu of commands (Fig. 2) is 
available to supplement the basic 
drawing operations described above. 
Precision drafting operations make 
particular use of lock functions and 
scale grids. 

Lock functions restrict movement 
of the screen cursor to specific paths 
or steps and serve the function of a 
T-square and angle ruler. There are 
two general types of locks: angle and 
grid. Each has a wide range of possible 
settings and can be used separately or 
together. 

The scale grid mode allows the user 
to assign a specific interpretation to a 
grid, such as y 10 of an inch per grid 
line. Objects with known dimensions 
may then be drawn to scale. 

Angle locks for the x and y axes 
may be specified in terms of 90 de- 
gree orthogonal increments, 0-360 
integer degrees or in terms of degrees 
and minutes for even greater preci- 
68 Microcomputing, January 1984 



sion. A normal tangent lock is also 
available that automatically senses 
the slope of the last line drawn and 
then sets an orthogonal axis lock at 
the end of the line. This is used to 
smoothly blend curves into straight 
lines, much as the TAN ARC function 
from Menu 1 blends straight lines 
into arcs. 

With a grid lock in effect, the cur- 
sor can move only to points coincid- 
ing with grid intersections currently 
shown on the work space. You can 
set any grid size in the range from 
4-32 pixels per grid division. This re- 
sults in grids ranging in size (columns 
and rows) from 8 x 6 to 64 x 48. 

Grids can be rotated to any desired 
angle or aligned with any previously 
drawn line. You can specify skewed 
grids with x and y axes at chosen an- 
gles, thereby establishing isometric 
grids for use in constructing isometric 
drawings. 



CAD-1 is a 

versatile computer- 

aided drawing system. 

It offers numerous 

drawing aids in the 

construction of 

lines, circles 

and arcs of various sizes. 



Scaling the Heights 

The Scale mode of CAD-1 allows 
you to set a locked grid of specific di- 
mensions and to draw on this grid 
using all the techniques described 
above. The implicit size of a full page 
can be set to any value in both En- 
glish and metric dimensions: 1-9999 
feet, 1-999 inches, l-999mm, or 1- 
999 km. The work page then displays 
a locked grid with the nearest larger 
base page that gives a convenient grid 
spacing. 

Three values appear in a "scale pal- 
ette" at the top of the screen: the 
chosen size of the base page, the size 
of the view currently displayed 
(which is the same as the base page 
until you zoom), and the size of each 
grid space. This last value also 
changes as you zoom. For example, if 
the base page is dimensioned in 
inches, you can zoom to give a space 



of 0.0001 inches; with dimensions in 
feet the minimum grid space is 0.001 
feet. 

Having selected a scale appropriate 
to the real dimensions of the subject 
to be drawn, the next step is to draw 
the subject at 1:1 scale. The subject's 
"real" dimensions are transferred 
onto the screen using the scaled grid 
as a measuring rule for the drawing. 

When the Zoom function magnifies 
selected areas of the drawing, the sys- 
tem automatically rescales the screen 
grid with progressively finer divi- 
sions as the degree of magnification is 
increased. This allows you to draw to 
any desired level of detail and preci- 
sion. 

When you save a picture on the li- 
brary disk, true scale is maintained. 
CAD-1 pen plotter software allows a 
drawing initially created in Scale 
mode to be plotted to any scale from 
1:1 up to 1:9999 or down to 9999:1. 

Dos and Don'ts 

All drawing measurements must 
be computed visually. A line to be 
constructed to a specific size must be 
located by counting the grid points 
shown while mentally multiplying 
by the value-per-grid unit displayed 
for the grid currently in use. 

It isn't possible to draw a line and 
have the system compute and display 
its length or its x,y coordinate val- 
ues. Nor is the provision made for de- 
termining the x,y coordinate values 
defining the work space. It also isn't 
possible to have a line constructed 
automatically to a specific length 
from a given point. 

Precisely located and measured 
lines can be constructed manually, 
but only by visually counting grid 
marks and repeatedly zooming in on 
the end point for the stepwise addi- 
tion of line increments of increasing 
precision. 

When you select the scale mode, 
the system asks you to specify feet, 
inches, millimeters, meters or kilo- 
meters as your units of measure and 
displays the specified units of 
measure as labels on the screen for 
your use in mentally computing dis- 
tance on the grid. 

When the drawing is produced on a 
pen plotter, it's possible to introduce 
a conversion factor to achieve any de- 
sired scale on the plot, such as u 16 = 
l'-0". Appropriate conversion fac- 
tors are included in the appendix of 
the user manual. 

The CAD-1 user manual consists of 
a padded three-ring binder, which 



contains 165 pages and 250 illustra- 
tions. It serves as a combined tuto- 
rial and reference manual with three 
major sections: "Getting Started," 
"Basic Drawing" and "Precision 
Drawing." 

Commands are described in detail. 
Sample exercises are included that 
first-time users are encouraged to 
work through. Each command has 
one or more illustrations of the exer- 
cise results. 

There is no index, but the detailed 
tables of contents, which precede 
each section, reduce the need for an 
index once you have read through the 
manual. 

The CAD-1 system works as de- 
scribed in the user manual. The pro- 
gram is reliable and tolerant of incor- 
rect commands or data. 

CAD-1 software, graphics controller 
and user manual are priced at $1095. 
Additional symbol libraries for use 
with architectural, chemical, electri- 
cal and alphabetic (sign) drawings are 
available from Robographics at $125 
each. A plug-in board for the Apple 
that allows IK by IK screen resolu- 
tion is reported to be under develop- 
ment. 

CAD-1 requires an Apple II or He 
with 64K RAM and suitable video 



display, such as a color monitor, and 
two Apple II 16-sector disk drives. 
Any one of several different manu- 
facturer's dot matrix printers with 
graphic screen printing capability 
can be used to produce hard copy of 
screen images. 

Options from Robographics in- 
clude two sizes of plotters up to 22 
x34 (Houston Instrument DMP-40 
or 41) and an 11x11 digitizing tab- 
let (Houston Instrument Hi-Pad). Oth- 
er manufacturers' plotters also are 
supported. An IBM PC version of 
the program will be released in the 
future. 

Wrapping It Up . . . 

CAD-1 is a versatile computer- 
aided drawing system. The system 
offers numerous drawing aids to as- 
sist in the construction of straight, an- 
gled and curved lines, circles and arcs 
of various sizes and predefined sym- 
bols. Drawings can be scaled and ori- 
ented with great flexibility. Graphic 
objects can be repeated on a drawing, 
closed areas can be color-filled and 
drawings can be selectively edited 
and modified. 

As a sketching and drawing aid, the 
system is quite versatile and easy to 
use. As a precision drafting tool, the 



system has many capabilities. How- 
ever, it lacks the ability to construct 
lines of specified dimension automat- 
ically or to measure the length or 
relative position of a line as drawn. 
These operations can be performed 
manually but depend upon visual in- 
spection and counting of grid marks 
at various scales. The effort required 
and potential for human error limit 
the productive capability of CAD-1 
for serious drafting operations in- 
volving many drawings. 

The system is very good for demon- 
strating CAD principles and opera- 
tions for which significant produc- 
tion volumes aren't required, as in an 
educational setting. An Apple moni- 
tor provides adequate resolution for 
constructing drawings, which are sub- 
sequently produced as draft copies 
with a dot matrix printer or with a 
high degree of precision using a pen 
plotter (Fig. 3). 

CAD-1 was developed by Robo- 
com, Ltd., a software firm located in 
the U.K. Originally marketed in Eu- 
rope as "Bitstick," the software has 
been renamed Robographics CAD-1 
and is distributed in the U.S. by the 
Chessell Robocom Corp., 125 Pheas- 
ant Run, Suite 2B, Newton, PA 
18950. ■ 



L 




ROBOGRAPHICS 



Fig. 3. An example of what can be drawn and plotted with the Robographics CAD-1 Drafting System 

Microcomputing, January 1984 69 



To Market, 
To Market . 



♦ ♦ 



Playing the market can be fun, but if you're 

making major investments, you need to know 

the ins and outs of the game. Why not let your 

micro help out? With the right software, portfolio 

management can be more manageable. 



By Anne Coda 



Playing the market can be exciting 
and profitable, but for the serious 
investor the stock market and other 
securities markets are no game. Cal- 
culated decisions to buy and sell se- 
curities are made after reviewing in- 
formation about market conditions 
and the issue in question. Until now, 
most of these calculations were per- 
formed by consultants or by those few 
private investors with enough train- 
ing and, perhaps more importantly, 
enough time to do the job thoroughly. 
But with the introduction of the micro- 
computer, this has all changed— your 
own computer can handle all the cal- 
culations and more. 

With portfolio management soft- 
ware, you can now let your computer 
do the walking through all the research 
material contained in various databas- 
es, including the Dow Jones News/Re- 
trieval Service. Your computer can up- 
date stock prices, tell you when to buy 
or sell, and even tell you how much 
commission you have to pay your 
broker. 

The basis of all securities software 
packages is your personal securities 
portfolio, a listing of all your stocks, 
bonds, rights, options, mutual funds, 
and so on. You then log into the port- 
folio management software a host of 
information about each security, in- 
cluding the price at which you bought 



it, the trading symbol and other data 
required by a particular software 
package. 

Do you really need a portfolio man- 
agement system? The answer de- 
pends on the size of your portfolio and 
your desire to actively participate in 
keeping track of your issues and mar- 
ket conditions. If your portfolio con- 
tains several securities of various 
types, you should seriously consider 
putting your micro to work for you. 
Keeping track of each issue on a daily 
basis without its help can be time-con- 
suming, and missing important data 
may mean a costly mistake. 

Not a Miracle Worker 

Before examining what a good port- 
folio management package should do, 
it is important to understand what it 
cannot do. Portfolio management 
software cannot turn your computer 
into a crystal ball that will predict 
winning stocks with constant accur- 
acy. Beware of software publishers 
who claim that their programs will 
make you rich; chances are that the 
publisher will be the only one to real- 
ize the claim. 

Many packages on the market fall 
under the heading "portfolio manage- 
ment," but not all of them offer the 
same capabilities. Some are designed 
to act as electronic filing systems, 



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70 Microcomputing, January 1984 



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17% HOOVB 

1% Horizon 
12% HospAf 
21% HospCp 

9% Hoftlntf .44 
15% Houdk .9T 
15% HouoaW 



7 HousFb 
19% HouatlF 1.20 



while others actually make guesses 
about future stock prices. 

Before you purchase a portfolio 
management package, take a personal 
inventory of your portfolio. You will 
need to know the number of types of 
securities you own, and you should 
have an idea of what management ca- 
pabilities you need personally. You 
might easily purchase an expensive 
program that produces more techni- 
cal information than you can use. 

Your computer combined with a 
good portfolio management software 
package appears to be a dream come 
true for any serious investor, but it 
still has pitfalls that you must be care- 
ful to avoid. 

Do not put absolute faith and trust 
in the computer and software. When 
you see information on your screen, 
you might easily assume that it is er- 
ror-free because it is based on a direct 
link with Dow Jones. This may not be 
the case; although the software manu- 
facturer and the database service have 
made every effort to provide accurate 
data, the result should be considered 



Anne Coda (121 Gordon St, Ridgefield, NJ 
07660) is a financial consultant and freelance writer 
whose articles have been published in a number of 
computer magazines. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 71 



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72 Microcomputing, January 1984 



as just one piece of data that must be 
combined with other informa- 
tion—including common sense— to 
give you the basis for reaching a deci- 
sion. 

Some programs actually attempt to 
predict future market conditions and 
stock prices. Be aware that these are 
only statistical estimates based on his- 
torical relationships of various data, 
and even the educated guess is some- 
times wrong. 

Treat the results of the portfolio 
management software package as you 
would any other sort of advice. 
Always check the information against 
other sources before making a major 
financial move. Acting on data 
generated by a single software 
package can produce a less-than- 
desirable outcome. 



Common Functions 
And Special Extras 

A good portfolio management sys- 
tem should be able to handle the re- 
cording of your securities transac- 
tions. After you enter certain data, the 
software should calculate various 
types of information and produce a 
report listing price bought, price sold, 
broker's commission, cost of the tran- 
saction, net gain or loss in dollar 
amount and percentage, breakdown 
by shares, total amount per issue, 
capital gains and amount of money re- 
maining to reinvest after taxes. 

With this information at hand, you 
can quickly review your portfolio and 
know where you stand before and 
after a transaction. It is also desirable 
to have software with the ability to 
play the "what if" game, an activity 
performed by professional investors 
every day. Given the condition of 
your portfolio, you are able to project 
the effect changes in various condi- 
tions would have on your port- 
folio—selling an issue ten points 
higher than the existing price or 20 
points lower, for example. 

Software having this capability per- 
mits you to alter almost any piece of 
data affecting your portfolio and see 
the impact within seconds. You 
should be able to perform the "what 
if' exercise without losing or chang- 
ing the computerized record of your 
portfolio. 

A feature offered by some portfolio 
management systems is automatic up- 
dating of information used by the soft- 
ware. To take advantage of this fa- 
cility, you need a modem and a sub- 
scription to one of the several data- 
I bases available, such as Dow Jones. 



(In addition to the subscription fee, 
you will pay an hourly charge for 
connect time, the rate depending on 
the time of day you use the service; 
prices are higher when the securities 
markets are open and lower during 
off hours.) The auto-update capabil- 
ity probes the database and adjusts 
the information in your portfolio man- 
agement software to reflect the latest 
condition of securities markets— cur- 
rent selling prices of issues in your 
portfolio, for example. You do not 
have to sift through the listing of 
stocks and bonds in the newspaper; 
simply ask your computer to call the 
remote database for the latest infor- 
mation. 

The portfolio management system 
you buy should be able to perform the 
more common data manipulations 
usually handled by a securities con- 
sultant, including trend analysis, 
balance of your portfolio between 
stocks and bonds, high/low/average 
prices, average cost of a share and 
other general statistical profiles of 
your issue and your portfolio. 

Some packages extend this manipu- 
lation to include analyses of market 
conditions using information from a 
remote database. Another feature 
available with certain programs is the 
ability to receive raw data about a par- 
ticular corporation, perform various 
analyses on them and generate a 
report that gives you a statistical look 
at the corporation. 

Depending on the software you 
purchase, you can have at your finger- 
tips complete statistical breakdowns 
of your portfolio, of market condi- 
tions, and of an individual issue and 
corporation. What you do with this in- 
formation is another problem. Few 
programs go out on a limb to tell you 
which stocks to buy or sell. In most 
cases you or your advisor will have to 
make that determination based on the 
information supplied by your com- 
puter. 

It is important that you have a clear 
picture of the condition of your port- 
folio and any other data provided 
by the package you use. Before you 
purchase a portfolio management 
package, you should be sure that it is 
capable of creating clearly structured 
reports, charts and graphs, the most 
comprehensible method of com- 
municating this type of information. 
Check to see if the output can be 
printed, as you may find hard copy 
easier to use for discussions or finan- 
cial records. Color displays also en- 
hance the clarity of the data. 



A Portfolio 
Management Sampler 



Many software packages are available to 
help manage your securities and invest- 
ments portfolio. Here are a few of the more 
widely known programs. 



Market Manager 

Dow Jones & Company 
22 Cortland St. 
New York, NY 10007 
$299 

Trendex 

Radio Shack 

1300 One Tandy Center 

Fort Worth, TX 76102 

$59.95 

The Computing Investor 

The Computing Investor 
29-A Estancia Drive 
Marana, AZ 85238 
$199 

Stock Portfolio System 

Smith Micro Software 

P.O. Box 604 

Sunset Beach, CA 90742 

$185 

Portfolio Master 

Investors Software 
48 Iron Ship Plaza 
San Francisco, CA 94111 
$195 



Watch the Red Flag 

If you have a selection of issues in 
your portfolio, you will probably find 
a "red flag" feature quite useful. It 
causes your computer to highlight 
conditions in your portfolio that re- 
quire your immediate attention, as 
when a stock price falls close to a 
predetermined dollar amount. You 
can then check the facts of the situa- 
tion and take the appropriate action. 

Red flags are user-defined and/or 
set by the program manufacturer, de- 
pending on which package you pur- 
chase. The flags you set usually in- 
volve areas of strategy, such as when 
to sell a stock. Manufacturers' flags 
are usually based on a rule of thumb 
for the industry, such as a portfolio's 
margin condition. If you purchased a 
stock on margin, for example, the flag 
would be raised if the margin 
becomes too high by industry stan- 
dards. 



A good portfolio management pack- 
age should be able to handle a variety 
of securities, not just stocks and 
bonds. It should deal with taxable and 
nontaxable bonds, options, warrants, 
rights, T-bills, puts and calls, mutual 
funds and common and preferred 

stocks. 

A software package that cannot ac- 
commodate various kinds of securi- 
ties limits your ability to use your 
desktop computer in the management 
of your complete portfolio. Check the 
documentation of any program before 
you buy to be sure that it covers all the 
securities you need. 

Documentation is a serious consid- 
eration when deciding on any type of 
software. Regardless of how well a 
program performs, you will be in 
trouble if you do not fully understand 
how to use it. If you cannot follow the 
instructions, do not buy the package; 
even a good piece of software is use- 
less without adequate documenta- 
tion. 

A few programs give you more than 

you might expect from portfolio man- 
agement software, such as prepara- 
tion of the information you need for 
Schedule D in your federal income tax 
return. At tax time, a report is pro- 
duced that summarizes your transac- 
tions during the year and can be 
turned over to your accountant. You 
do not have to go through an entire 12 
months' worth of data in one session 
at the end of a year— your microcom- 
puter does it for you. 

A portfolio management software 
package can open up a whole new ad- 
venture in buying and selling securi- 
ties. With the right program, you can 
sit back and experiment. You can ob- 
serve the effect on your portfolio of 
the hypothetical rise and fall of stock 
prices and, by playing "what if," set a 
goal for selling an issue before you 
lose too much money. 

As long as you double-check re- 
sponses given by the program against 
other sources (brokerage firms, finan- 
cial newspapers and your own com- 
mon sense) before making major deci- 
sions, the software teamed with your 
computer can provide you with a val- 
uable investment tool. And consult 
your accountant— both the software 
and your computer may be consid- 
ered tax deductions. (See "Desktop 
Deductions" in the October '83 issue 
of Desktop Computing.) 

Now if we could only find software 
that would predict with total accuracy 
which stocks and bonds to buy . . . if 
you hear of one, let me know.B 



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Microcomputing, January 1984 73 



Graphics 



Playing Games 
With Apple Pascal 



A fun graphics game written in a high-level language? 
Impossible, you say. Read on and discover how this 

Apple Pascal game was born. 



By Robert Hurt 



It's annoying for a programmer to 
have access to a good programming 
language but not be able to use it be- 
cause of a single irritating shortcom- 
ing. Take, for example, programming 
a fast-moving graphics game in Pascal. 



Everyone knows that fast graphics 
and high-level languages go together 
like mustard and strawberries (at least 
when you're using micros with 1 Mhz 
clocks). But after you use a structured 
language like Pascal, it's really hard 



I 



Listing 1. LightTrace—a fast two-player graphics game written in Apple Pascal 1.1. 

PROGRAM LIGHTTRACE: 

USES APPLESTUFF , TURTLEGRAPH I CS ; 

•ttttSt$S$t«**tMtfM$tttttt»tt$M«tttttt«**$t«tt»i$tttt»t*Mttttt$«M 

LIGHTTRACE 
ROBERT L. HURT 
7/1B/83 

LIGHTTRACE IS A FAST-PACED TWO PLAYER GRAPHICS GAME WRITTEN IN 
APPLE PASCAL 1.1. 



*t«*t»«t*tttt«*t**tt*»tt**tt»«**tt*t***t«tt«t*tt* t t**ttt*t»t 



*»******«« 



VAR X1,Y1,X2,Y2. 
ANG1. ANG2. 
SPD, 
I. 
COLLI INTEGER! 
DUMMY: CHAR: 
BSCORE.OSCORE: INTEGER: 



(* LOCATION OF LIGHTTRACES ») 

(» HEADINGS OF LIGHTTRACES ») 

(* SPEED FACTOR *) 

(t INDEX VAR t) 

(* COLLISION FLAG «) 

(* DUMMY CHARACTER *) 

(» PLAYER SCORES *) 



PROCEDURE READ I (VAR I i INTEGER) : 

(* 

(« CRASH-PROOF ROUTINE TO INPUT AN INTEGER 
(* 

VAR DUMMY: CHAR: 



BEGIN 

READ(I) : 

READ (DUMMY) : 

WHILE (IORESULT > 0) OR (DUMMY <> ' 

WRITELN: 

WRITE(CHR(7) . 'BAD FORMAT-REENTER: 

READ(I) : 

READ ( DUMMY ) 
END 
END» 



*) 
*) 
*) 



' ) DO BEGIN 



) : 



74 Microcomputing, January 1984 




to give it up and go back to assembly 
programming. 

But what do you do about it? Com- 
promise, naturally. If you cannot 
adapt the language to the program- 
ming task, try adapting the task to the 
language. I had a long-standing desire 
to write a fun graphics game for my 
Apple, but if I wanted high-level con- 
venience I had to sacrifice elegant 
graphics displays. But with the right 
sort of game, perhaps I could get the 
speed I desired without writing a byte 
of assembly code. This is how my pro- 
gram LightTrace was born. 

What Is LightTrace? 

LightTrace is a two-player action 
game similar to the arcade games 
Blockade and Light Cycles. Each 
player controls the direction of a trace 
of light and attempts to force the other 
player into a trace or a wall. 

When the game begins, it prompts 
the players for a speed setting. The 
larger this number is, the slower the 
traces move. A good starting value for 
new players is 50, and ten to 20 is suit- 
able for those with some experience. 
Zero gives lightning-fast action and is 
challenging for even the best players. 

Once the game area is drawn, the 
traces will begin moving when a key 
is pressed (this delay gives time for 
hands to be positioned on the key- 
board). The direction of the traces is 



Address correspondence to Robert Hurt, 
6906 Friendly Road, Greensboro, NC 
27410. 



controlled by four keys arranged in a 
right, left, up and down pattern. The 
blue player uses the D, A, W and Z 
keys; the orange player uses the L, J, I 
and M keys. The action continues un- 
til one or both players collide with 
something. After the option to quit 
playing is selected, the computer re- 
ports the number of victories for each 
side. 

Program Notes 

This program makes use of several 
interesting techniques and proce- 
dures. Although this sort of action is 
best controlled by joysticks rather 
than the keyboard, few people own 
two of them. Also, the function to read 
a value from the paddle is quite slow 
to execute. So I decided to go along 
with an idea similar to the cursor 
movement schemes of the autostart 
ROM and several word processors. 
These use four keys— one on the top 
row, two on the middle row and one 
on the bottom row— to represent the 
four directions (e.g., I, J, K and M). I 
found it was awkward to use two adja- 
cent keys, so I moved the right key 
over by one. This comfortably suits a 
right-handed person with his thumb 
on the down key. Left-handed people 
will find it more convenient to move 
the left key over instead. 

I also included a crash-proof integer 
input routine, READI, for entering the 
speed setting. The Pascal system has a 
less-than-graceful way of handling in- 
put errors— they crash the program. 
But there is a way around it by using 
the (*$I-*) compiler option. While 
this is engaged, the program doesn't 
use input/output error checking. The 
IOResult function returns a nonzero 
value if there was an error in the last 
operation. This way, the program is 
able to give an error message similar 
to Basic if a bad input format is used. 

The traces are drawn as short seg- 
ments that are four pixels, or graphics 
points, long. Only two sets of data are 
maintained for each trace: its current 
x,y position and its heading. Due to 
the nature of the graphics hardware, 
the color orange can only be drawn in 
odd columns and blue only in even 
columns. Thus the x coordinate also 
tells what color the trace is. This 
feature is used by several of the rou- 
tines (see listing). 

After giving instructions and read- 
ing the game speed, the program ini- 
tializes the starting positions of the 
light traces, pausing until a key is 
pressed before continuing. The main 
execution loop begins now. First there 



Listing continued. 

FUNCTION CLRCRS (X. Y.ANG: INTEGER) l INTEGERl 

THIS FUNCTION TESTS TO SEE IF THE LIGHTTRACE HAS A CLEAR 
PATH OR IF IT IS GOING TO COLLIDE WITH A WALL OR TRACE. 
IT RETURNS IF THE COURSE IS CLEAR. 1 IN CASE OF 
ANY COLLISION. 

INPUT PARAMETERS! 

X.Y.ANG - THE LOCATION AND HEADING OF THE TRACE 



VAR Dl.D2.X0i INTEGERl 

BEGIN 

CLRCRS:- Oi 

<* SET TESTING PARAMETERS BASED ON COLOR OF TRACE »> 
IF ODD(X) THEN BEGIN 

Dl:» Si 

D2:« 3: 

X0:« -1 

END 
ELSE BEGIN 

Dl : * 3: 

D2:» 7: 

X0:« 1 

END: 



CASE 
0: 
90 1 

180: 
270: 

END: 



ANG OF 

IF (SCREENBITCX+4.Y) ) OR 

IF <SCREENBIT<X.Y«-4) ) OR 

IF (SCREENBIT(X-4.Y) ) OR 

IF (SCREENBIT(X. Y-4) ) OR 

END 



<SCREENBIT <X*D1. Y) ) THEN CLRCRS: =1: 
<SCREENBIT(X*XO. Y+4) ) THEN CLRCRS:=1 
(SCREENS IT (X-D2, Y) ) THEN CLRCRS: »1: 
<SCREENBIT<X*XO. Y-4) ) THEN CLRCRS:-! 



PROCEDURE MOVETRACECVAR X . Y: INTEGER: ANG: 

(* 

(* MOVES LIGHTTRACE ACROSS GRID ONE UNIT. 

It 

(t 

(« 

(I 

(» 

(* 

(* 



INTEGER) I 



INPUT PARAMETER: 

ANG - CURRENT HEADING 

INPUT /OUTPUT PARAMETERS: 

X.Y - COORDINATES OF LIGHTTRACE. ARE UPDATED AFTER MOVE 



*) 

*) 

*) 

« 

«) 

« 

*) 

*) 

*) 



BEGIN 

PENCOLOR(NONE) : 
MOVETO ( X , Y ) : 
TURNTO(ANG) : 

(i BLUE TRACE IN EVEN ROWS. ORANGE 
IF ODD(X) THEN PENCOLOR < ORANGE ) 
ELSE PENCOLOR ( BLUE ) I 

MOVE < 4 ) i 
Xi- TURTLE X i 
Yi- TURTLEY 
END: 



IN ODD ROWS *) 



PROCEDURE TURNTRACE(VAR ANG1 . ANG2i INTEGER) I 

li 

SCANS KEYBOARD TO SEE IF A MOVEMENT COMMAND HAS BEEN 
ENTERED BY EITHER PLAYER. 



<t 
<t 
<t 
<• 
<« 
(» 



OUTPUT PARAMETERS: 

ANG1.ANG2 - HEADINGS FOR LIGHTTRACES: ARE UPDATED IF 
COURSE CHANGE HAS BEEN ENTERED 



t) 

t) 

» 

t) 

*) 

*) 

*) 



VAR KEY: CHAR: (t KEYBOARD CHARACTER *) 

BEGIN 

IF KEYPRESS THEN BEGIN 
READ (KEYBOARD, KEY) : 

IF KEY IN C'I'.'J'.'L'.'M' D THEN 
CASE KEY OF 

(* MAIN PROGRAM *) 
BEGIN 

<* INITIALIZE SCORES AND GIVE INSTRUCTIONS *) 
BSCORE:= O: 
OSCORE:« O: 
INSTRUCT: 

■» BEGIN GAME LOOP *) 



REPEAT 

WRITELN: 

WRITELNT 

WRITELN: 

WRITELN ( 

WRITELN: 

WRITELN< 

WRITELN( 

WRITELN( 

WRITELN( 

WRITELN: 



LIGHTTRACE CONTROL CODES:'): 



UP 

DOWN 

RIGHT 

LEFT 



BLUE 

I 
M 
L 
J 



ORANGE ' ) : 

W' ) : 
Z' ) : 
D' ) : 
A' ) : 




Microcomputing, January 1984 75 




Listing continued. 



ENTER SPEED (HIGHER «S SLOWER) 



) : 



WRITELN: 

WRITE < 'PLEASE 

READ I (SPD) ; 

INITTURTLEs 

MOVETO(O.O) ; 

PENCOLOR< WHITE) ; 

MOVETO(277.0> : MOVETO (277, 189) : 

MOVETO (O, 189) ; MOVETO(O.l): 

MOVETO ( 276, 1) | MOVETO (276. 188) : 

MOVETO (1, 188) | MOVETO(l,l>t 



<* INITIALIZE LIGHTTRACE POSITION «) 

PENCOLOR(NONE) t 
(* EVEN X COORD FOR BLUE TRACE, ODD FOR ORANGE *) 

ANGlt- 90; Xlt- 140t Yli- 12: 

ANG2t- 270i X2t- 141; Y2t» 176| 

COLLI- 0| 



(* WAIT FOR KEYPRESS 
READ (DUMMY) t 
REZZt 



TO SIGNAL START *) 



(» MAIN LOOP ») 
WHILE COLL-0 DO BEGIN 



(» TIME DELAY FOR 
FOR It- 1 TO SPD 



SPEED FACTOR ») 

DO TURNTRACE ( ANG 1 , ANG2 ) | 



(» CHECK FOR NEW DIRECTION. COLLISION. MOVE TRACE *> 
TURNTRACE (ANG1 , ANG2) i 
COLLI- CLRCRS(X1.Y1,ANG1) i 
MOVETRACE ( X 1 . Y 1 , ANG 1 ) t 
TURNTRACE ( ANG 1 , ANG2 ) % 

COLLx- COLL ♦ 2*CLRCRS(X2,Y2,ANG2) i 
MOVETRACE ( X2 , Y2 . ANG2 ) \ 
ENDs 

(» END OF MAIN LOOP *) 
DEREZZt 
PAGE (OUTPUT) i 
TEXTMODEi 



(» GIVE RESULTS, 
CASE COLL OF 



' X* I 

'J' I 
'L' I 
•H* i 

END 
ELSE IF KEY IN 
CASE KEY OF 



ANGli 
ANGlt 
ANG It 
ANGlt 



UPDATE SCORES t) 

-90l 
-180t 
-Ot 
-270 



C'W 



Z ■ D THEN 



' W' t 
'A' t 
'D' t 
'Z' t 
END 



ANG2t«90i 
ANG2t-180| 
ANG2t-0t 
ANG2t-270 



is a delay loop (the number of itera- 
tions is equal to the game speed) that 
repeatedly checks to see if either 
player has changed direction. The 
orange trace is moved and a flag is set 
if it has collided with anything, then 
the blue trace is moved and checked. 
If there is no collision, the main loop is 
repeated. 

The test for a clear course ahead of 
the trace, CLRCRS, is in the form of a 
function returning a 1 if there is a colli- 
sion. It tests whether there is some- 
thing plotted in the next position the 
trace will move to. Several parame- 
ters, Dl, D2, and XO are set, depend- 
ing on the color of the trace. These 
take into account the fact that traces 
are drawn in alternate columns and 
checks the two points where an 
orange or blue line would exist. 

Short and Straightforward 

Although this program is rather 
short and straightforward, it can be 
quite exciting. It can easily be made 
more sophisticated with a little effort. 
For example, the sound effects can be 
vamped up a bit. Other possibilities 
include alternate starting positions 
and obstacles. An effective one-player 
game can be made by trying to steer 
through a simple maze. Have fun ex- 
perimenting with it and happy 
tracing! ■ 



END 
END: 

PROCEDURE INSTRUCTt 

(* 

(* PRINTS 

(* 



OUT GAME INTRODUCTION AND INSTRUCTIONS 



*) 
*) 
*> 



BEGIN 

PAGE (OUTPUT) t 

WR I TELN ( ' L I GHTTRACE ' ) : 

WRITELNt 



WELCOME USERS. ' ) j 

YOUR OBJECT IS TO MANEUVER YOUR LIGHT-' )| 
TRACE USING THE KEYS SHOWN, FORCING THE')| 
OTHER PLAYER TO RUN INTO A WALL OR' ) t 
ANOTHER LIGHTTRACE. * ) t 

GOOD LUCK. ' ) t 



WRITELN | 

WRITELN( 

WRITELN; 

WRITELN( 

WRITELN( 

WRITELN( 

WRITELN( 

WRITELNt 

WRITELN( 

WRITELN: 

WRITELN 

END: 



PROCEDURE REZZt 

(* 

(» PRODUCES SOUND EFFECTS AT START 
(* 

VAR I.J: INTEGER: 

BEGIN 

FOR It- 1 TO 3 DO 

FOR J:- 10 TO 25 DO NOTE (J. 3) 
END: 



PROCEDURE DEREZZ: 
(t 

(* PRODUCES CRASH SOUND AT END 
(t 



*) 
*) 
*) 



*) 
*) 
*) 



VAR I : INTEGER: 



BEGIN 

FOR I:= 30 DOWNTO 5 DO NOTE (I. 3); 

NOTE (4, 75) : 
(* PAUSE *) 

NOTE(0. 200) 
END: 

1: BEGIN 

WRITELNCBLUE TRACE WAS DE-REZZED'): 
OSCOREt- OSCORE ♦ It 
END: 

2t BEGIN 

WRITELN ('ORANGE TRACE WAS DE-REZZED* ); 
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END. 



76 Microcomputing, January 1984 



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Microcomputing, January 1984 77 




The Bottom Line 

On Top-of-t he-Line Accounting 

Purchasing an accounting system is an expensive investment. 
But with the help of author James McCoy, you can get 
the system best suited for your records. 



James A. McCoy 



78 Microcomputing, January 1984 



How would you like to spend 
$30,000 on an accounting system, 
only to find it does not work? This is, 
unfortunately, all too common. 

The number of horror stories about 
purchasing and installing inadequate 
software continues to increase. Fueled 
by eager sales representatives, decep- 
tive product advertising and buyer ig- 
norance, it's easy to understand how a 
user could select an inappropriate ac- 
counting package. 

Each day, more and more people 
are being confronted with the task of 
selecting computer programs and 
hardware. The performance/cost ratio 
of computing power continues to rise. 
Today, computer accounting systems 
range in cost from $6000 to $12,000 
for single-user installations. In addi- 
tion, the indirect costs of selection and 
implementation may easily double the 
figure. 

Someday you may have to partici- 
pate in choosing a computerized ac- 
counting system; to give direction to 
your task, a structured, disciplined ap- 
proach is required. 

Computerized accounting can bring 
substantial benefits. Inventory levels 
can often be reduced, cash flow moni- 
tored, accounts receivable tracked 
and profit margins and expenses sum- 
marized. 

The accounting process provides in- 
formation on financial performance, 
investment of funds and levels of prof- 
itability. Timely, accurate data sum- 
marizes business activity, measures 
performance and forms the basis for 
decision making. The standardization 
of internal operations also forces or- 
ganizational discipline. 

Routine functions common to ac- 
counting departments are well-suited 



for computerization, yet the unique- 
ness of the accounting process within 
each firm demands caution in select- 
ing an automated system. 

Finding an accounting system is not 
easy— with the myriad of programs 
and machines available, it is more 
confusing than ever. Many first-time 
purchasers of accounting systems un- 
fortunately fail to adequately define 
the needs of their businesses, evaluate 
available options and ultimately make 
judicious decisions. 

This article attempts to give struc- 
ture to the process of evaluating, pur- 
chasing and implementing a comput- 
er-based accounting system. Key con- 
siderations and reviews of respected 
programs familiar to the author are 
also presented. 

Major Considerations 

Several considerations are involved 
in evaluating, selecting and integrat- 
ing an accounting system. 

First, closely examine your business 
to identify potential constraints. You 
must examine budgetary factors, per- 
sonnel and any other germane envi- 
ronmental considerations. 

The system selected should be capa- 
ble of satisfying current requirements 
and paralleling organizational growth. 
Current and future organizational di- 
rection must be factored into this 
analysis. 

Personnel who will be affected by 
the changes should have a voice in 
listing the capabilities desired in the 
new system. Active participation by 
employees in system selection is a 
positive step. An accounting system is 
meant to serve the organization, not 
just the controller or the accounting 
department. 



Never underestimate, or make as- 
sumptions about, the human reaction 
to computers. Lack of support will 
jeopardize their use. 

The human implications of automa- 
tion are critical. Are personnel recep- 
tive to a new or replacement system? 
Simply purchasing equipment and ex- 
pecting employees to eagerly embrace 
new ways of accomplishing tasks has 
proven to be a perilous approach. In- 
stead, set the stage and then slowly in- 
troduce new techniques. Active use of 
role models may be helpful. Careful 
attention to the human factors will 
yield benefits. 

Before you begin to consider specif- 
ic choices for implementing a comput- 
erized accounting system, you should 
be aware of the significant differences 
among the many accounting pro- 
grams available on today's market. 
They cover a broad spectrum of func- 
tional features: storage capacities, 
numbering schemes for accounts and 
other information, specific fields and 
their sizes and relative ease of in- 
stallation and subsequent operation 
all vary. 

Furthermore, control of error-trap- 
ping and detection is handled dif- 
ferently from program to program. 
The time-period for transaction reten- 
tion ranges from a limited one month 
to several years. Integration between 
modules and audit trails produced are 
not standardized. Available reports 
and the presentation of information 
can assume unlimited forms. Indeed, 
the list is almost endless. 

Some differences may be apparent 
even to the layperson, but the subtle- 
ties of operation are discernable only 
by trained professionals. Yet mana- 
gers and employees must live with 



The author is a certified public accountant 

and independent consultant specializing in microcomputer 

accounting systems. He can be contacted do Microcomputing, 80 Pine Street, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 79 



these differences in capabilities and 
operation once a particular program 
has been chosen. 

Finally, before moving on to more 
specific considerations in choosing an 
accounting program, let us first ana- 
lyze briefly why computerized sys- 
tems often fail. Identifying mistakes 
others have made in similar situations 
is fruitful: 

•Failure to formally define systems 
requirements; 

•Reluctance to seek expert advice; 
•Lack of input and internal commu- 
nication by employees; 
•Failure to adequately define and 
evaluate appropriate options; 



•Absence of an implementation strat- 
egy; 
•Failure to provide adequate training; 



Recognizing potential pitfalls 

is the fist step in 

avoiding catastrophe. 



•Lack of appropriate controls over 
ongoing systems use. 

Recognizing potential pitfalls is the 
first step in avoiding catastrophe. The 



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80 Microcomputing, January 1984 



old adage, "An ounce of prevention is 
worth a pound of cure," has merit 
when choosing an accounting system. 

Define Your Requirements 

The first step in defining the re- 
quirements of your accounting system 
is to identify the functional accounting 
areas where computerization will be 
beneficial: general ledger leading to fi- 
nancial statement preparation, ac- 
counts receivable and payable, job- 
costing, inventory control, invoicing, 
order entry and payroll. 

Many firms may not need to com- 
puterize all of these functions. For in- 
stance, service organizations have no 
inventory and are concerned primari- 
ly with general ledger, invoicing and 
accounts receivable maintenance. 
However, a manufacturer may need a 
full range of facilities. 

Additional tasks are inherent in ac- 
counting departments; forecasting, 
budgeting and tracking are automated 
easily via spreadsheet or filing pro- 
grams. Functional areas and tasks 
must be prioritized and further scruti- 
nized to assess automation feasibility. 

Many decision makers fail to for- 
mally define the requirements that an 
automated accounting system should 
possess. Including a description of 
functional accounting areas, key in- 
formation files (inventory, order en- 
try), relevant fields of information 
within files (reorder point, inventory 
part number, vendor, on-hand, on- 
order, cost, retail price) and specific 
information and frequency of formal 
reports helps clarify the capabilities 
desired in the proposed system and 
provides a basis for evaluating poten- 
tial solutions. Savvy practitioners 
know what they are seeking— and its 
value— before they go shopping. 

In terms of storage requirements, 
the accounting modules selected and 
level of activity determine the appro- 
priate storage medium. Most account- 
ing programs have a sizing chart to 
estimate storage requirements using 
accounting activity parameters. 

If you have never selected or imple- 
mented an accounting system, consid- 
er contacting a consultant for as- 
sistance. 

Look for someone with an estab- 
lished track record, familiarity with 
similar situations and a background 
suitable for the assignment. Check 
references, define responsibilities, 
manage and direct the consultant. He 
or she should assist in identifying the 
requirements for your system, recom- 
mend possible solutions, analyze their 



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strengths and weaknesses, and possi- 
bly assist in system implementation. 
A consultant can save time and dollars 
and bring professional guidance to a 
complex matter. 

Arriving at the Solution 

After carefully determining specific 
requirements, vendors can be con- 
tacted for recommendations of poten- 
tial solutions. Here, communication is 
important. The background of your 
business, key areas for computeriza- 
tion and other pertinent facts must be 
spelled out carefully to a sales repre- 
sentative or consultant before solu- 
tions can be proffered. 

Proposals not meeting your require- 
ments can be eliminated, leaving two 
or three candidates for further analy- 
sis. Arrange a demonstration of the 
systems and obtain user references at 
this point. 

Also, finding a canned, mass- 
marketed software program rarely 
meets 100 percent—or even 80 per- 
cent—of your needs. Review potential 
programs according to priority of the 
key accounting functions previously 
established. Before selecting a system, 
potential solutions should be exam- 
ined thoroughly to assess their capa- 
bilities and limitations. As always, 
program selection precedes hardware 
selection. 

If an acceptable accounting system 
is found, implementing and integrat- 
ing the system into the work environ- 
ment follows. A well-designed imple- 
mentation strategy cushions the inevi- 
table shock and chaos engendered by 
any new system. 

Functions to be automated should 
follow the established priorities. Place 
computers and terminals in strategic 
locations accessible to operators. En- 
sure that proper workstations appro- 
priate to computer usage are installed 
simultaneously . 

Operator training needs should be 
assessed and satisfied. You may need 
to design forms to facilitate data input. 
Data must be channeled to operators, 
and users of the system must be in- 
formed of responsibilities and pro- 
cedures. New forms for invoices, 
checks or other accounting documents 
should be ordered. A servicing ar- 
rangement should be established. 

Modification of paper and informa- 
tion flow is required. Numbering 
schemes may have to be changed— a 
difficult job, as established norms and 
practices are not readily altered. Espe- 
cially in larger organizations, inertia 
often rules. 

82 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Ten of the Best in Brief 



Fitting rigid accounting programs into flexible, varied business environments is not easy. 
The intricacies of the accounting structure cause most firms to have specific needs, and canned 
software must be closely scrutinized for consistency with existing accounting practices. 

Many accounting programs are versions of successful programs previously used with 
minicomputers. Their migration and adaptation to the micro environment encompasses the 
best of both worlds: outstanding, proven products and low cost. 

The following reviews contain highlights of some unique— and critical— differences in re- 
quirements often encountered when evaluating programs. It is not meant to be an exclusive or 
comprehensive list of accounting packages; it is a reflection of the experiences and biases of the 
author. Program selection criteria include comprehensiveness, accounting soundness, flex- 
ibility, support, controls and personal experiences. Key features are noted, although many are 
similar, in order to highlight considerations with which readers should be concerned. As in all 
software selection, the objective is to find a program that fits your needs. 



CYMA 

CYMA Corp. 

2160 East Brown Road 

Mesa, AZ 85203 

602-835-8880 

Powerful and versatile, the CYMA set of 
accounting modules belongs to the future. 
It is supported by a variety of operating sys- 
tems and is compatible with many micros. 
With file and record lock-out, multi-user 
function is possible. 



Among the attractive features of the in- 
ventory package are multiple pricing levels 
and locations, plus generation of purchase 
orders. The accounts receivable program 
calculates finance charges and discounts 
based on terms and has strong reporting 
capabilities. The payroll package handles 
multi state payrolls, has user-definable tax 
tables and prints standard reports. CYMA is 
ideal for a sophisticated business envi- 
ronment. 



Relevant controls must be utilized. 
Back-up of key data files and pro- 
grams, security measures, training of 
alternate personnel and protection 
against power problems and down- 
time are vital. 



Employees who 

have been freed 

from routine, mundane 

tasks will have 

time for more 

productive, creative 

activities. 



Establish internal procedures to ver- 
ify data input and ensure its proper re- 
cording. Most of the accounting sys- 
tems featured later in this article have 
an audit trail for reconstructing trans- 
actions—a key control. In addition, a 



batch orientation usually allows edit- 
ing and verification of entries prior to 
posting. Controls are important, and 
they should not be ignored. 

A Summing Up 

Several outstanding accounting sys- 
tems are available. Some of the more 
capable programs, in the author's opi- 
nion, have been summarized here. 

Potential purchasers, however, 
should approach with caution. Formal 
definition of requirements, consulting 
experts, careful consideration of alter- 
natives and implementation strategy 
and appropriate internal procedures 
and controls are advised. 

The benefits that can be realized 
from an effective accounting system 
are substantial. Such a system en- 
hances the control and monitoring of 
business activity and provides the 
kind of timely financial information 
that promotes competent decision 
making. 

Employees who have been freed 
from routine, mundane tasks will 
have time for more productive, cre- 
ative activities. A carefully selected 
and implemented accounting system 
is the nucleus of effective business 
management . ■ 



Great Plains 
Great Plains Software 
123 North 15th St. 
Fargo, ND 58102 
701-293-8483 



With version 2.0, Great Plains has become 
a marketable accounting system. Designed 
for hard-disk storage, the program features 
multiple levels of password security, mailing 
labels and a thorough inventory system. The 
reporting capabilities of the inventory 
system are noteworthy. It provides profit 
margin and sales commission information in 
a variety of formats. Commissions are 
transferable to payroll and calculable based 
on several methods. Inventory items can be 
monitored by serial number. Profit margin 
and activity reporting features yield useful 
information for management analysis and 
decision making. 

Although lacking full internal or external 
order-entry tracking, Great Plains is still an 
excellent package. The accounts receivable 
module allows the addition of finance 
charges and gives an analysis of activity by 
customer. This program handles up to $ 1 bil- 
lion in account balances. Any retailer or 
wholesaler should seriously consider this 
package. 



Easy Business System 
Information Unlimited Software 
2401 Marin ship Way 
Sausalito, CA 94965 
415-331-6700 

In addition to its popular EasyWriter, 
EasyFiler, EasyPlanner and other programs, 
the IUS accounting system is also a winner. 
The program executes quickly, handles 
multiple companies and runs well in a flop- 
py-disk environment. Files are updated and 
transactions purged when the disk is filled. 

Special praise goes to its flexibility and 
management reporting capability. Reports 
can be defined, retained and recalled later 
with up to nine optional categories compar- 
ing current monthly or year-to-date figures, 
last year's comparable period and budget 
with meaningful, user-definable formats. A 
sophisticated system, it will make serious ac- 
counting and computer enthusiasts hunger 
for more. 

The accounts receivable module allows 
the addition of finance charges to overdue 
balances, prints dunning notices, prints an 
aged trial balance of outstanding receivables 
by user-defined time periods and generates 
mailing labels. 

Meanwhile, the accounts payable module 
provides summaries of discounts not taken 



and upcoming cash requirements for pay- 
ables satisfaction. Order entry generates in- 
voices and tracks sales orders. The inventory 
allows valuation by LIFO, FIFO or weighted 
average costing methods. Overall, the report- 
ing and flexibility are outstanding. 

Real World 

Real World Software 

(formerly MBSI) 

Dover Road 

Willow Hill Building 

Chichester, NH 03263 

603-798-5700 

The former MBSI system is a proven one 
adapted from the minicomputer environ- 
ment. Accounts receivable contains a num- 
ber of useful features: finance charge add- 
ons, aging reports of outstanding items, 
cash receipts and commission calculations. 
The order-entry billing function is designed 
for distributors. Order processing automati- 
cally prints invoices and posts billing infor- 
mation to accounts receivable. Limited in- 
ventory control is available as an option. 

Sales analysis provides information by 
customer, sales representative, state, item 
and other categories. Accounts payable, 
among other functions, pays bills and prints 
a status report of outstanding items. Payroll 
is an extensive system and even prints 



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union reports. Written in Cobol with source 
code availability, modification of this pro- 
gram for your individual needs is possible. 



Micro Business Applications 
Micro Business Applications, Inc. 
12281 Nicollet Ave. South 
Burnsville, MN 55337 
612-894-3470 

Formerly released under the Palantir la- 
bel, MBA is an established program with 
fast execution. The accounting modules are 
integratable or stand-alone. The chart of ac- 
counts is user-definable. Invoicing occurs 
out of either the accounts receivable or in- 
ventory module. In addition, depreciation 
schedules and fixed asset tracking are avail- 
able. 

For forecasting and budgeting, a link to 
the popular SuperCalc spreadsheet is avail- 
able. As with all the packages reviewed here, 
the MBA accounting software contains an 
excellent audit trail and extensive editing 
capabilities. 

For a manufacturing environment, the in- 
ventory control module is especially rele- 
vant, featuring order entry and extensive 
management reporting capabilities, and 
providing costing by standard, average or 
actual costs. Up to 12 months of transac- 



tions are retained and adjustments can be 
made to prior periods. The package handles 
multiple companies and profit centers, and 
can even be considered by accountants as a 
write-up package. 



Open Systems 
Open Systems, Inc. 
430 Oak Grove 
Suite 409 

Minneapolis, MN 55403 
612-870-3515 

Open Systems is a complete program 
available for a number of operating sys- 
tems. Its order processing is noteworthy 
and can be integrated with the accounts re- 
ceivable, general ledger, job-costing and in- 
ventory modules. 

Accounts receivable is flexible with ex- 
tensive editing capabilities. User-defined 
finance charges can be added to outstand- 
ing balances. The management reporting 
facilities are excellent throughout the 
package. 

The accounts payable function permits 
status definition of hold, prepaid, install- 
ment payments or full payment. The inven- 
tory module allows costing by standard or 
average costs, FIFO or LIFO. Reorder 



points and overstock conditions are 
definable. Payroll allows multiple pay rates, 
piece rate and allocation to jobs, and has a 
payroll edit function for proofreading prior 
to check cutting. 

The job cost capabilities are relevant in an 
environment other than process costing. 
Jobs and phases are identifiable with 
reasonable reporting capabilities and good 
editing features. 



Solomon Series 
Computech Group, Inc. 
Main Line Industrial Park 
Lee Blvd. 
Frazer, PA 19355 
215-644-3344 

A fully integratable, comprehensive sys- 
tem, the Solomon Series is available in three 
versions, levels I, II and III. In addition to a 
report generator for free financial statement 
formatting, it has extensive reporting capa- 
bilities in other areas. Specifically, job cost- 
ing, productivity management, manpower 
planning and other features available in the 
level II version are useful in a service organ- 
ization. Level III also contains inventory 
control. The level I version is less compre- 
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DISK FILE CONCEPTS 



ZX8I 
T/S 1000 
T^ ISOO 



14,95 



15.95 



14.9S 



14.95 



14,95 



14.95 



14.95 



15.95 



16.95 



12.95 



15.95 



14.95 



14.95 



14.95 



15.95 



15.95 



29,95 



24.95 



16.95 



14.95 



NA 



VIC 
20 



15.95 



"16.95 



15.95 



•15.95 



15.95 



NA 



15.95 



16.95 



•17.95 



NA 



"16.95 



15.95 



NA 



15,95 



"14.95 



''VS 



•M.'H 



•27,95 



'17.95 



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17.95 



W.9S 



17.95 



.NA. 



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64 



■H.95 



19 .95 



18.95 



J495_ 



_1±9S_ 



_NA_ 



18.9S 



17.95 



18.95 



NA 



17.95 



16.95 



NA 



14.95 



17.95 



17.95 



34.95 



29.95 



18.95 



19.95 



NA 



I9.95 



IW_ 



NA 



17.95 



18.95 



18.95 



37.% 



JJ&_ 



16.95 



NA 



32.9 5 



19.95 



20.95 



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Microcomputing, January 1984 85 




How you can tell 



They're both IBM Personal Computers 
And they're the same. Only different. 

The system that's on the left is the 
ideal solution for a person who wants to 
be creative, efficient and improve his or 
her personal productivity. 

So is the other one. 

The system on the left incorporates 
the quality, the reliability and the 
technological excellence that have made 
IBM a computer leader for over 30 years. 

So does the other one. 

So which is which? Simple. 

On the left is the IBM Personal 
I Computer, starting with 64KB of user 
I memory (expandable to 640KB) and 
^^^^ two optional 5 1 /' diskette drives. 

It can easily satisfy your 
computing needs at the 
office, at home or in school. 
^ With 5 expansion slots, 

v 0000 ^ it gives you room to grow. 
(You can even make it function 
like the computer shown on the right 
by adding an expansion unit that 
houses one or two 10-million-character 
fixed disk drives. ) 

This system can run most of the 
same software and accept most of the 
same IBM hardware as the computer on 
the right. And its price/performance 
is nothing less than remarkable. 



The IBM Personal Computer 



which is which. 



On the right is the IBM Personal 
Computer XT, starting with 128KB 
of user memory (expandable to 640KB), 
a W 360KB diskette drive plus a 
standard 10-million-character 
fixed disk drive that's already built in. 

For a businessperson with 
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XT packs a lot of power, because it 
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and numbers you need to know. 

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a second 10-megabyte fixed disk drive, 
you get even more high-volume 
capacity from the system. d 
XT can run most of the same 
software and accept most of the 
same IBM hardware as the computer "^ 
on the left. And its price/performance 
is nothing less than remarkable. 

But for you to choose, there's a lot 
left (or right) to learn about both 
members of this growing family. Visit 
your authorized IBM Personal Computer 
dealer. To learn where, call 800-447-4700. 
In Alaska or Hawaii, 800-447-0890. 

And see which tool for modern 
times is right (or left) for you. ^==^= =* 



1 









Circle 285 on Reader Service card. 



The IBM Personal Computer XT 



Graphics 



The Good, the CAD 
And the Apple 



This first of a two-part article describes a Computer-Aided 

Design (CAD) program that lets you draw and maintain a 

library of shapes. This Apple II program is written in 

Logo and illustrates some of that language's features. 

By Richard Fritzson 




The system used with the author's computer-aided design package: an Apple, digitizer and plotter. 




You may have at your fingertips a 
drawing or drafting tool that sur- 
passes all others: your computer. 
Though it may have a resolution lower 
than what you can achieve with a 
sharp pencil, it has one advantage 
over noncomputer tools: it can be pro- 
grammed. 

Your pencil can't remember how to 
draw a PNP-type transistor; your 
computer can. Your pen can't remem- 
ber how to draw that standard ad- 
dress-decoder circuit you always use 
on your projects; your computer can. 
Your paintbrush can't be programmed 
to put five of what you just painted in 
five different places on the page; your 
computer can. 

What Is Computer-Aided Design? 

Commercial computer-aided design 
(CAD) systems have large, high-reso- 
lution screens, often equipped for 
color, to display complex drawings. 
They usually contain libraries of spe- 
cialized symbols appropriate for the 
application. 

For example, electronic CAD sys- 
tems might have a library of standard 
electronics symbols, VLSI drafting 
systems might maintain a set of part- 
geometry drawings, and mechanical 
drafting systems might have extensive 
libraries of shapes, connectors, 
welding symbols, and so on. A user of 
any of these systems just points to a 
symbol in a symbol menu and then 



Address correspondence to Richard Fritzson, 5814 
Russett Road U, Madison, WI 53711. 



Graphics example. 



88 Microcomputing, January 1984 



points to where he wants it to ap- 
pear—presto, there it is. 

This article describes an Apple II 
program that 1) allows you to draw 
pictures on the Apple screen using a 
pointing device; 2) can maintain a li- 
brary of standard shapes that you can 
select from a menu and have drawn 
automatically; 3) draws any picture 
you create on a digital plotter or a 
graphics printer; and, perhaps most 
interesting of all, 4) automatically 
writes a program that, when exe- 
cuted, redraws your picture. 

Because of the limitations of the 
standard Apple II graphics screen, I 
don't really believe that this program 
has many practical CAD applications. 
However, it's fun to use just for draw- 
ing on the screen, and it can be used to 
automatically write programs that 
draw pictures— especially complex 
scenes with different shapes (such as 
those used in game programs) that 
generally make for tedious program- 
ming. 

The program can also be used in 
school classes that teach computer- 
aided design. While it may not have 
the capabilities of expensive commer- 
cial systems, this system allows access 
to the full source code (written in 
Logo, one of the simplest program- 
ming languages around), which 
means that the hows and whys of a 
CAD system can be investigated. 

Furthermore, the program was writ- 
ten so that it can be easily extended, 
even by people who don't know all of 
the details of how it works and who 
know only the turtle graphics side of 
Logo. This makes it a reasonable tool 
even in classes that aren't computer- 
oriented, such as vocational educa- 
tional design classes. 

Finally, for people interested in 
Logo, this program illustrates some 
features and uses of Logo, such as in- 
terfacing to nonstandard peripherals 
and writing Logo programs that write 
Logo programs. 

Why Logo? 

From the variety of programming 
languages available for the Apple, I 
chose Logo for this project because it 
is highly interactive, modular and ex- 
tensible. It also includes an easy-to- 
use, high-resolution graphics package 
and primitives for writing programs 
that can write programs themselves. 
These attributes made it preferable to 
both Basic and Pascal. 

Logo is readable and is easily under- 
stood by nonprogrammers. This, for 



my purposes, made it preferable to 
both Forth and lisp. However, both of 
those languages have advantages that 
make them excellent choices for 
anyone who wants to rewrite this 
package. 

Forth has lower memory require- 
ments than Logo (and this is a memo- 
ry-intensive system), while a good im- 
plementation of lisp would have 
made some of the prograrnming easi- 
er. (In fact, the program is being re- 
written in Lisp for a nonApple 
system.) 

I chose Terrapin Logo because of 
the need to write assembly language 
interfaces to some peripherals. Unlike 



Lots and Lots 
Of Logo Listings 



The text of this article contains numerous 
descriptions of Logo procedures. These ap- 
pear as short listings, with only a few pro- 
cedures each, instead of as one continuous 
listing at the end. To facilitate reconstruc- 
tion of the whole program, each listing con- 
tains a comment that identifies which of the 
several Logo files it is part of. 

Procedures that aren't part of the final 
package but are presented simply to illus- 
trate points appear as examples instead of 
as listings. They have no file identifications. 

Furthermore, the comments that appear 
in the listings are not actually included in 
the copies of the procedures that are loaded 
into the Apple's memory. This, of course, is 
to reduce memory requirements. 

For readers who don't wish to type the 
code from the article, I'll copy it onto a read- 
er-supplied disk that is accompanied by a 
stamped, self-addressed envelope, for $5. 

HP. 



Apple Logo, Terrapin includes a 6502 
assembler and procedures for calling 
machine language subroutines from 
Logo. If you don't need these features, 
you can use any of the available 
Logos, although you'll have to do 
some rewriting. 

Equipment 

To implement this package, you 
need an Apple II Plus with 48K, a 16K 
memory card and a single disk drive 
(all required for Logo operation) and, 
of course, a version of Logo. 

You also need some type of pointing 
device— something that can be used to 
move a cursor around on the screen. 
While you could use keyboard keys 
for this purpose the way many word 



processors do, this is inconvenient and 
slow for most graphics applications. 
The standard Apple game paddles 
work, but you need two of them— one 
for vertical movement and one for 
horizontal movement. 

An economical choice is a joystick, 
which provides the necessary two-di- 
mensional pointing capability. Joy- 
sticks often can be connected to the 
Apple through the game paddle ports 
and accessed from Logo without any 
special effort. Other possibilities are 
a light pen, a trackball or a mouse. 

I used a digitizer pad, a Houston In- 
struments HiPad, instead of a joystick 
because it was available. You don't 
need this relatively expensive device, 
however; a joystick or any other low- 
cost pointer will do. 

Whatever kind you choose, it 
should have at least one button asso- 
ciated with it (as most paddles and joy- 
sticks have and as the digitizer's cur- 
sor has) and have a resolution at least 
as good as the screen's (approximately 
240 points vertically and 280 points 
horizontally). 

Lastly, and completely optionally, if 
you want to produce hard copy of 
whatever you draw, you will need 
either a plotter (I used a Houston In- 
struments HiPlot with six colored 
pens) or a printer with screen dump 
software. 

Pointing with the Turtle 

The purpose of a pointing device is 
to allow you to physically manipulate 
some analog device and thereby cause 
a mark on the screen, called a cursor, 
to move about, which allows you to 
point to pictures and places on the 
screen. The device should have two 
dimensions of movement, allowing 
you to move the cursor both left and 
right and up and down. 

In describing this part of the pro- 
gram, I assume that you're using 
either two game paddles, one joystick 
interfaced through the game paddle 
ports or a HiPad digitizer. If you're 
using some other peripheral, you'll 
need to duplicate the procedures in 
Listings 1 or 3 (described below) for 
your pointing device. Then the rest of 
the program should run without much 
trouble. 

Coordinate Scales 

The Logo graphics screen is a Carte- 
sian plane with the origin, point (0,0), 
in the center (Fig. 1). y axis boun- 
daries extend from (0, - 120) to 
(0,-1-120); x axis boundaries extend 

Microcomputing, January 1984 89 



from ( - 140,0) to ( + 140,0). A standard 
joystick delivers coordinates within 
the 0-256 range in both the x and y 
axes. 

To match the two different coordi- 
nate systems, the zero point of the joy- 
stick must be moved to the middle of 



i Eitrtot and Seal* X Coordinat 

TO P IS 

OUTPUT (PADDLE 0)-127 
END 

Extract and Seal* Y Coordinat 

TO P YS 

OUTPUT (PADDLE 1)-127 
END 

i Ta»t For Pointer Button 

TO P BUTTON 

OUTPUT PADDLEBUTTON 
END 



Listing 1. Joystick 1 game paddle interface pro- 
cedures (File: Pointer). 



its range, not to one end of it. This is 
done by subtracting 128 from each 
value. The new ranges are from - 128 
to + 127. These do not match the Logo 
coordinate system exactly, but they 
are close enough to be useable. 

The effects of not matching exactly 
are that, in the x direction, locations 
within 12 dots of either the left or right 
edge of the screen cannot be specified, 
nor can points that are eight points 
higher or lower than the top and bot- 
tom edges. The latter effect can be 
blocked by using MAX and MIN pro- 
cedures, but it's hardly worth the 
effort. 

Listing 1 shows the definition of two 
Logo procedures, P.XS and P.YS, 
which allow you to access the current 
position of the joystick scaled to the 
Logo graphics screen. (It also contains 
the procedure P.BUTTON, which re- 
turns true if you're pressing the button 
on the joystick.) These procedures as- 
sume you have the joystick attached 
to game paddle ports and 1. 

If you aren't using a joystick or 



TO DRAW 



IF P BUTTON THEN PD ELSE PU 

SETXY P XS P YS 

DRAW 



END 



set tht turtle's pen 
and move it 

rtpttt 



Example 1. A simple hand-sketching routine. 



TO DOT 



END 



PU FOLLOW 
PD FD 1 PU 



follow the user to a point 
; and draw a dot there 



Example 2. A procedure for drawing dots. 



game paddle but instead have a digi- 
tizer pad or something like it, the 
problem is a little more complex. 

There are two parts to the task: ac- 
cessing the pad from Logo and then 
scaling the coordinate systems down 
to Logo's graphics screen size. Ac- 
cessing the Houston Instruments 
HiPad from Logo requires assembly 
language. The complete assembly-lan- 
guage program, written in Terrapin 
Logo assembly language, is in Listing 
2. The comments describe how it 
works. 

The main differences between 
using a pad and a joystick are that the 
pad has a different scale than the joy- 
stick (approximately 0-2600) and that 
it has to be explicitly polled, or read, 
before you can access its current posi- 
tion. The only consequence of the lat- 
ter is that you have to execute a Logo 
word that reads the pad's position 
before you can use the procedures 
that output its x and y coordinates. 
Listing 3 contains a procedure called 
Digitize, which does this, and the pro- 
cedures P.X and P.Y, which return 
the x and y values. 



♦> 


r 

(0. »I20) 




-X 




♦X 


(-140. 0) 


(0.0) 
(0,-120) 


(♦140. 0) 



TO LINE 

CETPT1 CETPT2 

PD SETXY P XS P YS 
PU 
END 

TO LINES 

LINE LINES 
END 

TO RECTANGLES 
CETPTt CETPT2 
SETY P YS 
SETX P XS 
SETY : Y 
SETX X 
RECTANGLES 
END 



qet the two points 
. (GETPT2 leaves the turtle at point 1) 
; and draw a Ixne to point two 



to repeatedly drew lines 
; than 1 o op 



drew one 



to repeatedly draw rectanole 
gat two Doints 
corner one 
oornar two 
oornar t hr ee 
back to oornar four 
and 1 oop 



Example 3. Procedures for drawing lines and rectangles. 



Fig. 1. The Logo graphics coordinate plane. 



Fig. 2. The cross-hairs turtle. Each of the four 
lines is two units long. The shape editor 
commands for drawing this are: D— > — u~— ; 
D- -M- -; D\ \u\ \; and D\ \u\ I. 



90 Microcomputing, January 1964 



The problem of differing coordinate 
scales is solved by multiplying the 
pointing device coordinates by a 
scaling factor then subtracting an off- 
set to put the origin of the scale in the 
center of the pointing device's range 
(as it is in the Logo graphics screen) . 

The scaling factor is derived by di- 
viding the desired number range 
(either 240 vertically or 280 horizon- 
tally) by the range of the pointing 
device's output (about 2600 for the 
HiPad). Listing 3 contains the P.XS 
and P.YS procedures, which scale the 
HiPad's coordinates down to the 
Logo turtle's coordinate system, and 
P.BUTTON, which outputs true if 
you're pressing the button on the 
digitizer's cursor. 

For anyone using a different 
pointing device, one of the nice things 
about Logo is that any pointing device 
you're using can be mapped into these 
simple procedures (P.XS, P.XY, P. 
BUTTON and, possibly, Digitize) and 



The star of Logo's 
graphics package 

is the 
ubiquitous turtle. 



then we can all use the same program 
code from here on. (If you're using the 
procedures in Listing 1, you can either 
define a dummy procedure Digitize or 
simply drop it from any function in 
which it appears below.) 

Grabbing the Turtle 

The star of Logo's graphics package 
is the ubiquitous turtle. It is normally 
manipulated with commands such as 
Forward and Back or Left and Right, 
but we can now move it around di- 
rectly by using the pointer. Listing 4 
contains a procedure, Follow, that 
links the turtle to the pointing device, 
causing it to follow you and serve as 
the on-screen cursor. It quits when 
you push the pointer's button. 

(This procedure, like many others, 
uses what is called tail-recursion to 
loop indefinitely; the last line in the 
procedure conditionally calls the pro- 
cedure itself, causing it to repeat.) 

If the turtle pen is up when this pro- 
cedure is invoked, then the turtle just 
moves around on the screen; if the 
pen is down, it leaves a trail behind it. 
(It is important to let the program's 
user know that the pushing of the but- 



Listing 2. HiPad digitizer assembly language interface procedures (File: HiPad.ASM). 



. Procedure for assembling the two parts of 
the assembly language interface 



TO ASM HIPAD 
MAKE "ORG 393 36 
ASSEMBLE "HIPAD1 
( PRINT "POLL POLL ) 
ERASE HIPAD1 
PRINT RC 
ASSEMBLE "HIPAD2 



( PRINT "HPX 
( PRINT "HPY 
( PRINT "HPP 
ERASE HIPAD2 
PRINT RC 



HPX > 
HPY > 
HPP > 



Leave room for the cross hairs 

Assemble Part 1 

Print valus of POLL sntry point 

Erase Source oods 

Wait for user to copy down POLL 

Assemble Part 2 

Print othsr sntry points 



Erass Source Cods 
; Wait for ussr to oopy sntry points 
Savs obiect cods 
DOS CBSAVE INTERFACE BIN. A • 9 9 A 6 , L » 1 3 
ERASE ASM HIPAD. : Erass sslf 

END 



HIPAD! - LOCO/HiPad Intsrfacs Part 1 
Dsscription: Contains ths poll routins which 
extracts a valid coordinate stream from ths HiPad 



TO HIPAD1 



C0C4D 
C0CS3 



HPP1 : 
CBYTE 



POLL 



HP1 



HiPad Data Rsgistsr 

HiPad Control Rsgistsr 

Holds Button Stats 

CBYTE: Extracts a byte from HiPad 



POLL: Estraot and savs a ooordinats sst 
First initialise ths 6820 



Wait for a loading byts (Bit 7-1, but not FF) 



Extract Cursor Button Status 

and a a ve 

Cst nest byts 

( If not > . try aga in) 

; slss savs HIGH X 

and savs LOW X 

; and savs HIGH Y 

; and savs LOW Y 



CMAKE "DDRA S 

[MAKE "CTLA ♦ 



LDA CTLA 

BPL CBYTE 

LDA DDRA 

RTS 

LDA • 

STA DDRA 

LDA • 44 

STA CTLA 

JSR GBYTE 

BPL HP1 

CMP • 2S5 

BEQ HP1 

AND • IS 

STA HPP1 

JSR GBYTE 

BMI HP1 

STA ! C USERPZ+0 3 

JSR GBYTE 

STA ! CUSERPZ+13 

JSR GBYTE 

STA f C.USERPZ+2 3 

JSR GBYTE 

STA ! C USERPZ+33 

RTS 
END 



HIPAD2 - LOGO/HiPad Intsrfacs Part 2 
Dsscription: Has three sntry points, one rsturns 
most rscsnt X coordinats. ons ths Y coordinats and 
ths other ths button stats. 

All nsgativs coordinats valuss ars sst to ssro. 
so HiPad should bs rssst with cursor in lowsr Isft hand cornsr 



TO HIPAD2 
HPX: LDA » CUSERPZ+1] 

STA ! NARG1 

LDA ' I USERPZ 3 

JMP HPZ 
HPY: LDA ! C USERPZ+31 

STA ! NARC1 

LDA I C USERPZ+2 ] 
HPZ PHA 

AND • 6 4 

BNE HPZ1 

PLA 

ROR 

PHA 

AND t 3 1 

STA ' C NARG2+ 1 3 

PLA 

ROR 

AND • 128 

ORA ! NARC1 

STA ! CNARC2+0] 

PHA 
HPZ1: PLA 

JMP OTPFX2 



Extract X Coo 



lus 



Extract Y Coordinats valus 



HPP 



HPP2 
END 



LDA HPP1 

CMP • 3 

BEQ HPP2 

JMP OTPTRU 

JMP OTPFLS 



If Nsgativs. rsturn isro 

Elss shift out lowsr bit of MSB 

Mask high bits 

and save MSG 

shift in high bit of LSB 

and savs LSB 



rsturn intsgsr valus 
; Gs t But ton stats 

If ■ 3 thsn rsturn falss 
; slss rsturn t r us 




More 



Microcomputing, January 1984 91 



Listing 2 continued. 



MAKE "UBERPZ (252) 

MAKE "OTPFLB (71g§) 

MAKE "OTPTRU <71?«) 

MAKE "OTPFX2 (7177) 

MAKE "KOR [IMP ion 
MAKE NARG2 (158) 

MAKE "NARC1 ( 142 ) 



ton has been detected by the program; 
ringing the Apple bell is a handy way 
to do this.) 

To conveniently free-hand draw 
using the turtle, you can use the Draw 
procedure (Example 1), which lets you 
move the turtle around with the point- 
er and put the turtle's pen down when 
you depress the pointer's button. 



Poll the HiPid for a Coordinate 

TO DIGITIZE 

CALL POLL 
END 

: Extract X coordinate 

TO P X 

OUTPUT CALL HPX 
END 

Extract Y coordinate 

TO P Y 

OUTPUT CALL HPY 
END 

; Check HiPad Cursor Button 

! OUTPUT. TRUE If Button depressed. FALSE otherwise 

TO P BUTTON 

OUTPUT CALL HPP 
END 

Scala X Coordinate 

TO P XS 

OUTPUT ROUND ( P X * 9 91194N2 ) - 140 
END 

Scala Y Coordinate 

TO P YS 

OUTPUT ROUND ( P Y * 8.49493N2 ) - 11? 
END 



MAKE "POLL 39346 

MAKE "HPX 3 9 393 

MAKE "HPy 39402 

MAKE "HPP 39433 



These addresses were copied down during 
the assembly of HIPAD ASM 



Listing 3. HiPad digitizer interface procedures (File: Pointer). 



TO DRAW 

CETPTl GETPT2 
RUN REQUEST 
DRAW 
END 

TO LINE 

PD SETXY P XS P YS PU 
END 



TO RECTANGLE 

PD SETY P YS SETX P XS 

SETY Y SETX X PU 
END 



.gat t he points 

; and draw whichever shape the user types 
: and loop 



Example 4. Procedure for drawing shapes typed by the user. 



92 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Reshaping the Turtle 

The turtle is cute, but it's not the 
best shape I can think of for pointing 
with, especially since the point at 
which the turtle is located is not the 
front tip but a point located inside its 
body. 

Fortunately, Terrapin Logo lets you 
change the turtle's shape. The system 
includes a program called Shape.Edit, 
which facilitates the drawing of new 
turtle shapes. New shapes can be dis- 
played only as being rotated in 
90-degree increments; this is not a lim- 
itation, since the CAD package does 
not support rotation. 

I used the Shape.Edit program to 
create a simple cross-hairs turtle, 
which is more convenient for pointing 
at individual points (Fig. 2). This 
creates a binary file containing the 
cross-hairs image and a Logo file 
(Curs.Aux) containing the address of 
the binary image and some utility 
functions (for example, Size, for 
changing the cross-hair's size). 

Drawing and Designing 

Using the Draw procedure to draw 
on the screen is fun, but it quickly be- 
comes obvious that you cannot draw 
anything that requires any degree of 
precision. The pointing device, what- 
ever it is, is too awkward to manipu- 
late carefully. The way around this 
problem is to use the pointing device 
to just point— let a program do the 
drawing. 

For example, to place a single dot on 
the screen, you could use the Draw 
procedure (Example 1) to position the 
turtle (or cross-hairs), depress the but- 
ton and then try to move the turtle just 
a bit in order to leave a mark behind. 
Or, you could write a Logo procedure, 
Dot, to do it (Example 2). 

Executing Dot causes the turtle to 
follow the pointing device until you 
press the button. The turtle then 
draws a line length of one (a dot). 

Most useful shapes (lines, squares, 
circles) require that you identify two 
points on the screen, not one. Two 
procedures, GETPT1 and GETPT2 
(Listing 5) facilitate this by letting you 
identify two points on the screen. 
Move the turtle to one point, push the 
button; then move to a second point, 
pushing the button again. 

Pushing the button the first time 
leaves a mark behind to identify 
where the first point is; pushing it the 
second time erases that mark so that 
the screen is clean and whatever fig- 
ure you want can then be drawn. 



The picture-drawing procedure can 
identify the first point, because the 
GETPT routines set the global vari- 
ables XI and Yl to the x and y coordi- 
nates of the pointer when the button is 
pressed the first time. It can find the 
second point because that's where the 
pointer is still pointing. 

If you have a spring-loaded joystick 
or if you tend to move the pointer a 
lot, you may want to use a second set 
of variables, X2 and Y2, to record the 
location of the second point. Other- 
wise, you may find that you have 
moved the cursor between the time 
you marked the second point and the 
time the program used its location. 
Digitizer users don't have to worry 
about this because the last polled 
values of P.X and P.Y won't change 
unless you execute Digitize again. 

The WAITB routine ensures that the 
program doesn't proceed to the 
GETPT2 routine before you've lifted 
your finger from the button. This pre- 
vents both GETPT1 and GETPT2 
from detecting the same button press- 
ing and marking the same point. 

One way to leave a mark behind is 
to have the turtle draw a simple shape 
and then later erase it by redrawing it 
in the background color. A neater way 
is illustrated by the Mark procedure in 
Listing 5; it uses the Terrapin Logo 
Size procedure (created by the cursor 
shape-editing program). This proce- 
dure leaves a small cross-hair marker 
behind (assuming that you've used the 
Shape.Edit program to change to the 
cross-hair turtle shape) the first time it 
is called, and erases it the second time. 

Now, to draw a straight line, you 
can use procedures like Line or Lines; 
other shapes can be written using 
these as models (for instance, Rect- 
angles in Example 3). 

Admittedly, using SETXY extensively 
results in a very unturtle-like pro- 
gramming style. There is no need, 
however, to write these procedures in 
any particular style. Use whichever is 
easier for a particular picture— Carte- 
sian coordinates and SETXY, or Turtle 



graphics and Forward, Back, Left and 
Right. 
This is more fun than free-hand 



drawing; the pictures are neater and 
you can always add new shape pro- 
cedures. What you need, though, is a 



; Make the Turtle follow the user's pointer 

TO FOLLOW 
DIGITIZE ; ooll the pointer 

SETXY P.XS P . YS ; move the turtle 

check pointer's button 
IF P. BUTTON THEN BEEP ELSE FOLLOW 

END 

Acknowledge button pushing 

TO BEEP 

PRINT1 CHAR 7 
END 

Listing 4. Linking the turtle and the pointer (File: Pointer}. 



Get 1 Doint from the user 

TO CETPT1 

PU FOLLOW 

MAKE "XI P XS MAKE "Yl P YS 

VAITB 
END 

Get a 2nd ooint from the user 



don't drag your feet 
remember this spot 
wait for button up 



TO GETPT2 

MARK 

FOLLOW 

SETXY XI 
END 



Yl MARK 



mark the first point 

follow to the second point 

and clear the mark on the first 



Mark the spot with a small cross hairs 

TO MARK 
ST SIZE 2 SHAPE 1 HT shrink the cross, but hide a nothing 
SHAPE CROSS ST SIZE 4 redisplay and expand cross 

END 

; Wait until user releases the pointers button 

TO WAITB 

DIGITIZE IF P BUTTON THEN WAITB 
END 



Listing 5. Procedures for pointing at points. 



! MAKE "S5 "RECTANGLE 

? S5 

RESULT: RECTANGLE 

? MAKE "N 5 

I WORD "S N 

RESULT S5 

f THING WORD "S :N 

RESULT RECTANGLE 



this gives the variable S5 the value "RECTANGLE 

this shows the value of S5 

this gives the variable N the value 5 

this uses N to construct the full variable name 

this contstructs the variable name and gets its value 

; iust like the definition of CHOICE 



Example 5. How the Choice function works. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 93 






Listing 6. Final version of menu select program. 

MENU SELECTION ROUTINES 

SELECT - MAIN ROUTINE 
ARGUMENTS 

MENU - MENU'S PREFIX CHARACTERS 

MSIZE : MENU ' S SI ZE 



TO SELECT MENU MSIZE 

TEXTSCREEN CLEARTEXT 

PRMENU 

CHOOSE WAITB 

OUTPUT CV 
END 



Us* a clear tuticrttn 

Print the MENU 

Let the user select 

Output the selected item number 



. MSIZE - A UTILITY FOR DETERMINING A MENU'S SIZE 
: ARGUMENTS The Menu Prefxs and " 2 3 " 

TO MSIZE MENU :N 

IF THING? WORD MENU N THEN OT N ELSE OT MSIZE 
END 

Print the current menu (starting with :N> 

TO PRMENU :N 

IF N > MSIZE THEN STOP 

PRINT© N CHOICE :N 

PRMENU N+l 
END 

Let the user choose an item 



TO CHOOSE 
DIGITI ZE 

IF NOT P YC - CV THEN HILITE MIN 
IF P BUTTON THEN BEEP ELSE CHOOSE 

END 



MENU : N- I 



MSIZE P YC 



Highlight the current item 



TO HILITE 
PRINT© 
PRINTI 

END 



CV CHOICE CV 
Y CHOICE :Y 



deHighlight old item 
.Highlight new one 



Extract and Scale the Pointer's Vertical location to 
the TextScreen's row numbers 

TO P YC ; This is the HIPAD version 

OUTPUT ABS ( 23 - ROUND ( P.Y * 8 14135N3 ) > 
END 

TO P YC ; This is the ioystick version 

OUTPUT ABS < 23 - ROUND (PADDLE 1> * 8 9843N2 
END 

TO ABS X 

IF X > THEN OUTPUT X ELSE OUTPUT - X 
END 

Outout Smallest of two numbers 

TO MIN X :Y 

IF X < :Y THEN OUTPUT X ELSE OUTPUT Y 
END 

Print Z at Location (X.Y) 

TO PRINT© X : Y Z 

CURSOR X Y 

PRINTI Z 
END 

Print Z at Location (X.Y) in inverse video 



TO PRINTI X :Y 
DEPOSIT 232 
PRINT© X :Y :Z 
DEPOSIT 232 255 

END 



some Terrapin LOGO magic numbers 



way to control which shape you are 
going to draw. 

Logo has a Run primitive that lets a 
program construct and execute an- 
other Logo program. You can write a 
procedure like Draw in Example 4, 
which lets you mark your points, and 
then type which shape you want. A lot 
of switching, from pointing to typing 
and back to pointing, can get an- 
noying, however. It would be much 
simpler if you could use the same 
pointing device that is already in your 
hand to select which shape is to be 
drawn. 

Menu Selection of Shapes 

People who purchase digitizer tab- 
lets often receive software that allows 
them to point at shape names printed 
on an overlay on the tablet itself and to 
select a shape to be drawn on the 
screen. 

One problem with adopting this 
method is that it won't work if you're 
using a joystick or game paddles. 
Another is that you have to move your 
eyes from the screen to the pad and 
back again, which, if the pad is not po- 
sitioned directly in front of you, is 
distracting. A third problem is that dif- 
ferent collections of shapes need dif- 
ferent overlays, and adding shapes 
means changing the overlays. 

For these reasons, I decided to pre- 
sent a menu of possible shapes on the 
screen itself and to allow the user to 
select one using the pointing device. 
Since the Apple uses two different 
areas of memory for the text screen 



Listing 6 continued. 

OUTPUT cursor's row number 

TO CV 

OUTPUT EXAMINE 37 
END 

OutDut the Nth menu item 



TO CHOICE :N 

OUTPUT THING WORD 
END 



MENU N 



Erase the Menu Packaae 



TO K IL 
ERASE 
ERASE 
ERASE 
ERASE 
ERASE 
ERASE 
ERASE 
ERASE 
ERASE 
ERASE 

END 



LMENU 
SELECT 
MSI ZE 
PRMENU 
CHOOSE 
HILITE 
PRINT© 
PRINTI 

CV 
CHOICE 
KI LLMENU 



94 Microcomputing, January 1984 



and the graphics screen, you can pre- 
sent a menu on the text screen without 
disturbing the picture on the graphics 
screen. 

A simple way to allow shape selec- 
tion would be to maintain an array of 
procedure names, present it and let 
the user select which one to run. Logo 
doesn't have arrays, but it does have 
lists, so I tried using them. Unfortu- 
nately, a problem arose because the 
selection procedure needed to make 
frequent use of a procedure that 
would output the nth element of a list. 
(This is why the natural data structure 
is an array.) 

In Apple Logo, there is a primitive 
procedure, Item, that does this, but in 
Terrapin Logo you have to write the 
procedure in Logo. The final program 
ran so s\ow\y that it was just not 
useful. 

The final version of the menu select 
program (Listing 6) uses another 
method, somewhat less easy to under- 
stand. It has one main procedure, 
Select, that accepts as input a menu 
and the number of the last item on it 
and outputs the number of the 
selected item. It displays the list on the 
text screen and lets you select a 
procedure by moving the pointing 
device up and down (in the y axis 
direction). The program highlights 
which procedure is being pointed at 
by printing it in inverse video. The 
nna\ selection is made by pushing the 
button. 

The data structure used for a menu 
is a set of variables, all beginning with 
the same letters (as in Shape or just S) 
and ending with a number (as in SO, 
SI, S2 and so on). It is the value of each 
variable that is the actual procedure, 
or menu item, selected. 

For example, the value of SO might 
be the word Line and the value of SI 
might be the word Rectangle. The 
Select procedure accepts as input just 
the menu variable prefix and uses the 
Choice procedure to construct the 
complete variable name and extract 
its value. This is a strange procedure 
that could only have been written in a 
language like Logo or Lisp. If you have 
trouble understanding it, typing the 
dialog in Example 5 might help. If you 
change to a method of screen high- 
lighting that doesn't require reprinting 
the procedure's name, you may be 
able to use lists and avoid this odd pro- 
cedure. 

The rest of the Menu package is fair- 
ly straightforward. It makes use of a 
procedure P.YC, which scales the 
pointer's range down to the range of 



numbers used to identify the text 
screen's rows (0-23). This is similar to 
the routine that scaled the digitizer's 
output down to the graphics screen 



size. Listing 6 contains two versions of 
this procedure; one for digitizer pads 
and one for joysticks or paddles. It 
does use features of Terrapin Logo 



Listing 7. The basic Shapes library (File: Shapes). 



; DRAW A DOT AT (XI . Yl ) 

TO DOT XI Yl 

PU SETXY XI Yl 

PD FD 1 
END 

; DRAW A LINE FROM (X1.Y1) TO (X2.Y2) 

TO LINE XI : Yl : X2 : Y2 

PU SETXY *X1 Yl 

PD SETXY X2 : Y2 
END 

. DRAW A RECTANGLE WITH CORNERS: 
; (XI .Yl ) (XI . Y2 ) <X2 . Y2) < X2. Yl ) 



TO RECTANGLE XI 

PU SETXY XI Yl 

PD SETX :X2 SETY 

END 



Yl X2 : Y2 



Y2 SETX XI SETY 



Yl 



; DRAW A FILLED RECTANGLE 



TO BLOCK 



XI 



Yl 



X2 Y2 



X2 : Y2 
II 



draw a rectangle 

start at a left corner 

oomtinq to the right 
fill in the rectanale 



RECTANGLE XI Yl 
PU HT SETX MIN : XI 
SETY Yl SETH 9 
PD 

REPEAT ABS QUOTIENT :X2 - :X1 2 CSETY Y2 FD 1 SETY Yl FD ID 
ST SETH ; show v our self again 

END 



DRAW A CIRCLE WITH CENTER (XI. Yl) 
AND CIRCUMFERENCE PASSING THROUGH 
< X2 . Y2 ) 



TO CIRCLE XI Yl 



X 2 Y 2 



PU SETXY X2 Y2 

SETH ( TOWARDS XI Yl > - 9 

PD HT 

RCIRCLE DISTANCE XI - :X2 Yl - 



position turtle on circumference 
facing to the left of the center 
d r aw the circle 
: Y2 



.show vourself aaain 



ST 
END 

; DRAW A FILLED CIRCLE 



TO FCIRCLE XI Yl X2 :Y2 

CIRCLE XI Yl :X2 :Y2 first draw a circle 

; t hen fill it in 
FRCIRCLE DISTANCE XI - :X2 Yl - : Y2 
END 

Draw a circle to the right 

TO RCIRCLE SIZE 

MAKE "SIZE SIZE * 8 72662N2 

RT 2 5 

REPEAT 72 CFD SIZE RT 53 

LT 2 3 
END 

Fill in a circle 

TO FRCIRCLE :R 
HT PD . Preoare turtle 

calculate circumference arcs, angle increments, and 
d i ame t er 
FRCIRCLEt R*8 72662N1 / R :R*2 <25/:R> ; d r aw it 
ST ; show turtle 
END 

TO FRCIRCLE1 S D A 
RT A 
REPEAT 90/A CFD S RT <90*:A> FD :D RT <90+:A>] 

END 




Microcomputing, January 1984 95 



Listing 7 continued. 



TO DISTANCE X Y 

OUTPUT SORT ( X * X 
END 

TO MJN X Y 

IF X < Y THEN OUTPUT 
END 



Y * : Y ) 



X ELSE OUTPUT 



TO ABS X 1 

IF XI < THEN OUTPUT ( - 
END 



XI ) ELSE OUTPUT XI 



Listing 8. The sketch program (File: Sketch). 



LOGO/HIPAD SKETCH PROGRAM 

SKETCH - MAIN ROUTINE BEGINS 
SKETCHING PROGRAM 

TO SKETCH 

FULLSCREEN RESET 

DOTS 

MAKE "S SIZE MSIZE "S 23 

SETSHAPE CROSS SIZE 4 

SKLOOP 
END 



adoot clear graphics screen 
;itart in DOT mo de 

calculate menu size 
.use a size 4 cross hairs 



SKLOOP - THE SKETCH CONTROL LOOP 

A Good Place to restart if something went wrong and vou 
don't want to lose the oicture 



TO SKLOOP 
CETPT1 



IF P XS > 

SKLOOP 
END 



. ae t first ooint 

if not at left margin, run current mode Drocedure 
.else offer the menu 
-137 THEN RUN MODE ELSE SKRUN SELECT " S :S SIZE 



RUN the selected orocedure with the graphics screen 

TO SKRUN N 

FULLSCREEN 

RUN (LIST THING WORD "S N) 

FULLSCREEN 
END 



. THE INITIAL SKETCH MENU 

MAKE "SO "QUIT 

MAKE "SI "CLEAR 

MAKE "S2 "DOTS 

MAKE "S3 "LINES 

MAKE "S4 "CIRCLES 

MAKE "S5 "'SHADED CIRCLES' 

MAKE "S6 "RECTANGLES 

MAKE "S7 "'SHADED RECTANGLES' 

MAKE "S8 "'PEN COLOR' 

MAKE "S9 "'BACKGROUND COLOR' 

MAKE "S10 "'SAVE PICTURE' 

MAKE "Sll "RETRIEVE PICTURE' 



exit progr am 

clear the scr een 
.select DOT mo de 

select L INE mode 

select CIRCLE mode 

select SHADED CIRCLE mode 
.select RECTANGLE mode 
.select SHADED RECTANGLE mode 

change pen color 
.change background color 

save picture 

reload picture 



. QUIT - EXIT THE SKETCH PROGRAM 

TO QUIT 

SETSHAPE SIZE 1 .restore the turtle 

RESET .reset the graphics screen 

NODRAV ;return to text screen 

TOP LEVEL 

END 



. CLEAR CLEAR THE PICTURE 
TO CLEAR 

CS BG PC l 
END 

. DOTS - SET MODE TO DOTS 
TO DOTS 

MAKE "MODE C DOT XI Yl] 
END 

96 Microcomputing, January 1984 




(inverse video printing, cursor manipu- 
lation and so on), which are no doubt 
available in Apple Logo but which will 
have to be changed to work properly. 
The Select routine returns the num- 
ber of the selected item and not the ac- 
tual item variable or variable value 
because Select is used for more than 
just selecting procedures. It is a self- 
contained package that is used in 
several programs. The Menu file also 
contains a procedure, MSize, that de- 
termines the size of a menu by con- 
structing variables and checking them 
for values using the Thing? primitive 
until an undefined variable is en- 
countered. 

Putting It Together 

It's easy at this point to get a draw- 
ing program running, although it is 
important to be careful in order to 



The sketch program 

is fun to use; it 

can save pictures 

on disk and it's 

easily extended. 



make it easy to change later. Some de- 
sired features include: 

• An easy way to display the menu of 
shapes without disturbing the picture; 

• A library of shapes that can be easi- 
ly extended; 

• A default mode of operation (that 
is, once you ask to draw lines, you 
continue drawing lines until you ask 
for something else). 

The menu-call technique I used has 
the user moving the pointer to the far 
left-hand side of the screen and press- 
ing the button. This means that you 
can't mark the first point of an object 
at the far left margin, a minor limita- 
tion. If your pointer has two buttons, 
or if you're using two game control 
paddles, you might use the second 
button to call up the menu. Or, you 
can use the keyboard to call for it (use 
the RC? procedure and press return). 

The library of basic shapes was put 
in a separate Logo file (Listing 7). The 
library is a set of procedures that ac- 
cepts either one or two points as input 



and draws a shape at the specified 
point. The basic library contains Dot, 
Line, Rectangle, Block (a filled Rect- 
angle), Circle and FCircle, a solid, col- 
ored Circle. 

The only complex procedure in the 
collection is FCircle. It works by hav- 
ing the turtle draw diameters through 
the circle as it crawls around the cir- 
cumference. The size of the step the 
turtle takes around the perimeter of 
the circle decreases as the circle gets 
larger in order to avoid blank streaks 
between the diameters. (The step size 
should be large for small circles; 
otherwise it takes an uncomfortably 
long time to draw them.) 

The procedures selected by the user 
aren't the Shape procedures them- 
selves but ones that make these Shape 
procedures the default mode of oper- 
ation (until a new procedure is 
selected). 

Sketchy Details 

Listing 8 shows this version of the 
Sketch package. Note that it includes 
utility procedures such as Quit (exit 
the program), Clear (the screen), Save 
Picture and Load Picture and (change) 
Pen Color and Background Color, all 
of which are trivially easy to add once 
the basic system is devised. The pen 
and background color procedures use 
the Menu Select routines to let you 
choose a new color using the same 
technique as selecting a new default 
shape. 

Because Logo saves its pictures in 
the standard Apple picture format, 
any dot matrix graphics printer with 
screen dump software can be used to 
print pictures. 

The complete package now extends 
over several files and takes time to 
load. I wrote a loading procedure and 
stuck it on its own self-starting file 
(Listing 9). 

As it stands now, the Sketch pro- 
gram is fun to use; it can save pictures 
on disk and it's easily extended. To 
add new shapes to the menu, you sim- 
ply add a shape to the shape library, 
define a procedure like Lines, which 
sets the system's Mode variable to a 
procedure that invokes the new 
shape, and add a new menu variable 
whose value is that procedure. 

Many shape procedures can be 
"pure turtle" procedures using the x 
and y coordinates given to them for a 
starting point and direction (start at 
the first point, pointing at the second). 
The Sketch package then turns out to 
be a nice place to store your favorite 
Logo picture procedures. (I have 



worked out some shapes for electronic 
schematic symbols and for welding 
symbols. The trick is to use the two 
points that you mark not only to in- 
dicate the beginning and ending of a 
picture, but also to determine an ap- 
propriate scale for the symbol.) 
If you have an extra keypad, you 



might put labels on it and use it, in- 
stead of the menu package, to select 
which picture to draw. If you want 
more than the maximum number of 
24 menu items allowed by this sys- 
tem, you can modify it to use three 
columns of items instead of just one. 
Or, you might use multiple menus, 



Listing 8 continued. 



LINES - SET MODE TO LINES 
TO LINES 

SETMODE *' LINE 
END 

; CIRCLES - SET MODE TO CIRCLES 
TO 'CIRCLES' 

SETMODE " CIRCLE 
END 

. SHADED CIRCLES - SET MODE TO SHADED CIRCLES 
TO 'SHADED CIRCLES* 

SETMODE " FCIRCLE 
END 

. RECTANGLES - SET MODE TO RECTANCLES 
TO RECTANGLES 

SETMODE " RECTANGLE 
END 

. SHADED RECTANGLES - SET MODE TO SHADED RECTANGLES 
TO 'SHADED RECTANGLES' 

SETMODE " BLOCK 
END 

. SETMODE - SET MODE TO CGETPT2 FN XI Yl P XS P YS3 
j USED BY ALL TWO DIMENSIONAL SHAPE MODES 



TO SETMODE FN 

MAKE "MODE (FPUT "GETPT2 (FPUT FN til 
END 

. CHANGE PEN COLOR 
TO 'PEN COLOR ' 

PC COLOR 
END 

. CHANGE BACKGROUND COLOR 
TO 'BACKGROUND COLOR' 

BG COLOR 
END 

. USE COLOR MENU TO SELECT A COLOR 
TO COLOR 

OUTPUT SELECT "C 5 
END 

. SAVE BINARY PICTURE 
TO ' SAVE P I CTURE ' 

SAVEPICT GETNAME 
END 

; RETRIEVE BINARY PICTURE 
TO 'RETRIEVE PICTURE' 

RESET READPICT GETNAME 
END 

TO GETNAME 

TEXTSCREEN 

PRINT1 "' ENTER PICTURE NAME 

OUTPUT FIRST REQUEST 
END 

. THE COLOR MENU 

MAKE "CO "BLACK 

MAKE "CI "WHITE 

MAKE "C2 "GREEN 

MAKE "C3 "VIOLET 

MAKE "C4 "ORANGE 

MAKE "C5 "BLUE 



Y 1 P XS P YS] ) ) 



Microcomputing, January 1984 97 



selecting one menu from within 
another. 

Another extension, a little more dif- 
ficult, would be to write procedures 
that allow you to specify three points 
instead of just two, then to use the 
points to draw curves, such as circular 
arcs or parts of parabolas. 

Our next step was to try to connect a 
digital plotter (instead of a dot matrix 
printer) to the program. I found that 
there was no easy way to do it. 

A plotter is not a raster- or dot-ori- 



ented device; it's more like the Logo 
turtle in that it can take commands to 
move from place to place, either drag- 
ging its pen on the paper or not. 

There is no reasonable way, how- 
ever, to convert the binary image of 
the Apple graphics screen to a set of 
plotter commands. The solution, de- 
scribed in part 2 of this article, led 
me to adapt Turtle graphics to the 
plotter and convert the Sketch pack- 
age into an automatic programming 
system. ■ 



TO LOADSKETCH 

READ "POINTER 

READ "MENU 

READ "CURS.AUX 

READ "SHAPES 

READ "SKETCH 

DOS CBLOAD INTERFAC E . I I N3 

ERASE LOADSKETCH 
END 



LOADSKETCH 



; t h i s is 



self start ino file 



Listing 9. The Sketch package loader (File: Draw). 



Making 
Room 



The Terrapin Logo assembler is a fairly 
large Logo program. Consequently, once it 
is loaded, there isn't much room left in 
memory for the routine you want to as- 
semble. 

For the HiPad interface, this meant I had 
to break the machine-language routines 
into two parts, as shown in Listing 2. 

In order to allow the second part of the 
program to reference labels defined in the 
first part, I modified the Logo assembler 
slightly: 

1) I deleted the routine ERNS, which 
erases the labels on the Labels list. 

2) I deleted the first line of the procedure 
Assemble, which checks the variable 
Labels and erases its current value. 

3) I also added the statement 

MAKE "ROR[IMP106] 

to the file Opcodes. Logo, which allowed 
us to use the 6502 right rotate instruction. 

RE 



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98 Microcomputing, January 1984 



CONVERSIONS 



Breakeven program (July 1 983 Microcomputing, p. 74) con- 
verted/or Heath H89 users; its written in MBasic. Conver- 
sion by Jeffrey Jones, 28H Flintlock RoadL Ledyara\ CT 
06339. 



100 E*=CHR*<27):CS*=E**"E":RV**E**"p":NV*=E*+"q":CD*=E*+"B":C5*«CD*+CD«+CD*-M2D*< 

CD* 

110 DIM C (21): REM DIMENSIONS COST FIGURE TABLE 

120 PRINT CS*: PR I NT: GOSUB 1910lPRINT 

130 PRINT 

•ANSWER 1 TO SKIP THE INSTRUCTIONS" 

•AND GO RIGHT TO THE DATA-ENTRY AREA." 



•ANSWER 2 TO SEE THE INSTRUCTIONS" 
AND THEN ENTER DATA. " 

•ANSWER 3 TO STOP NOW. "I PRINT 



140 PRINT 
ISO PRINT 
160 PRINT 
170 PRINT 
180 PRINT 
190 PR I NT: PR I NT 
200 INPUT "";0 
210 IF Q< 1 OR 0>3 THEN 120 
220 IF 0=1 THEN 850 

270 IF 0=2 THEN 240 ELSE PRINT"END OF PROGRAM" I END 
240 PRINT CS*: PRINT : GOSUB 19101 

250 PR I NT "THIS PROGRAM WILL ALLOW YOU TO ENTER" 
260 PR I NT "YOUR SALES VOLUME AND COST DATA, AND" 
270 PR I NT "THEN WILL PRINT A CHART FOR YOU, BASED" 
280 PRINT"ON YOUR OWN INFORMATION." 
290 PRINT 

300 PR I NT "TO KEEP THINGS SIMPLE, WE" 

310 PRINT"0NLY ENTER YOUR TOTAL SALES VOLUME, AND" 
320 PRINT"THE TOTAL OF YOUR COST OF SALES. - " 
330 PRINT 

MO PR I NT "THIS INCLUDES YOUR YOUR DIRECT COSTS, SUCH" 
350 PRINT'AS LABOR AND MATERIALS. YOU ARE ALSO" 
360 PRINT'ASKED TO ENTER YOUR OVERHEAD COSTS" 
370 PRINT 

380 PRINT"THE TOTAL OF THESE TWO - DIRECT COSTS" 
390 PR I NT "AND OVERHEAD COSTS - WILL BE" 
400 PRINT"YOUR TOTAL COST OF SALES 
410 PR I NT: GOSUB 1910: 

420 PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE... ": A*= INPUT* ( 1 ) 
4 70 PRINT CS*: PRINTiGOSUB 19 10: 

440 PRINT"YOUR SALES DATA WILL BE PRINTED IN" 
450 PR I NT "SEVEN COLUMNS, WITH THE INITIAL " 
4<SO PRINT" STARTING SALES IN THE CENTER. THEN, " 
470 PRINT"SINCE YOU WERE AS> ED FOR A PERCENTAGE" 
480 PRINT" INCREASE /DECREASE FIGURE, THE COLUMNS" 
490 PRINT" TO THE RIGHT AND LEFT OF THE STARTING" 
900 PR I NT "SALES COLUMN WILL SHOW THIS AMOUNT" 
510 PRINT" INCREASED (RIGHT SIDE) AND DECREASED" 
520 PRINT" <LE Kl SIDE) BY THE PERCENTAGE YOU " 
530 PRINT-SFECIFIED. " 
54 O PRINT 

550 PR I NT "THIS IS A CUMALATIVE PERCENT, BY THE" 
560 PR I NT "WAY, SO YOU CAN EASILY SEE WHAT " 
570 PRINT-HAPPENS TO YOUR SALES IF THEY INCREASE" 
580 PRINT'OR DECREASE BY THE 7. YOU ENTERED" 
59(i PRINT: GOSUB 1910: PRINT 

600 PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE. ..": A*=INPUT* < 1 > 
610 PRINT CS*i PRINT : GOSUB 1910« PRINT 
620 PRINT"YOUR COST INFORMATION IS TOTALED." 
630 PR I NT "YOU ARE ALSO ASKED TO ENTER A PERCENT" 
640 PR I NT "THAT YOU'D LIKE TO SEE YOUR COSTS" 

650 PRINT" INCREASE OR DECREASE." 

660 PRINT 

670 PR I NT "THIS INFORMATION IS PRINTED AS THE" 

680 PR I NT "LEFT-HAND COLUMN OF YOUR PRINTOUT," 

690 PR I NT "AND - LIKE THE SALES FIGURES - HAS " 

700 PRINT"YOUR STARTING COST AMOUNT IN THE" 

710 PR I NT "CENTER OF THE NUMBERS, WITH THE TOTALS" 

720 PR I NT "FOR YOUR COSTS INCREASING (GOING DOWN" 

730 PRINT"THE CHART) AND DECREASING (GOING UP" 

740 PR I NT "THE CHART) ACCORDING TO THE PERCENT" 

750 PRINT-YOU SPECIFIED TO START WITH." 

760 PRINT: GOSUB 1910: PRINT 

770 PRINT"HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE..."! A*=INPUT*<1> 

780 PRINT CS*: PR I NT: GOSUB 19101 PRINT 

790 PR I NT "BY READING ACROSS FOR SALES AND THEN" 
800 PRINT"DOWN THE LEFT-HAND COLUMN FOR COSTS- 
SI PRINT-YOU CAN DETERMINE YOUR PROFIT OR LOSS" 
820 PRINfBASED ON WHAT MAY HAPPEN TO YOUR BUSINESS" 
830 PR I NT: GOSUB 1910: PRINT 

840 PRINT-HIT ANY KEY TO START... " : A*« INPUT* ( 1 ) 
850 PRINT CS*: PRINT: GOSUB 1910: PRINT: PRINT 
860 PR I NT "STARTING FIGURE MUST BE A POSITIVE NUMBER 
870 INPUT "STARTING SALES VOLUME ":S(4> 
880 IF S(4) »0 THEN 850 

890 PRINT CS*: PR INT: GOSUB 1910: PRINT: PRINT 

900 PR I NT "NOW ENTER THE PERCENT" 

910 INPUT "INCREASE /DECREASE FOR EACH PERIOD ? " » PS 

920 IF PS<=1 THEN GOTO 930 ELSE PS-PS/ 100 

930 IF PS OR PS 100 THEN 900 

940 PRINT CS*: PR I NT i GOSUB 1910: PRINT: PRINT 

950 INPUT "DIRECT COSTS "|D 

960 PRINT CS*: PRINT: GOSUB 1910: PRINT: PRINT 

970 INPUT "OVERHEAD COSTS "fO 

980 C( 11 )»0+D:REM C(ll) TOTAL COST TO START 

990 IF C(U> =1 THEN 1040 

1000 PRINT CS*|C5*| "YOUR DIRECT COSTS • OVERHEAD " 

1010 PRINT-COSTS TOTAL LESS THAN ZERO." 

1020 PR I NT: PR I NT "THEY MUST BE A POSITVE FIGURE. " I PRINT 

1030 PRINT-ENTER ANY KEY TO START OVER " |l A**INPUT* ( 1 ) l GOTO 890 

1040 PRINT CS* i PR I NT: GOSUB 1910: PRINT: PRINT 

1050 PR I NT "TO GET YOUR COST FIGURES TO GO" 

1060 PRINT-UP AND DOWN THE SIDE OF YOUR PRINTOUT," 

1070 PRINT-WE NEED TO ENTER THE PERCENT YOU'D" 

1080 PR I NT "LIKE TO SEE THESE FIGURES " 

1O90 PRINT" INCREASE /DECREASE. " 

llOO PRlNTtPRlNT 

1110 PRINT: INPUT "PERCENT INCREASE /DECREASE "|PC 

1120 IF PC<«1 THEN GOTO 1130 ELSE PC=PC/100 

1130 IF PC<0 OR POIOO THEN 1040 

1140 REM FIGURE SALES ACCOUNTS USING VARIABLES 

1150 REM S(l> THRU S<7) S<4) INPUTTED SALES AMOUNT 

1160 S(5>»(l-»-PS>*S(4> 

1170 S(6)«(1+PS)»S(5) 

1180 S(7>*(1+PS>*S(6> 

1190 REM DECREASE THE AMOUNTS 

1200 S<3)-<1-PS)«S<4) 



:PRINT:PRINT 



Listing continued 



1210 
1220 
1230 
1240 
1250 
1260 
127<> 
1 2BO 
1290 
1 300 
1310 
1320 
1 330 
1 340 
1 350 
1360 
1370 
1 380 
1 390 
1 400 
1 4 1 
1420 
1425 
1430 
1435 
1440 
1450 
1 460 
1470 
1 480 
1490 
1500 

1510 

1520 

1530 

1540 

1550 

1560 

1570 

:" 7.. 

1580 

1590 

1600 

1610 

1620 

1630 

1640 

1650 

1660 

1670 

1680 

1690 

1700 

1710 

1720 

1730 

1740 

1750 

1760 

1770 

1780 

1790 

1800 

1810 

1820 

1830 

1840 

18S0 

1860 

1B70 

1880 

1890 

1900 

1910 

N 

1920 

1930 



\ 



S(2> = ( 1-PS)»S( '■> 

S( 1 > = ( 1-PS)*S(2) 

REM FIGUE AMOUNTS OF COST FIGURE 

REM C(ll) STARTING COST TOTAL 

REM INCREASED COST FIRST 

FOR Y=12 TO 21 

C<Y>*(1+PC>»C<Y-1) 

NEXT Y 

REM DECREASED COSTS 

FOR Y=10 TO 1 STEP -1 

C<Y)=<1-PC)«C(Y*1) 

NEXT Y 

FOR X=l TO 7 

S(X)=INT(S(X> ) 

NEXT X 

FOR Y=l TO 21 

C(Y)«INT(C(Y) ) 

NEXT Y 

REM ♦* PRINT DATA •• 

PRINT CS*: PR I NT: GOSUB 1910: PRINTi PRINT 

PR I NT "ENTER TODAY S DATE, PLEASE ":LINE INPUT " " J D* 

PR I NT: PR I NT "ENTER A 1-TO PRINT OR A 2-TO END NOW " 

PRINT"»»»»» PRINTER READY ••»»•" 

A*=INPUT*(1) : IF A*=-"l" THEN 1440 ELSE IF A*»"2" THEN END 

IF A* 1 OR A* >2 THEN 1420 

REM : PRINTING SECTION 

LPRINT 

LPRINT" BREAKEVEN CHART <<<<<< 

LPRINT: LPRINT 

LPRINT "THIS REPORT WAS PRINTED ON "jD*|"." 

LPRINT: LPRINT "TO READ THIS CHART, FIND THE SALES FIGURE YOU WANT ON THE " 

LPRINT "TOP LINE, AND THEN LOOK DOWN THE LEFT SIDE, THE COST LINE, UNTIL YOU 

LPRINT "FIND THE COST YOU WANT. THE FIGURE WHERE THE LINES" 

LPRINT" INTERSECT IS YOUR PROFIT OR LOSS BASED ON YOUR SALES AND COSTS." 

LPRINT:LPRINT:LPRINT"THE INITIAL SALES VOLUME IS * " : INT (S <4> > ; " . " 

LPRINT-THE RATE OF INCREASE /DECREASE IS "|INT <100»PS)|" 7.. " 

LPRINT 

LPRINT-THE TOTAL STARTING COSTS ARE * "|INT <C<11>>|"." 

LPRINT'AND THE COSTS ARE INCREASING/ DECREASING AT THE RATE OF " | INT < 100*PC) 



SALES VOLUME >" 



LPRINT STRING* (79,"-") 

LPRINT 

LPRINT "DIRECT COSTS" 

LPRINT "PLUS OVERHEAD " 

LPRINT" !" 

LPRINT" ! 

LPRINT" V" 

LPRINT " "| 

FOR X«l TO 7 

Z9=S(X) : GOSUB 1920 

Q9=LEN<Z9*> 

A^A-MO 

LPRINT TAB(A+6-Q9)Z9*; 

NEXT 

LPRINT " " 

LPRINT " "jtLPRINT STRING* (70, "-") ; 

LPRINT " " 

FOR Y«l TO 21 

Z9«C(Y> : GOSUB 1920 

C*=Z9* 

K9«LEN<C*> 

FOR X=l TO 7 

Z9=S(X>-C<Y>: GOSUB 1920 
Q9=LEN<Z9*> 

IF X=l THEN LPRINT TAB (B-K9) C*+" !"; 

B»B+10 

LPRINT TAB<B-*-6-Q9)Z9*| 

NEXT X 

B-0 

NEXT Y 

LPRINT TAB<10> t STRING* (70, "-" > : 

LPRINT " " 

PRINT CS*|"END OF PROGRAM": END 

PRINT RVSxPRINT" »>>>> BREAKEVEN <<<<<< 



":PRINT NV*:RETUR 



Z9-INT<Z9> 

Z9*-STR* ( Z9> i RETURN 



>>>>> BREAKEVEN CHART <<<<<< 



THIS REPORT WAS PRINTED ON 22 JUNE 1983. 

TO READ THIS CHART, FIND THE SALES FIGURE YOU WANT ON THE 

TOP LINE, AND THEN LOOK DOWN THE LEFT SIDE, THE COST LINE, UNTIL YOU 

FIND THE COST YOU WANT. THE FIGURE WHERE THE LINES 

INTERSECT IS YOUR PROFIT OR LOSS BASED ON YOUR SALES AND COSTS. 



THE INITIAL SALES VOLUME IS * 100O00 . 
THE RATE OF INCREASE /DECREASE IS 10 7.. 



THE TOTAL STARTING COSTS ARE * 95000 . 

AND THE COSTS ARE INCREASING/ DECREASING AT THE RATE OF 



X. 



DIRECT COSTS 
PLUS OVERHEAD 



1 
( 


SALES 


VOLUME — 


-> 










V 
56880 


72900 


81OO0 


90000 


lOOOOO 


HOOOO 


121000 


133100 


i 16020 


24120 


33120 


43120 


53120 


64120 


76220 


5987 3 


! 13027 


21127 


30127 


40127 


30127 


61127 


73227 


63024 


9876 


17976 


26976 


36976 


46976 


57976 


70076 


66342 


6338 


14638 


23658 


33658 


43658 


54658 


66738 


69833 


! 3067 


11167 


20167 


30167 


40167 


31167 


63267 


73509 


! -609 


7491 


16491 


26491 


36491 


47491 


39591 


77378 


! -447B 


3622 


12622 


22622 


32622 


43622 


55722 


81430 


! -8350 


-430 


8S50 


18550 


28550 


39330 


51650 


83737 


! -12837 


-4737 


4263 


14263 


24263 


35263 


47363 


90230 


! -17330 


-9250 


-230 


9750 


19750 


30750 


42850 


93OO0 


1-22100 


- 1 4000 


-3000 


3000 


13000 


26000 


38100 


99749 


! -26849 


-18749 


-9749 


251 


10231 


21251 


33351 


104737 


'.-31B37 


-23737 


-14737 


-4737 


3263 


16263 


28363 


109974 


1-37074 


-28974 


-19974 


-9974 


26 


11026 


23126 


113473 


! -42573 


-34473 


-23473 


-15473 


-5473 


5527 


17627 


121246 


! -48346 


-40246 


-31246 


-21246 


-11246 


-246 


11854 


127309 


! -54409 


-46309 


-37309 


-27309 


-17309 


-6309 


5791 


133674 


1 -60774 


-52674 


-43674 


-33674 


-23674 


-12674 


-574 


140358 


! -67458 


-59358 


-50358 


-40358 


-30358 


-19358 


-7258 


147376 


• -74476 


-66376 


-57376 


-47376 


-37376 


-26376 


-14276 


154744 


! -81844 


-73744 


-64744 


-54744 


-44744 


-33744 


-21644 

















Microcomputing, January 1984 99 



Speak Easy 
And Carry a Big Digitizer 



This short program will provide you with a voice digitizer for 

your TRS-80 Model III. 



By Greg Rogers 



Speak-Easy is a voice digitizer for 
the TRS-80 Model III. It comes in 
two modules and requires 48K RAM, 
the Radio Shack Editor/ Assembler, a 
mini-amplifier, speaker and one disk 
drive. 

The first module takes sound input 
from a cassette microphone, digitizes 
it and gives you the option of saving 
the phrase on disk; later, it will be 
played back by the second module. 
The second module, a Basic enhancer, 
allows you to play back a previously 
saved voice module created by the 
first program. The enhancer adds two 
new commands to the Basic library. 
The first, CMD/S(nn), allows you to 
change the speed at which the voice 
module will play back (nn should be 
somewhere between 1-15, 1 being 
the fastest and 15 being the slowest). 
The second command, CMD/T, plays 
back the voice module. 

First Things First 

The first program begins by clearing 
the screen, printing the program title 
and asking you to press a key and 
speak. The program then waits for a 
key to be pressed. 

The BC register pair is initialized 
with the number of bytes input from 
the cassette. HL is set to the beginning 
of the buffer where the talk data will 
be stored. The cassette microphone 
(port 255) reads each byte and stores it 
in the buffer. A delay is made here. Al- 
though the delay decreases voice clar- 
ity during replay; it's necessary— with- 

100 Microcomputing, January 1984 



out it, one or two words would take up 
all available memory. By adding a de- 
lay, a sentence or more can be input at 
one time. 

Next, BC is decremented; the point 
in the buffer is incremented; and the 
loop repeats until BC is equal to zero. 
At this point, a "Buffer is Full" mes- 
sage is displayed and the computer 
waits for another key to be pressed. 

An almost identical loop is used to 



The Speak-Easy 's 

voice clarity is good 

enough to add that 

special touch to your 

Basic programs. 



replay the voice except that each byte 
is now read from the buffer and sent 
back to the port. Next, you are asked if 
you would like to save the talk data on 
disk or if you would like to try again. 

At this point, you may press Clear to 
exit from the program. You are asked 
for the tilespec, and the data is 
dumped to disk. 

A voice module that was saved from 
this program is needed. Go to Basic 
and type: 



CMD"L","the filespec of the voice module 
saved above" 

CMD"L","the filespec of program listing #2" 
DEFUSR = &H7000:X = USR(O) 

Ready to Go 

The module is now ready to use. 
The program begins by changing the 
jump vector of the CMD command so 
that it points to the Check routine. 
Now, every time the Basic interpreter 
encounters the command "CMD," 
there's a jump to the Check routine. It 
then replaces the entry address to the 
initialization program with a return 
command (C9 hex or 201 decimal) so 
that it cannot again be executed via 
X = USR(0). 

The Check routine begins by check- 
ing for the /. Since this is the sign for 
division, it's treated specially— the Ba- 
sic interpreter decodes it into 0D0 hex 
(208 decimal) instead of its ASCII 
value of 2F hex (47 decimal). 

If the character checked is not a /', 
then control returns to the Basic inter- 
preter and a syntax error occurs. Oth- 
erwise, both a T and an S, the legal 
commands, are checked for. If one is 
found, the program will jump to the 
correct routine to handle the com- 
mand. 

The Talk routine is the same as the 



Address correspondence to Greg Rogers, 912 
South Chester Road, West Chester, PA 19380. 



Output routine in Listing 1 except for 
the Delay routine. Instead of delaying 
for a fixed amount of time, the rou- 
tine delays for the amount specified 
inDELA. 



The Speed routine checks for a ( and 
returns to the Basic interpreter if one 
isn't found. It then moves to the next 
character, which should be the first 
digit in an eight-bit number that spec- 



ifies the new speed for voice module 
playback. 

A routine is called in the ROM at 
2B1C hex (11036 decimal), which con- 
verts an ASCII string pointed to by HL 



00100 

00110 

00120 
00130 
00140 
00150 
00160 
00170 
00180 
00190 
00200 
00210 
00220 
00230 
00240 
00250 
00260 
00270 
00280 
00290 
00300 
00310 
00320 
00330 
00340 
00350 
00360 
00370 
00380 
00390 
00400 
00410 
00420 
00430 
00440 
00450 
00460 
00470 
00480 

00490 

00500 
00510 
00520 
00530 
00540 
#0550 
00560 
00570 
00580 
00590 
00600 
00610 
00620 
00630 

00*40 

00650 



> 
i 
t 

i 
i 
i 

BUFF 
FILE1 

DUMP1 
FILE 



ORG 

DEFS 

DEFM 

DEFB 

DEFM 

DEFM 

DEFM 

DEFB 



DELAY 
DELP 

VDPUT 



BUFFER 



LD 

DJNZ 

RET 

LD 

OR 

RET 

LD 

INC 

INC 

JR 

EQU 



MSG1 
MSG2 
MSG3 
MSG4 
MSG5 



DEFM 

NOP 

DEFM 

NOP 

DEFM 

NOP 

DEFM 

NOP 

DEFM 

DEFB 



>TART 



CALL 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LDIR 



PROGRAM LISTING # 1 

CREATES MODULES OF SPEAK DATA 



7000H 
2 

FILENAME? 
3 
'DUMP ■ 



> ORIGINATE AT 7000H 
i STORAGE BUFFER 
j FILENAME PROMPT 

i 'DUMP' COMMRND 



( START-8000, END-0E000 



13 



DELAY ROUTINE 



B. 10 
DELP 

A,<HL> 

A 

2 

CDE),A 

HL 

DE 

VDPUT 

8000H 



.LOOP 10 TIMES 

iDO IT 

..RETURN TO CALLER 

;GET CHARACTER 

;IS IT ZERO? 

•RETURN IF SO 

>PUT ON SCREEN 

■NEXT CHARACTER 

;NEXT SCREEN POSITION 

•LOOP UNTIL DONE 

i START OF SPEAK BUFFER 



IMPORTANT MESSAGES 

'SP*»ch - b* Gre9 Ro9ers' 

'Press any ke* jnd SPEAK' 

'Buffer is full. Press an* ke* to rePl**. - 

'Press ENTER to duroP to disk, ana other ke* to fcrx *9*ir>. 



'Another Phrase 
3 



SET-UP CODE 



01C9H 

HL • BUFFER 
DE. BUFFER* 1 
BC5FFFH 
( HL >' 



OP N ; " ' 



006*0 


LD 


HL M3G1 


00670 


LD 


DE - 1 5 360 


00680 


CALL 


VDPUT 


00690 


LD 


Hi. ■ NSG2 


00700 


LD 


DE, 15360*64 


00710 


CALL 


VDPUT 


00720 ■ 




Lisi 



■CLEAR SCREEN 

i POINT TO BUFFER START 

POINT TO BUFFER* 1 

NUMBER OF BYTES TO CLEAR 
■CLEAR A BYTE 
■LOOP UNTIL DONE 

FIRST MESSAGE 
■WHERE TO PUT IT 
■PUT IT THERE 
•SECOND MESSAGE 

WHERE TO PUT IT 
.PUT IT THERE 



00730 > 

00740 l 

00750 • 

02760 i 

00770 INPUT 

00780 

00790 

00800 

00810 

00820 LOOP1 

00330 

00840 

00850 

00860 

00870 

00880 

00890 

00900 

00910 

08920 

00930 

00940 

00950 

00960 

00970 

00980 > 

00990 

01000 

01010 

01020 

01030 OUTPUT 

01040 

01050 

01060 

01070 
01080 LOOPS 

01090 

01100 
01110 

01120 

91 1 30 

01140 
01150 

01 1*0 

01170 

Z1\$0 

01190 

01200 

01210 

01220 

01230 LOOP 

01240 

01250 

012*0 

01270 

01280 

0)290 

1 300 

01310 

1 320 > 

1330 • 

0)340 ■ 

01350 i 



START OF MAIN PROGRAM 



LD A,<3840H> 

OR A 

JR Z> INPUT 

LD BC . 6000H 

LD HL, BUFFER 

IN A,<0FFH> 

LD < HL > , A 

PUSH BC 

PUSH HL 

CALL DELAY 

POP HL 

POP BC 

INC HL 

DEC BC 

LD A,B 

OR C 

JR NZ,L00P1 

LD HL-MSG3 

LD DE, 15360+128 

CALL VDPUT 



REPLAY VOICE 



LD A ■ < 3840H ) 

OR A 

JR Z, OUTPUT 

LD BC , 6000H 

LD HL , BUFFER 

LD A , (. HL > 

OUT < 255 > • A 

PUSH HL 

PUSH BC 

CALL DELAY 

POF BC 

POP HL 

INC HL 

DEC BC 

LD A,B 

OR C 

JR NZ • L00P3 

LD HL,MSG4 

LD DC . 1 5360*1 Ji 

CALL VDPUT 

LD A,<3840H) 

OR A 

JR Z • LOOP 

BIT 0,A 

JR NZ . DUMP 

BIT 1,A 

RET NZ 

JR START 



SAVE TALK DATA 



Listing 1. Speak-Easy voice digitizer creates speak data modules. 




jREAD KEYBOARD 

j IS IT ZERO? 

>LOOP IF SO 

i NUMBER OF BYTES 

i START OF BUFFER 

,GET A BYTE FROM CASSETTE 

MICROPHONE 
j STORE IT IN BUFFER 
,SAVE BYTE COUNTER 
,SAVE BUFFER POSITION 
;WAIT A WHILE 
, RESTORE BUFFER POSITION 
; RESTORE BYTE COUNT 
l INC. BUFFER POSITION 

DECREMENT BYTE COUNT 
, TEST FOR ZERO 

,LOOP IF NOT 

J 'BUFFER FULL' MESSAGE 

•WHERE TO PUT IT 

,PUT IT THERE 



READ FROM KEYBOARD 
I IS IT ZERO? 
•LOOP IF SO 
•NUMBER OF BYTES 
■START OF BUFFER 
,GET TALK BYTE 
•OUT TO SPEAKER 
>SAVE BUFFER POSITION 
, SAVE BYTE COUNT 
•WAIT A BIT 
■RESTORE BYTE COUNT 
•RESTORE BUFFER POSITION 
■ INC. BUFFER POSITION 
, DECREMENT BYTE COUNT 
• IS IT ZERO' 

LOOP IF NOT 

DUMP TO DISK? 

WHERE TO PUT QUESTION 

DO IT 

READ FROM KEYBOARD 

IS IT ZERO" 

LOOP IF SO 

IS IT THE ENTER KEY? 

GO IF SO 

IT THE CLEAR KEY' 
EXIT IF SO 
DO IT ALL AGAIN 




these upcoming special features! 



February— compatibility 
March— telecommunications 



April — interactive micros 
May— operating systems 



Microcomputing, January 1984 101 



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to an eight-bit value and stores the 
result in A. The new value is then 
stored in DELA. The end-parenthesis is 
checked for and control is returned to 
Basic. 

To set up a cassette recorder to ac- 
cept sound input, remove all of the 
plugs except the ear plug. Press the 
eject button and remove any tapes. At 



the upper left-hand corner inside the 
cassette recorder should be a small 
button. Press this button, and press 
Play/Record. Now all you have to do is 
speak into the microphone and it will 
pick up your voice. 

Although voice clarity isn't perfect, it 
should be good enough to add that 
special touch to your Basic programs. ■ 



00100 

001 10 

00120 
00130 
00140 

00 1 50 

00160 

001?0 
001*0 
00190 
00200 

002 1 

00220 
00230 

00240 

00250 
00260 
00270 
00230 
00290 

00300 

00310 
00320 
00330 

00340 

00350 
00360 
00370 
00330 

00400 
00410 
00420 
004 30 
00440 

00450 

00460 
00470 
00490 
00490 

00500 

00510 
00520 
00530 
00540 
00550 
00560 
00570 
00530 
00590 
00600 
00610 
00620 
006 30 
00640 
00650 
00660 
00670 
00680 
00690 

00700 

00710 
00720 

B l 360 

01380 

i 398 
01400 
i'i i 4 i 
01420 
014 30 
01440 
01450 
£■1460 
01470 

1 4P0 
01490 

0)500 

01510 
01520 
01530 
01540 
01550 
01560 
01570 
01580 
1 590 
01600 
01610 
01620 
01630 
01640 
01650 
01660 
01670 
1 680 
01690 
01700 
01710 



CMC' 
VOL I NE 



?TAPT 



MSG1 



CHECK 



OLD 



DELA 



TALK 
LOOP 



DUMP 



PILELP 



INPU 



OPG 
EQU 

E CO- 



LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

JP 

DEPM 

DEFB 



LD 

CP 

DEFB 

DEFW 

AST 

LD 

CP 

JR 

CP 

JR 

RET 

DEFB 



LD 

LD 

LD 

OUT 

PUSH 

PUSH 

CALL 

POP 

POP 

DEC 

INC 

LD 

OR 

JR 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LDIR 

LD 

LD 

LD 

CALL 

LD 

LD 

CALL 

LD 

LD 

CP 

INC 

JP 

DEC 

LD 

LD 

CALL 

LD 

CALL 

LD 

LD 

CALL 

LD 

LD 

CP 

JP 

CP 

JR 

RET 

END 



PROGRAM LISTING «. 

BASIC ENHANCER THAT ADDS TWO COMMANDS TO 
BASIC "CMD-T" AND "CMD : nr, >' . ALLOW? vijlj 
TO USE SPEECH MODULES YOU CREATED USING 
PPOGRAM LISTING #1 IN YOUR BASIC PPOGRAMS 



07000H 

4174H 

021BH 



INITIALIZATION 



HL,*'CMD> 

< OLD ' • Hl 

HL. CHECK 

( CMD ) • HL 

A, 201 

( START), A 

HL-MSG1 

VOL I NE 

' SPEAK-EASY 

13 



IS NOW INSTALLED' 



CHECK FOP A SPEAK-EASY COMMAND 



A • <- HL ' 

0D0H 

0C2H 



10H 

A • < HL > 

•T 1 

Z.TALK 

'S' 

Z i SPEED 



10 



TALK ROUTINE 



HL , 8000H 

BC , 6000H 

A,<HL > 

(255), A 

HL 

BC 

DELAY 

BC 

HL 

BC 

HL 

A,B 

C 

NZ,LOOP 

HL.FILE 

DE.FILE+1 
BC 7 
• hl i 32 

HI. 15 360+256 

< 4020H < ■ HL 

HL FILE1 

021BH 

B.3 

HL.FILE 

40H 

HL.FILE 

A , ■ HL ) 

13 

HL 

NZ,FILELP 

HL 

HL,DUMP1 
429CH 

HL,MSG5 
021BH 

HL-BUFF 

40H 

HL,BUFF 

A , < HL ) 

' Y ' 

Z, START 

'N' 

NZ . I NPIJ 

START 



. ORIGINATE AT 700 

. JUMP VECTOR 

•VDLINE LINE POM ROUTINE 



•CURRENT VALUE IN VECTOR 

SAVE IT 

•NEW JUMP VECTOR 
■STORE IT 

CODE FOP 'RETURN 
•STORE IT 

FIRST MESSAGE 
•PUT IT ON 



GET CHARACTER 

IS IT A DECODED ' /" 

RETURN IF NOT 

WHERE TO GO 

NEXT CHARACTER 

GET CHARACTER 

IS IT A »T'T 

MAKE NOISE IF SO 

IS IT A '$'? 

CHANGE SPEED IF SO 

RETUPN 

SPEED 



START OF TALK DATA 
•NUMBER OF BYTES 
,GET BYTE 

SEND IT TO SPEAKER 
•SAVE POINTER 
AVE COUNTER 
•WAIT A BIT 
•RESTORE COUNTER 
j RESTORE POINTER 
\ DECREMENT COUNTER 
I INCREMENT POINTER 
>IS THE COUNTER TO ZERO 

LOOP IF NOT 

■HL POINTS TO FILESPEC 

• BUFFER 

■FILESPEC BUFFER ♦ 1 

NUMBER Of- BYTES 
-CLEAR ONE BYTE 
•LOOP UNTIL DUNE 
•C UPSON POSITION 
IVE IT 

FILENAME 7 ' MESS- 
■PUT IT ON SCREEN 

LENGTH 

WHERE TO PUT IT 
>GET FILESPEC 

HL -> FILESPEC 
■GET A CHAP 

• TERMINATOR 7 

■ NE>: T CHAPAC TER 

JUMP IF NOT 
■ADJUST HL 

TURN IT TO fl SPACE 
DUMP' COMMAND 

EXECUTE TRSDOS COMMAND 

AND RETURN TO CALLER 

ANOTHER' QUESTION 
•PUT IT ON SCREEN 
•NUMBER OF CHARACTERS 
■WHERE TO PUT IT 

GET CHARACTERS 
•POINT TO CHARACTERS 

GET CHARACTER 
, IS IT A 'Y" 7 
;DO IT AGAIN IF SO 

IS IT A ' N' It 
iGET ANOTHER IF NOT 

• EXIT 
i END 



Listing 2. Program allows you to use speak modules in Basic programs. 



102 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Circle 272 on Reader Service card. 



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Microcomputing, January 1984 103 



All Sorts of Versatility 



The author wrote this Z-80 assembly language sorting 
routine for Basic users who want fast and flexible 

reorganization. 



By Gregory C. Hamilton 



This article provides a versatile 
Z-80 assembly language sorting 
routine that is designed specifically 
for Basic users. Based on the Shell- 
Metzner sort algorithm that appeared 
in an article by Albert J. Marino [Mi- 
crocomputing, April 1981), this routine 
includes these additional features: 

1. Sorting of records containing mul- 
tiple data items 

2. User specifications of data items 
for sort 

3. User selectability of sort ordering 

4. Partial sort capabilities 

5. Tie-breaking logic 

Basic, as a language, provides most 
of us with the programming capabili- 
ties we want. There are, however, 
several perfunctory operations for 
which Basic requires a lot of time to 
perform. Sorting data items is one 
such function. 

Fast and Flexible 

A sorting routine should be fast, 
efficient and flexible. This can be 
achieved by implementing it as an 
assembly language utility routine to 
be accessed by Basic through either a 
Call or USR statement. 

I developed the present routine to 
assist in report preparation and the 
generation of lists used for academic 
advising and counseling. 

Depending upon the purpose, I of- 
ten prepared two separate lists of the 
same data, but organized them differ- 
ently. For example, two lists contain- 
ing the names of freshman students 
and their grade-point averages can be 
ordered alphabetically or according to 
descending GPA. Three-level sorts, 
such as alphabetical lists of student 

104 Microcomputing, January 1984 



names grouped according to level 
(freshmen, sophomores and so on) 
further subdivided into major field of 
study, are also commonplace. 

What emerged was the need for a 
general-purpose sorting routine that 
could handle a wide variety of appli- 
cations. The Z-80 assembly language 
program shown in Listing 1 does the 
trick. 

Before discussing the routine itself, 
a few observations about Basic are 
prerequisite. 

Data Manipulation in Basic 

I use Microsoft's MBasic disk ver- 
sion 5.03 for general programming 
purposes. Since my particular applica- 
tion involves student information, my 
data records consist of several data 
items for each student (e.g., name, stu- 
dent number and major). 

A Basic driving program stores each 
data item separately in a two-dimen- 
sional array, the organization of which 
is crucial to the sorting routine. 
MBasic stores two-dimensional arrays 
columnwise in memory. So data items 
for the nth record are labeled as 
A$(1,N), A$(2,N), A$(3,N) and so on 
with the row index indicating the data 
item and the column index represent- 
ing the record index. For the present 
application, I force all data items to be 
string variables. 

What MBasic actually does is to cre- 
ate a variable pointer array (VARPTR 
array) consisting of a three-byte code 
for each data item. The first byte is the 
length of the data item string (which 
explains the 255-byte limit on string 
variables). 
The other two bytes are an address 



(in reverse order) pointing to the loca- 
tion of the actual data item. 

Using the Basic VARPTR function 
with a string variable as the argument 
will return the address in the VAR- 
PTR array of the requested string vari- 
able, not the actual address of the 
string itself. For example, consider the 
following nine bytes from a VARPTR 
array located at hex address 6D00. 

6D00: IE 00 8D 07 F9 8C 03 F6 8C 

The first three bytes indicate a string 
30 bytes (IE) in length located at hex 
address 8D00. The next three bytes 
point to a seven-byte string at hex ad- 
dress 8CF9, while the third string is 
three bytes long and is found at hex 
address 8CF6. Notice that the hex ad- 
dresses decrease in value owing to the 
fact that string space is allocated dy- 
namically from high memory down. 
These nine bytes could correspond to 
A$(l,l), A$(2,l) and A$(3,l) (i.e., 
pointers to the first three data items of 
the first record). 

The VARPTR array address for any 
particular data item can be easily de- 
termined if you know the starting 
memory address of the VARPTR ar- 
ray and the total number of data items 
per record. I will include the mathe- 
matical equation since the sorting 
routine uses it as part of its calcula- 
tions. The VARPTR array address for 
data item A$(R,C) is: 



Address correspondence to Gregory C. Hamilton, 
2219 Surmyside Ave., Lansing, Ml 48910. 



START +3 * |(R-1) + (C-l)*MAXROW) 

START is the starting memory address 
of the VARPTR array and MAXROW 
is the number of data items per 
record. 

The Basic VARPTRIA$(R,C)) func- 
tion returns the value of the above 
equation, so Start can be found by us- 
ing START = VARPTR(A$(U)). 

The equation holds only if you use 
an Option Base 1 statement to set the 
lowest array index to one. This saves 
three bytes per record in the VARPTR 
array with minimal inconvenience in 
computation. 

Using the VARPTR array structure 
and the equation above, the sorting 
routine can compute the VARPTR 
array address for any data item and 
get the memory location of the actual 
data. 

The VARPTR array is also used in 
the actual sorting of the data items. In 
the course of the sort, if data items 
have to be switched, I switch the 
VARPTR array data rather than the 
actual data. 

Note that all data items that com- 
pose a record must be switched, re- 
quiring 3*MAXROW byte transfers, 
which is usually considerably less 
than switching the actual data. In the 
example above, I would switch only 
nine bytes instead of the 40 bytes of 
actual data (30 + 7-1-3). 

Routine Initialization 

I have written the routine for access 
by using the USR statement. The rou- 
tine requires 286 bytes of memory, in- 
cluding 22 bytes for control param- 
eters and scratch space. Although the 
listing has its origin at hex address 
9C00, it can be assembled elsewhere. 
The routine requires eight parame- 
ters, which may be set by the Basic 
calling routine. These parameters and 
their mnemonics are: 

1. Beginning record for sorting 
(MINCOL) 

2. Ending record for sorting (MAX- 
COL) 

3. Starting address of VARPTR ar- 
ray (START) 

4. Number of data items per record 
(MAXROW) 

5. Data item for primary sort (SRT- 

KEY) 

6. Primary sort ordering index 
(SRTROD) 

7. Alternate data item for tie break- 
ing (ALTKEY) 

8. Secondary ordering index (ALT- 

ORD) 
The first two parameters allow for 







Listing 






0001 






0002 ; 






0003 ; 






0004 ; 






0005 ; 






0006 ; 






0007 ; 






0008 ; 






0009 ; 






0010 : 






0011 ; 






0012 : 






0013 
0014 
0015 
0016 
0017 
0018 
0019 


* 9C00 


AF 


0020 


* 9C01 


2A159D' 


0021 


' 9C04 


ED5B139 


0022 


* 9C08 


ED52 


0023 


* 9C0A 


23 


0024 


' 9C0B 


22109D' 


0025 
0026 
0027 
0028 


* 9C0E 


AF 


0029 


' 9C0F 


2A109D' 


0030 


* 9C12 


CB1C 


0031 


' 9C14 


CB1D 


0032 


* 9C16 


7D 


0033 


* 9C17 


B4 


0034 


' 9C18 


C8 


0035 


* 9C19 


22109D' 


0036 
0037 
0038 
0039 


• 9C1C 


EB 


0040 


' 9C1D 


2A159D* 


0041 


' 9C20 


AF 


0042 


' 9C21 


ED52 


0043 


' 9C23 


220C9D' 


0044 
0045 
0046 
0047 


' 9C26 


2A139D' 


0048 


' 9C29 


22089D' 


0049 


• 9C2C 


220A9D' 


0050 
0051 
0052 
0053 


' 9C2F 


AF 


0054 


• 9C30 


32129D' 


0055 


' 9C33 


3A1B9D' 


0056 


* 9C36 


E5 


0057 


• 9C37 


CDFD9C 


0058 


•9C3A 


El 


0059 


'9C3B 


EB 


0060 


*9C3C 


19 


0061 


*9C3D 


220E9D' 


0062 


'9C40 


3A1A9D' 


0063 


'9C43 


CDE19C 


0064 


•9C46 


CDE19C 


0065 


*9C49 


D5 


0066 
0067 
0068 
0069 


'9C4A 


7E 


0070 


•9C4B 


23 


0071 


*9C4C 


5E 


0072 


'9C4D 


23 


0073 


*9C4E 


56 


0074 


*9C4F 


El 


0075 


'9C50 


23 . 


0076 


'9C51 


4E 


0077 


'9C52 


23 


0078 


•9C53 


46 


0079 


'9C54 


60 


0080 


'9C55 


69 


0081 


'9C56 


47 


0082 
0083 
0084 
0085 


"9C57 


1A 


0086 


'9C58 


96 


0087 


*9C59 


C26B9C 


0088 


'9C5C 


13 


0089 



Listing 1. Z-80 Assembly Language Shell-Metzner Sort. 



ORG 



9C00H 



SHELL-METZNER SORT: Z-80 ASSEMBLY VERSION 



ENTRY PARAMETERS 



MINC0L=FIRST COLUMN 
MAXC0L=LAST COLUMN 
MAXR0W=# OF ITEMS/COLUMN 
SRTKEY=R0W TO SORT 
SRT0RD=0RDER FOR SORT 
ALTKEY=ALTERNATE SORT ROW 
ALT0RD=SEC0NDARY ORDER 
START=BASIC ARRAY ADDRESS 



EXIT PARAMETERS: ADJUSTED VARPTR ARRAY 



CALCULATE # OF COLUMNS TO SORT AND SET TO MVAL 



X0R 


A 


;CLEAR CARRY 


LD 


HL,(MAXC0L) 


;LAST COLUMN 


LD 


DE, (MINCOL) 


;FIRST COLUMN 


SBC 


HL.DE 




INC 


HL 


;HL=# OF COLUMNS 


LD 


(MVAL),HL 




CALCULATE AND SAVE M/2: RETURN IF 


r DONE 


DIVIDE: X0R 


A 


; CLEAR FLAGS 


LD 


HL.(MVAL) 




RR 


H 


;DIVIDE BY 2 


RR 


L 




LD 


A,L 




OR 


H 




RET 


Z 


; RETURN IF ZERO 


LD 


(MVAL),HL 




SET KVAL = UPPER 


LIMIT - MVAL 




EX 


DE,HL 


;DE=M/2 


LD 


HL,(MAXC0L) 


;LAST COLUMN 


X0R 


A 


;CLEAR CARRY 


SBC 


HL,DE 




LD 


(KVAL),HL 


;SAVE AS KVAL 


! INITIALIZE IVAL 


AND JVAL 


• 


LD 


HL, (MINCOL) 


; LOWEST TO SORT 


LD 


(IVAL),HL 




LD 


(JVAL),HL 




; SET LVAL AND GET 


BASIC VARPTR ADDRESSES 


FNDADR: X0R 


A 


;CLEAR FLAGS . 


LD 


(FLAG), A 


; PRIMARY ITEMS 


LD 


A,(SRT0RD) 


;SET ORDER 


PUSH 


HL 


;SAVE IVAL 


CALL 


SET0RD 




POP 


HL ; 


RESET IVAL 


EX 


DE,HL ; 


DE=IVAL 


ADD 


HL,DE ; 


HL=LVAL 


LD 


(LVAL),HL 




LD 


A,(SRTKEY) 


,GET SORT INDEX 


GETPTR: CALL 


SRTADR ; 


, IVAL VARPTR 


CALL 


SRTADR : 


,LVAL VARPTR 


PUSH 


DE 1 


.SAVE IVAL ADDR 


; SET HL AND DE TO 1 


ACTUAL DATA ADDRES! 


;es 


LD 


A,(HL) 


jSTRING LENGTH 


INC 


HL 




LD 


E,(HL) 


\L0\i BYTE 


INC 


HL 




LD 


D,(HL) 


;DE=LVAL DATA 


POP 


HL 


JVAL VARPTR 


INC 


HL 


.SKIP LENGTH 


LD 


C(HL) 


,L0W BYTE 


INC 


HL 




LD 


B,(HL) 


;BC=IVAL DATA 


LD 


H,B 


;M0VE TO HL 


LD 


L,C 




LD 


B,A 


;B=STRING LENGTH 


| COMPARE ASCII STRINGS 




C0MPAR: LD 


A,(DE) 


;LVAL DATA 


SUB 


(HL) 


;IVAL DATA 


JP 


NZ, DECIDE 


^- — *> 


INC 


DE 


(More______^ 



Microcomputing, January 1984 105 



Listing continued. 














'9C5D 


23 


0090 




INC 


. HL 






*9C5E 


10F7 


0091 
0092 




DJNZ 


COMPAR-$ 


;CHECK ALL BYTES 








0093 


; ITEMS EQUAL 


IF ALTERNATE 


ITEM WAS USED 








0094 












'9C60 


3A129D' 


0095 




LD 


A, (FLAG) 






*9C63 


FE01 


0096 




CP 


1 


;D0 ALT COMPARE? 




'9C65 


CAB19C' 


0097 




JP 


Z, BUMP J 






'9C68 


C3C99C 


0098 




JP 


EQUAL 


; ITEMS ARE SAME 








0099 


» 










*9C6B 


DAB19C 


0100 
0101 


DECIDE 


: JP 


C, BUMP J 


;D0 WE SWITCH? 








0102 


; EXCHANGE 


IVAL AND 


LVAL VARPTRS 










0103 


; GET VARPTR 








0104 












*9C6E 


ED5B089D 


' 0105 


EXCNG: 


LD 


DE.(IVAL) 


;IVAL INDEX 




'9C72 


2A0E9D' 


0106 




LD 


HL,(LVAL) 


;LVAL INDEX 




*9C75 


3E01 


0107 




LD 


A,l 


;ALL ITEMS 




'9C77 


CDE19C 


0108 


* 


CALL 


SRTADR 


;IVAL VARPTR 




"9C7A 


CDE19C 


0109 




CALL 


SRTADR 


;LVAL VARPTR 




'9C7D 


3A199D' 


0110 




LD 


A,(MAXROW) 






'9C80 


47 


0111 




LD 


B,A 


;D0 ALL ITEMS 




'9C81 


C5 


0112 


ITEMSW. 


PUSH 


BC 


;SAVE ITEM COUNT 




'9C82 


0603 


0113 




LD 


B,3 


;SWAP 3 BYTES 




'9C84 


4E 


0114 


VARPTR: 


LD 


C(HL) 






*9C85 


1A 


0115 




LD 


A,(DE) 


;SWITCH VARPTRS 




*9C86 


77 


0116 




LD 


(HL),A 






'9C87 


79 


0117 




LD 


A,C 






"9C88 


12 


0118 




LD 


(DEM 






*9C89 


23 


0119 




INC 


HL 






'9C8A 


13 


0120 




INC 


DE 






*9C8B 


10F7 


0121 




DJNZ 


VARPTR- $ 


;ALL 3 BYTES 




'9C8D 


CI 


0122 




POP 


BC 


; RESET COUNTER 




'9C8E 


10F1 


0123 
0124 




DJNZ 


ITEMSW-$ 


;D0 ALL ITEMS 








0125 


; RESET IVAL 


AND CHEC 










0126 












•9C90 


AF 


0127 




XOR 


A 






'9C91 


ED5B109D' 


0128 




LD 


DE.(MVAL) 






"9C95 


2A089D' 


0129 




LD 


HL.(IVAL) 






'9C98 


ED52 


0130 




SBC 


HL.DE 






'9C9A 


22089D' 


0131 




LD 


(IVAL).HL 


;NEW IVAL 




'9C9D 


AF 


0132 




XOR 


A 


; CLEAR FOR CHECK 




'9C9E 


ED5B139D' 


0133 




LD 


DE,(MINCOL) 






•9CA2 


ED52 


0134 




SBC 


HL,DE 






•9CA4 


FAB19C 


0135 
0136 




JP 


M,BUMPJ 


• 








0137 


; SET UP FOR 


NEXT COMPARISON 










0138 












•9CA7 


ED5B109D' 


0139 


NXTCOL: 


LD 


DE,(MVAL) 






'9CAB 


2A089D' 


0140 




LD 


HL.(IVAL) 


;D0 NEXT COLUMN 




'9CAE 


C32F9C 


0141 
0142 ; 




JP 


FNDADR 










0143 ; 


INCREMENT 


JVAL ANC 


COMPARE WITH 


KVAL 








0144 ; 












'9CB1 


2A0A9D' 


0145 


BUMP J: 


LD 


HL,(JVAL) 


;BUMP JVAL 




"9CB4 


23 


0146 




INC 


HL 






'9CB5 


220A9D' 


0147 




LD 


(JVAL),HL 






*9CB8 


22089D' 


0148 




LD 


(IVAL).HL 


;AND IVAL 




*9CBB 


ED5B0C9D' 


0149 




LD 


DE,(KVAL) 


;JVAL > KVAL? 




'9CBF 


EB 


0150 




EX 


DE,HL 


;SWAP FOR SUB 




*9CC0 


AF 


0151 




XOR 


A 






•9CC1 


ED52 


0152 




SBC 


HL,DE 






"9CC3 


DA0E9C 


0153 




JP 


C, DIVIDE 






*9CC6 


C3A79C 


0154 
0155 ; 




JP 


NXTCOL 


;D0 NEXT COLUMN 








0156 ; 


SORT ON ALT! 


ITEM IF PRIMARIES EQUAL 








0157 ; 












'9CC9 


3E01 


0158 


EQUAL: 


LD 


A,l 


;SET FLAG TO 




'9CCB 


32129D' 


0159 




LD 


(FLAG), A 


;STOP LOOP 




•9CCE 


3A1D9D' 


0160 




LD 


A,(ALTORD) 


;SET ALT ORDER 




'9CD1 


CDFD9C 


0161 




CALL 


SETORD 






'9CD4 


2A0E9D' 


0162 




LD 


HL.(LVAL) 






*9CD7 


ED5B089D' 


0163 




LD 


DE,(IVAL) 






'9CDB 


3A1C9D' 


0164 




LD 


A.(ALTKEY) 


;OTHER SORT KEY 




'9CDE 


C3439C 


0165 
0166 ; 




JP 


GETPTR 










0167 ; 


SUBROUTINE 


SRTADR 


- GENERATES VARI 








0168 : 
















0169 ; 


ENTRY 


TO SORT 








0170 ; 






DE = COLUMN INDEX TO BE 








0171 ; 






USED IN COMPARISON 








0172 ; 


EXIT 


PARAMETEf 








0173 ; 






DE = ENTRY VALUE OF HL 








0174 ; 






A = UNCHANGED 








0175 ; 












'9CE1 


08 


0176 


SRTADR: 


EX 


AF,AF' 


;SAVE A REG 




•9CE2 


E5 


0177 




PUSH 


HL 







*9CE3 


210000 


0178 




LD 


HL,0 


;SUM = (More 





either complete or partial sorting of 
the data. Only those records starting 
with MINCOL and ending with MAX- 
COL will be sorted. The entire data 
file can be sorted using values of one 
(default) and the maximum number of 
records. Partial sort capabilities are, 
therefore, possible by appropriate def- 
initions of these two parameters. 

The sort itself is based on a compari- 
son of data items. You can specify the 
data item (row index) to use for the 
primary comparison. A Secondary in- 
dex can be set for use in deciding the 
order in the case of a tie between pri- 
mary data items. Both of these values, 
SRTKEY and ALTKEY, have default 
values of one. 

You also have the option of having a 
sort done by ranking the data items 
from lowest ASCII value to highest 
or vice versa. The two parameters 
SRTORD and ALTORD specify the 
order for comparison of primary and 
secondary data items, respectively. 
The order is defaulted to be from low 
to high if these parameters aren't set. 

The ALTORD parameter gives you 
complete control over the order of da- 
ta records that have equal primary da- 
ta items. 

For calculation purposes, the rou- 
tine also needs the beginning address 
of the VARPTR array (Start) and the 
maximum number of data items per 
record (MAXROW). 

The values of these eight parame- 
ters are loaded into memory using the 
Poke statement. I prefer to group data 
variables at the end of my routines, so 
the parameter values are located from 
ORG + 275 to ORG + 285. 

The values of MINCOL, MAXCOL 
and Start are two-byte values and 
must be entered in standard Z-80 re- 
verse order. The remaining five val- 
ues require only one byte and start at 
ORG + 281. The parameters appear in 
the routine in the same order as they 
are listed above. 

A Modified S + M Routine 

Once the data items have been de- 
fined and the entry parameters speci- 
fied, the sorting routine is accessed by 
the USR statement. The routine itself 
is based on the modified version of the 
Shell-Metzner sort algorithm depicted 
in Fig. 1. I've included substantial doc- 
umentation in the listing but a few 
points should be made. 

The statement labeled Decide deter- 
mines whether to switch the two 
items being compared. Changing the 
condition from carry (C) to no-carry 
(NC) will cause the routine to perform 



106 Microcomputing, January 1984 



the high- to low-rank ordering. 

There is a short subroutine called 
SETORD that sets the byte at hex ad- 
dress 9C6B to D2 for a low-to-high or- 
dering or DA for the reverse ordering. 
The routine, therefore, actually modi- 
fies itself by setting this single byte de- 
pending on the value of SRTORD and 
ALTORD. 

I have also written a subroutine 
called SRTADR; it calculates the VAR- 
PTR address of the data item that is 
being used in the comparison. This 
routine is called with the DE register 
pair that contains the IVAL and the 
HL registers with LVAL. Upon return- 
ing, the HL registers contain the VAR- 
PTR address of IVAL and DE registers 
have LVAL. Calling the subroutine a 
second time will return the VARPTR 
address of IVAL in the DE registers 
and the VARPTR address of LVAL in 
the HL registers. 

Once these VARPTR addresses are 
calculated, I use them to reset the DE 
and HL register pairs to the addresses 
of the actual data to be compared. 
Note that I also set the B register to the 
length of the ASCII string. 

In the event that the characters in 
the first string are identical to those in 
the second, the routine must decide if 
it has just compared the primary data 
items or the secondary ones. This is 
the function of the Flag variable. Flag 
is set to zero whenever the primary 
data items are being compared. If the 
primary data items are equal, then the 
routine jumps to Equal where Flag is 
set to one, indicating that the second- 
ary data items are being compared. By 
checking this variable, I avoid an infi- 
nite loop problem. Equal also calls the 
SETORD subroutine to set the Decide 

byte. 

If the data items aren't in the de- 
sired order, all of the data items that 
make up the record must be ex- 
changed. The EXCNG section, there- 
fore, calculates the VARPTR address 
of the first data items and sets up a 
DJNZ loop on all MAXROW items. 
Note that the first data item is not nec- 
essarily the primary or secondary 
item used for comparison. Also notice 
that I switch the three VARPTR bytes 
for each data item and not the actual 
data, thus compensating for some of 
the time spent in the calculations. 

Performing Monumental Tasks 

The routine is capable of sorting da- 
ta items 255 characters in length. It 
can handle 65,535 records, each con- 
taining 255 data items. However, 



1 Listing continued. 












*9CE6 


IB 


0179 




DEC 


DE 


; COLUMN- 1 


'9CE7 


3A199D' 


0180 




LD 


A, (MAXROW) 




'9CEA 


47 


0181 




LD 


B,A 


;SET UP LOOP 


'9CEB 


19 


0182 




ADD 


HL.DE 




•9CEC 


10FD 


0183 




DJNZ 


-1 


;HL=(C-1)*MAXR0W 


"9CEE 


08 


0184 




EX 


AF,AF' 


;GET SORT ROW 


'9CEF 


4F 


0185 




LD 


C,A 




*9CF0 


0D 


0186 




DEC 


C 


;(R0W-1) 


'9CF1 


09 


0187 




ADD 


HL,BC 


;ADD IT IN 


'9CF2 


E5 


0188 




PUSH 


HL 


;M0VE TO DE 


'9CF3 


Dl 


0189 




POP 


DE 




*9CF4 


19 


0190 




ADD 


HL,DE 


;TIMES 2 


'9CF5 


19 


0191 




ADD 


HL,DE 


;TIMES 3 


'9CF6 


ED5B179D' 


0192 




LD 


DE, (START) 


;ARRAY BIAS 


*9CFA 


19 


0193 




ADD 


HL,DE 




'9CFB 


Dl 


0194 




POP 


DE 


;DE = ENTRY HL 


'9CFC 


C9 


0195 
0196 ; 




RET 










0197 : 


! SUBROUTINE 


SETORD 


- SETS ORDERING 


KEY 






0198 ; 














0199 : 


\ ENTRY 






0200 : 










'9CFD 


216B9C 


0201 


SETORD: 


LD 


HL, DECIDE 




"9D00 


36 D2 


0202 




LD 


(HL),0D2H 


;L0W TO HIGH 


'9D02 


FE00 


0203 




CP 





;A REG = ZERO 


*9D04 


C8 


0204 




RET 


Z 




*9D05 


36DA 


0205 




LD 


(HL),0DAH 


;HIGH TO LOW 


*9D07 


C9 


0206 
0207 




RET 










0208 


\ DATA BLOCK 1 








0209 










'9D08 


0000 


0210 


IVAL: 




DB 


0,0 




'9D0A 


0000 


0211 


JVAL 




DB 


0,0 




*9D0C 


0000 


0212 


KVAL 




DB 


0,0 




*9D0E 


0000 


0213 


LVAL 




DB 


0,0 




•9D10 


0000 


0214 


MVAL 




DB 


0,0 




'9012 


00 


0215 


FLAG 




DB 







*9D13 


0100 


0216 


MINC0L: 


DB 


1.0 




•9D15 


0100 


0217 


MAXC0L: 


DB 


1.0 




'9D17 


0000 


0218 


START: 


DB 


0,0 




'9D19 


01 


0219 


MAXROW: 


DB 


1 




'9D1A 


01 


0220 


SRTKEY: 


DB 


1 




"9D1B 


00 


0221 


SRTORD: 


DB 







"9D1C 


01 


0222 


ALTKEY: 


DB 


1 




*9D1D 


00 


0223 


ALTORD: 


DB 








most of us don't perform such monu- 
mental tasks on a microcomputer. My 
work has involved sorting 150 rec- 
ords, each with data items having a 
composite length of 80 characters. 
This routine can accomplish even the 



most complex sort in one to two sec- 
onds. Although far from a benchmark 
value, it does indicate that the speed is 
acceptable. 

Most versions of Basic that support 
the VARPTR function also recognize 



5000 
5010 
5020 
5030 
5040 
5050 
5060 
5070 
5080 
5090 
5100 
5110 
5120 
5130 
5140 
5150 
5160 
5170 
5180 



PRINT "Command Options: Sort, Display, Print or End "; 

INPUT "(S,D,P,E)";C$ : PRINT 

IF C$="S" THEN G0SUB 5060 

IF C$="D" THEN PRINT CHR$(12) : PRINT : G0SUB (DISPLAY ROUTINE) 

IF C$="P" THEN G0SUB (PRINT ROUTINE) 

IF C$<>"E" THEN 5000 ELSE END 

PRINT : INPUT "Beginning index for sort";I : PRINT 

POKE &H9D13,(I MOD 256) : POKE &H9D14,(I\256) 

INPUT "Ending index for sort"; I : IF I>=999 THEN I=NSTU 

PRINT : POKE &H9D15,(I MOD 256) : POKE &H9D16,(I\256) 

X=VARPTR(SD$(1,1)) MOD 256 : POKE &H9D17,X 

X=VARPTR(SD$(1,1))\256 : POKE &H9D18,X : POKE &H9D19,ITEM 

INPUT "Primary data item index for sort"; I : POKE &H9D1A,I 

PRINT : INPUT "High to low order (Y/N)";B$ 

PRINT : POKE &H9D1B,0 : IF B$="Y" THEN POKE &H9D1B,1 

INPUT "Alternate data item index for sort"; I : PRINT 

INPUT "High to low order (Y/N)";B$ : POKE &H9DIC,I 

PRINT : POKE &H9D1D,0 : IF B$="Y" THEN POKE &H9D1D,1 

X=USR(&H9C00) : RETURN 



Listing 2. Basic dialogue routine. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 107 



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integer divide (\) and MOD. The pa- 
rameters that require two bytes can 
most efficiently be set by using: 

HBYTE = X\256 and LBYTE = X MOD 256 

X is the value of the parameter. 

You should set a maximum limit on 
the memory available for Basic by us- 
ing the M: specification upon initiali- 
zation. This will prevent Basic from 
overwriting your assembly language 
routine. 

Finally, it is advantageous to write a 
dialogue routine in Basic to establish 
the parameter values for the sort. 
Using such a routine will prevent 
both continual changes to the Basic 



code and possible errors in parameter 
specification. Your dialogue routine, 
however, will depend on your particu- 
lar application. Listing 2 contains 
the Basic subroutine that I find most 
effective. 

The SD$ array holds the student da- 
ta that is to be sorted; NSTU is the 
maximum number of students in the 
data pool (data records); and Item is 
the number of data items per record. 
Each of these variables is defined in 
the main driving routine. 

This sorting routine has served me 
well over the last few years. If your 
work requires sorting and/or reorgan- 
izing multiple data items per record, 
give this routine a try. I think you'll be 
pleased with the results. ■ 



M=UL-LL+1 



3 



M=M/2 



Yes 





I,J,K,L,M = Pointers 

UL,LL = Upper, lower limits 

D . = Data item for sort 
b , I 

D Q .j = Alternate data item 
1 for sort 



Yes 



-< 



DONE 



) 



K=UL-M 
J=LL 



3 



I=J 



I 



L=I+M 



Yes 




Exchange 
Col., Co^ 



i 



I=I-M 




Fig. 1. Modified Shell-Metzner sort flowchart. 



108 Microcomputing, January 1984 



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Diskette SALE!! 

"Wabash" 

5^ 8nch 
$S/SD s /750 % 2100 

soft 
2tenpaks 15P° a 18PO a 



SS/DD 23.00 28.00 
DS/UD31.00 35.00 

[OTY PRICE AVAH.J 
Authorized Wabash Dist. 



JOYSTICK 




MIDASONIC: Sticl 

APPLE $1995 



POWER SUPPLY for APPLE 

5v— 50A 5v— 500ma 

12v— 2.0A 12v— 500ma 

*79.50 



IC MASTER 

2 Vols 

*42.95 (82) 
*72.95 (83) 



COMPONENTS *<%%£$?** 



74LS 

74LSOO 

741902 

741903 

741304 

74 I 905 

741306 

74L909 

74LS10 

74LS11 

74LS12 

741913 

74LS14 

74LS20 

741S21 

74LS22 

741926 

74LS27 

74LS26 

74LS30 

74LS32 

74LS33 

74LS37 

741S38 

74LS42 

741S48 

74LS49 

74L951 

74LS54 

74S 

74S0O 
74S02 
74903 
74904 
74905 
74S08 
74S09 
74910 
74911 
74S15 
74S20 
74922 
74930 

I CMOS 

CD4001 
CM0O6 
CO40O7 
CM008 
ICMOII 
ICD4012 
CM013 
CD4014 
CO401 S 
CM016 
CD4017 
CM018 
CO4019 
CD4020 
CD4023 



48 

45 

35 

55 

48 

35 

32 

42 

35 

35 

45 

90 

26 

28 

28 

28 

28 

35 

24 

42 

SO 

35 

48 
55 
75 
75 
24 
25 



741955 


25 


741973 


38 


74L974 


1 55 


741975 


45 


74L978 


45 


74L983 


55 


74L985 


95 


74L986 


75 


74L990 


85 


741993 


65 


74 L 995 


95 


74L996 


89 


7419107 


4S 


7419109 


45 


74L91H 


55 


74LS113 


45 


74LS122 


55 


74LS123 


1 85 


74L912S 


75 


74L9126 


55 


74L9132 


70 


74LS133 


70 


74L8136 


58 


74L9137 


95 


74LS138 


95 



38 '«S32 
35 74937 
74938 
74950 
74951 
74984 
74985 
74974 
74985 
74988 
749112 
749124 
749132 



30 
45 

35 
30 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
35 
30 



40 

as 

85 

25 
25 

40 
40 
195 
1 75 
1 85 
SO 
250 
* 10 



74LS139 

74L9145 

74L9147 

74L9148 

7419151 

7419153 

74L9154 

7419155 

74L9158 

7419157 

74L9158 

74L9180 

7419161 

74LS182 

74LS163 

7419164 

74L9165 

74L9166 

74LS188 

74LS169 

74L9170 

74LS173 

74LS174 

74L9175 

74L9161 

74L9190 

74L9191 

74LS192 

74LS193 



74S138 
749140 
749151 
7431 57 
749156 
749161 
749163 
749174 
749175 
743162 
748166 
743169 



75 

1 95 

2 10 
2 75 

55 

70 

1 90 

75 

75 

65 

65 

85 

85 

85 

85 

65 

95 

1 75 

1 75 

1 75 

1 55 

85 

85 

85 

1 95 

1 10 

1 10 

95 

95 



85 

60 

95 

95 

95 

1 65 

3 75 

96 

96 

250 

165 

595 



74L3194 

74LS195 

74L9196 

7419197 

74LS221 

7419240 

741.9241 

7419242 

74L9243 

74L9244 

74L9245 

74L9247 

74L9248 

7419249 

74L92S1 

74L9253 

74LS257 

74L9256 

74L92S9 

74LS260 

74L9266 

7413273 

74LS279 

74LS280 

74L9263 

7413290 

74L8293 

7413295 

74L3298 



95 

95 

95 

95 

1 10 

1 65 

1 75 

1 75 

1 75 

1 75 

1 65 

1 10 

1 10 

1 10 

65 

85 

65 

95 

1 75 

75 

85 

1 55 

55 

1 95 

95 

96 

85 

95 

65 



74L9299 

74LS323 

74LS352 

74LS3S3 

74L9365 

74LS366 

74L9367 

74LS368 

74LS373 

74LS374 

74LS375 

74L9377 

74L9378 

74L9379 

74L9386 

74L9390 

7419393 

74 L 9395 

74LS399 

7419490 

7419623 

7413666 

74 I 3669 

7413670 

74L3883 

74LS685 

74LS667 

74L3783 



2 25 

4 75 

1 25 

1 25 

65 

65 

95 

95 

1 95 

1 95 

85 

1 25 

1 25 

1 25 

75 

1 45 

1 35 

1 20 

1 40 

1 90 

1 90 

1 65 

1 80 

1 45 

395 

395 

450 

15 95 



RAMS 

2O16200NS 
2101 



5 95 

1 95 



2102 
211 1 



85 
2 95 



2114L 2 

4027 

4116 200NS 



1 85 

1 75 

8/12 95 



4116150NS 8/1495 
4164 200N8 5 95 

9 49 95 



EPROMS 

1 702 3 95 

2706 3 96 

4706 3 55 



8000 

8036 
6080A 

aoesA 



2716 



395 



2532 



6 95 



2732 



4 75 



4164 150NS 

5290 

6116 200NS 

61 16-1 SONS 
5101 6O0NS 



2764 
27643 



795 
1 75 
7 25 
795 
450 



8 75 
11 50 



2 55 
375 
7 75 



8155 
8202 



7 75 
24 SO 



8212 
8214 
8224 



295 



6251 A 
8255 



4 75 

5 75 



8279 
87488 



850 
22 50 



1 95 




74S194 
74S195 
743201 
74S240 
743241 
743244 
743251 
74S2S3 
743257 
749258 
748280 
749275 



1 35 

1 35 
850 

2 25 
2 25 
2 75 

85 
85 
65 
85 
96 
15 65 



74S280 
749287 
748288 
748289 
743299 
743373 
743374 
743387 
7434 54 
749470 
743471 
743472 
743474 



185 
1 85 

1 85 
6 75 
6 75 

2 45 
2 45 
1 90 
450 
650 
950 
950 
950 



Z80 

Z80CPU 
Z80CTC 



3 85 
6 25 



Z60PKD 4 95 
Z803IO/2 14 95 



ZBOACPU 595 
Z60ACTC 665 



Z80AP10 4 95 



Z809IO 1 5 SO 



30 
1 05 
35 
95 
30 
30 
38 
75 
95 
38 
95 
95 
65 
95 
35 



C04024 
CD402S 
CD4026 
C 04029 
CD4O30 
CD4031 
CD4035 
C04037 
C04036 
C 04040 
CD4041 
CD4043 
C04044 
C04048 
C 04047 



65 

35 

95 

89 

35 

1 75 

1 25 

1 25 

1 75 

1 15 

95 

78 

95 

69 

95 



C04049 

CO4050 

C04051 

C04052 

C04O53 

CD4058 

CD4O80 

CD4088 

C04071 

CD4075 

CD4078 

CM081 

CO4O03 

C04096 

CD4174 



55 
55 

79 

65 

75 

105 

1 05 

96 

40 

45 

46 

46 

96 

1 86 

180 



C04402 

C04404 

COA4' i 

CD4412 

C04415 

CD4416 

CC4428 

C04501 

C04511 

CMS 12 

CMS 16 

C04517 

CMS 18 

CMS 19 

CM520 



85 

1 55 

11 25 

88 

250 

66 

85 

86 

138 

125 

1 88 

106 

1 20 

86 

1 25 



65006800 

6402 
6502 
6522 
6532 



LINEAR 

LM300H 

LM301N 

LM301H 

LM307H 

LM306AN 

IM309K 

LM310 

LM311N 

LM311H 

LM317K 

LM318H 



895 
496 

695 
9 75 



68O0 
6802 
6609 



3 95 

7 75 
1250 



8810 
6621 



3 95 

300 

1050 



8845 
8647 
6650 



1250 


6852 


5 25 


11 95 


6680 


9 SO 


3 25 







45 

35 
45 
45 

2 25 
1 25 
1 45 

50 
85 

3 65 
1 45 



LM322 

LM323K 

LM324 

LM339 

LM348 

LM358 

LM360 

LM381 

LM386 

LM351 



1 55 IM555 

495 LMS58 

65 LMSS8 

99 LMS85 

1 25 LMsee 

65 LM703 

1 10 LM709 

1 65 LM710 

140 LM711 

1 95 LM720 



35 LM723 

1 10 LM733 

2 45 LM741 8 
145 LM741N-14 
145 LM741H 

75 LM747 

40 LM775 

75 1330 

49 1349 

75 1350 



75 

95 

45 

45 

45 

65 

25 

1 60 

1 75 

1 15 



1358 
1372 
1458 
1488 
1489 
1496 
1889 
4501 
4558 



1 35 

496 

55 

1 10 
1 10 
1 10 
155 
1 50 
75 



TV SPECIALS ft 

*2708 

*3.25 

*2716 

*3£5 
*4.65 

*4116-2 

8/ 12.95 

* 4164-2 

^saoo 
*6116P3 

*725 



BORDER LINErt- 

(800)435-0907 

(Outside Calif) 
se use for Ordering ! ! 



Circle 297 on Reader Service card. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 109 



IU 



CO 



Ul 



DIGITAL RESEARCH COMPUTERS 

(214) 271-3538 



32K S-100 EPROM CARD 
PRICE CUT! 




$59.95 



USES 2716s 
Blank PC Board - $34 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED 
ADD $30 

SPECIAL: 2716 EPROM s (450 NS) Are $4.95 Ea With Above Kit. 

KIT FEATURES 7 Any or all EPROM locations can be 

1 Uses +5V only 2716 (2Kx8) EPROM s disabled 

2 Allows up to 32K of software on line' 8 Double sided PC board solder-masked 

3 IEEE S-100 Compatible silk-screened 

4 Addressable as two independent 16K 9 Gold plated contact fingers 

blocks 10 Unselected EPROMs automatically 

5 Cromemco extended or Northstar bank powered down for low power 
select 11 Fully buffered and bypassed 

6 On board wait state circuitry if needed 12 Easy and quick to assemble 



256K S-100 SOLID STATE DISK SIMULATOR! 

WECALL THISBOARD THE "LIGHT-SPEED-100" BECAUSE IT OFFERS 
AN ASTOUNDING INCREASE IN YOUR COMPUTER'S PERFORMANCE 
WHEN COMPARED TO A MECHANICAL FLOPPY DISK DRIVE. 

FEATURES: 

* 256K on board, using ♦ 5V 64K 
DRAMS. 

* Uses new Intel 8203-1 LSI Memory 
Controller. 

» Requires only 4 Dip Switch Selectable 
I/O Ports. 

* Runs on 8080 or Z80 S100 machines. 

► Up to 8 LS-100 boards can be run 
together for 2 Meg. of On Line Solid 
State Disk Storage. 

► Provisions for Battery back-up. 
» Software to mate the LS-100 to your 

CP/M* 2.2 DOS is supplied. 
» The LS-100 provides an increase in 
speed of up to 7 to 10 times on Disk 
Intensive Software. 

* Compare our price! You could pay 
up to 3 times as much for similar 
boards. 




ADD $50 FOR A & T KIT. 



BLANK PCB 

(WITH CP/M* 2.2 

PATCHES ON DISK) 

*69 95 



$39000 

#LS-100 (FULL256K KIT) 



THE NEW ZRT-80 

CRT TERMINAL BOARD! 

A LOW COST Z-80 BASED SINGLE BOARD THAT ONLY NEEDS AN 
ASCII KEYBOARD, POWER SUPPLY, AND VIDEO MONITOR TO MAKE A 
COMPLETE CRT TERMINAL. USE AS A COMPUTER CONSOLE, OR 
WITH A MODEM FOR USE WITH ANY OFTHE PHONE-LINE COMPUTER 
SERVICES. 
FEATURES: 

* Uses a Z80A and 6845 CRT 
Controller for powerful video 
capabilities. 

* RS232 at 16 BAUD Rates from 75 
to 19,200. 

* 24 x 80 standard format (60 Hz). 

* Optional formats from 24 x 80 
(50 Hz) to 64 lines x 96 characters 
(60 Hz). 

* Higher density formats require up to 
3 additional 2K x 8 6116 RAMS. 

* Uses N.S. INS 8250 BAUD Rate Gen. 
and USART combo IC. 

* 3 Terminal Emulation Modes which 
are Dip Switch selectable. These 
include the LSI-ADM3A, the Heath 
H-19. and the Beehive. 

* Composite or Split Video. 

* Any polarity of video or sync. 

* Inverse Video Capability. 

* Small Size: 6.5 x 9 inches. 

ADD $50 FOR A & T KIT. 

# ZRT-80 




BLANK PCB WITH 2716 
CHAR. ROM, 2732 MON. ROM 

|95 
SOURCE DISKETTE - ADD $10 



SET OF 2 CRYSTALS - ADD $7.50 



WITH 8 IN. 
SOURCE DISK! 



$ 129 95 



(COMPLETE KIT, 
2K VIDEO RAM) 



64K S100 STATIC RAM 

$ 1 992,9 

NEW! 

LOW POWER! 
RAM OR EPROM! 



BLANK PC BOARD 
WITH DOCUMENTATION 
$55 




SUPPORT ICs ♦ CAPS 
$17.50 

FULL SOCKET SET 
$14.50 

FULLY SUPPORTS THE 

NEW IEEE 696 S100 

STANDARD 

(AS PROPOSED) 

FOR 56K KIT $185 



ASSEMBLED AND 
TESTED ADD $50 



FEATURES: 

* Uses new 2K x 8 (TMM 2016 or HM 6116) RAMs. 

* Fully supports IEEE 696 24 BIT Extended 
Addressing. 

* 64K draws only approximately 500 MA. 

* 200 NS RAMs are standard. (TOSHIBA makes 
TMM 2016s as fast as 100 NS. FOR YOUR HIGH 
SPEED APPLICATIONS.) 

* SUPPORTS PHANTOM (BOTH LOWER 32K 
AND ENTIRE BOARD). 

* 2716 EPROMs may be installed in any of top 48K. 

* Any of the top 8K (E000 H AND ABOVE) may 
be disabled to provide windows to eliminate 
any possible conflicts with your system monitor, 
disk controller, etc. 

* Perfect for small systems since BOTH RAM and 
EPROM may co-exist on the same board. 

* BOARD may be partially populated as 56K. 



64K SS-50 STATIC RAM 



(48K KIT) 



NEW! 

LOW POWER! 
RAM OR EPROM! 




BLANK PC BOARD 

WITH 

DOCUMENTATION 

$52 



SUPPORT ICs ♦ CAPS 
$18.00 

FULL SOCKET SET 
$15.00 

56K Kit $219 
64K Kit $249 



ASSEMBLED AND 
TESTED ADD $50 



FEATURES: 

* Uses new 2K x 8 (TMM 2016 or HM 6116) RAMs. 

* Fully supports Extended Addressing. 

* 64K draws only approximately 500 MA. 

* 200 NS RAMs are standard. (TOSHIBA makes 
TMM 2016s as fast as 100 NS. FOR YOUR HIGH 
SPEED APPLICATIONS.) 

* Board is configured as 3-16K blocks and 8-2K 
blocks (within any 64K block) for maximum 
flexibility. 

* 2716 EPROMs may be installed anywhere on 
Board. 

* Top 16K may be disabled in 2K blocks to avoid 
any I/O conflicts. 

* One Board supports both RAM and EPROM. 

* RAM supports 2MHZ operation at no extra 
charge! 

* Board may be partially populated in 16K 
increments. 



32K S100 EPROM/STATIC RAM 



NEW! 



FOUR FUNCTION BOARD! 



EPROM II 

FULL 

EPROM KIT 

$•0.00 



AST EPROM 
ADD $35.00 




NEW! 



BLANK 
PC BOARD 
WITH DATA 

$39.95 



We took our very popular 32K S100 EPROM Card and added 
additional logic to create a more versatile EPROM/RAM Board. 



SUPPORT 

ICS 

PLUS CAPS 

$23.00 



FULL 

SOCKET SET 

$1S 



FEATURES: * This one board can be used in any one of four ways: 

A. As a 32K 2716 EPROM Board 

B. As a 32K 2732 EPROM Board (Using Every Other Socket) 

C. As a mixed 32K 2716 EPROM/2K x 8 RAM Board 
O. As a 32K Static RAM Board 

* Uses New 2K x 8 (TMM2016 or HM6116) RAM's 

* Fully Supports IEEE 696 Buss Standard (As Proposed) 

* Supports 24 Bit Extended Adressing 

* 200 NS (FAST!) RAM'S are standard on the RAM Kit 

* Supports both Cromemco and North Star Bank Select 

* Supports Phantom 

* On Board wait State Generator 

* Every 2K Block may be disabled 

* Addressed as two separate 16K Blocks on any 64K Boundary 

* Perfect for MP/M* Systems 

* RAM Kit is very low power (300 MA typical) 



32K STATIC RAM KIT — S129.95 



Digital Research Computers 

P.O. BOX 461565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75046 • (214) 271-3538 



For RAM Kit A&T - Add $40 



TERMS: Add $3.00 postage. We pay balance. Orders under $15 add 75C 
handling. No COD. We accept Visa and MasterCharge. Tex Res. add 5% 
Tax. Foreign orders (except Canada) add 20% P & H. Orders over $50, add 
85C for insurance. 



*TM OF DIGITAL RESEARCH INC. (CALIF.) 



WE ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH INC. (CALIF.) THE SUPPLIERS OF CPM SOFTWARE 




THE 6809 "UNIBOARD 



J5TM 



SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER KIT 

PERFECT FOR COLLEGES, OEM'S, INDUSTRIAL 

AND SCIENTIFIC USES! 

64K RAM! DOUBLE DENSITY 
FLOPPY DISK CONTROLLER! 



Heiu 



i 



BLANK PC BOARD 



$ 99 



95 



I 



WITH PALS, AND 
TWO EPROMS. 

FOR 5-1/4 OR 8 INCH 

SOURCE DISKETTE 

ADD $10. 



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s 399 



00 



COMPLETE KIT! 
FULLY SOCKETED 



ALL OPTIONS ARE 

STANDARD. NO 

EXTRAS TO BUY! 



THE COMPACTA UNIBOARD™: Through special arrangement with COMPACTA INC., we are 
proud to have been selected the exclusive U.S. Mfg. of their new 6809 UNIBOARD™ COMPUTER 
KIT. Many software professionals feel that the 6809 features probably the most powerful 
instruction set available today on ANY 8 bit micro. Now, at last, all of that immense computing 
power is available at a truly unbelievably low price. 



YOUR CHOICE OF POPULAR 
DISK OPERATING SYSTEMS: 

FLEX" from TSC $149 

OS9™ from Microware $199 

Specify 5-1/4 or 8 Inch 



FEATURES: 

• 64K RAM using 4116 RAMS. 

• 6809E Motorola CPU. 

• Double Density Floppy Disk Controller 
for either 5-1/4 or 8 inch drives. Uses WD1793. 

• On board 80 x 24 video for a low cost console. 
Uses 2716 Char. Gen. Programmable Formats. 
Uses 6845 CRT Controller. 

• ASCII keyboard parallel input interface. (6522) 

• Serial I/O (6551) for RS232C or 20 MA loop. 

• Centronics compatible parallel printer interface. 
(6522) 

• Buss expansion interface with DMA channel. 
(6844) 

• Dual timer for real time clock application. 

• Powerful on board system monitor (2732). 

Features commands such as Go To, Alter, Fill, Move, Display, or Test Memory. Also Read 
and Write Sectors. Boot Normal, Unknown, and General Flex™. 



PC BOARD is 

DOUBLE SIDED, PLATED THRU 

SOLDER MASKED, 11 x 11-1/2 IN. 



Digital Research Computers 

w (OF TEXAS) 

P.O. BOX 461565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75046 • (214)271-3538 



TERMS: Shipments will be made approximately 3 to 6 weeks after we 
receive your order. VISA, MC, cash accepted. Add $4.00 shipping. 

USA AND CANADA ONLY 



VOICE SYNTHESIZER 
FOR APPLE AND COMMODORE 




• Over 250 word vocabulary -affixes allow the formation of more 
than 500 words • Built-in amplifier, speaker, volume control, and 
audio jack • Recreates a clear, natural male voice • Plug-in user 
ready with documentation and sample software • Case size: 
7V4 W L x 3V4"W x 1-3/8"H 



APPLICATIONS: 

• Security Warning 

• Teaching 



• Telecommunication 

• Handicap Aid 
• Instrumentation • Games 

The JE520 VOICE SYNTHESIZER will plug right into your computer and (How you to 
enhance almost any application Utilizing National Semiconductor's DIGITAIKEH" 
Speech Processor IC (with lour custom memory chips), the JE520 compresses 
natural speech into digital memory, including the original inflections and emphases. 
The result Is an extremely clear, natural vocalization 
Part No Description Price 

JE520CM For Commodore 64 4 VIC-20 $114.95 

JE520AP For Apple II. II+. and lie $149.95 




Micro-Logic Corp. " 
MICRO-CHARTS \£* 

• Fully decoded data • Instant access • 2 sided, totally comprehensive • Compact 
8V?xii in durable credit card plastic • Perfect tor programmers & engineers 

• Clear & concise tables tor lull instruction set disassembly. ASCII, base conver- 
sion, effect of flags compare vs jump, interrupt structure, pinout. cycle times, 
diagrams, bug notes. & much more 

PMTNO REFERENCE MICE 

ML-Z80 Z80 CPU $5.95 

ML 8080A 8080A78085A $5.95 

ML-6502 6502(65XX) $5.95 

ML-8048 8048, Relatives $5.95 

ML-7400 5400/7400 TTL Pin-Outs $5.95 

ML ALGO Basic Algorithms $5.95 

BOOKS 

30001 National CMOS Data Book (1981) $6 95 

(640 pages) 74C. CD4000, and A/0 Converters 

30003 National Linear Data Book (1982) $11 95 

(1376 pages) LM, LF, ADC. OAC, LH Series 

30008 National Memory Data Book (1980) $6.95 

(464 pages) RAMs. ROMs. PROMs, EPROMs Series 

30009 Intersil Data Book (1983) S9.95 

(1356 pages) Complete line. 

30010 National Audio/Radio Handbook (1980) $5.95 

(240 pages) Pre-Amps, AM, FM & FM Stereo, Power Amps 

30012 National PAL Data Book (1982) $5 95 

(176 pages) Application Notes, Linear Briefs, etc. 

30013 Zilog Data Book (1983) $7.95 

(641 pages) Microprocessors and Support Chips 

210830 Intel Memory Components Handbook (1 983) S14.95 

(798 pages) Contains all Application Notes, Article 
Reprints, Data Sheets, and other design information 
on Intel's RAMs, EPROMs, E'PROMs & Bubble Memories 

210844 Intel Microprocessors, Peripheral Handbook (1983) $14.95 
(1027 pages) Contains Data Sheets on all of 
Intel's Microprocessors and Peripherals. 

4-Digit Fluorescent Alarm Clock Kit 





• Bright 4 digit 0.5" high display • 10 minute snooze alarm 

• AM/PM indicator • Automatic display dimmer 

The JE750 Clock Kit is a versatile 12-hour digital clock with 24-hour alarm The dock 
has a bright 5" high blue-green flourescent display The 24-hour alarm allows the 
user to disable the alarm and immediately re-enable the alarm to activate 24 hours 
later The Ms includes at) documentation components, case and wall transformer 

Size 6-5/B~L x 3V."H x 1 VO 

JE750 Alarm Clock Kit $29.95 

Digital Thermometer Kit 

Dual sensors — switch 
controls tor indoor/outdoor 
or dual monitoring — can be 
extended to 500 feet. Con- 
tinuous LED .8" ht. display 
Range: 40 *F to 199 'F, 40 - C 
to 100 'C Accuracy ±1' 
nominal. Calibrate for 
Fahrenheit/Celsius. 
-•»"" * * ■«■ Simulated walnut case AC 

I f-onn *nn r\e waM adapter included Size: 

JCOUU 909.90 6%"L x 3'4"H x iy 4 'D. 

Computer Keyboard Enclosures 

DTE Blank Desk-Top Enclosures 
are designed tor easy modifica- 
tion High strength epoxy molded 
■^ end pieces in mocha brown finish 

r^P Sliding rear/bottom panel tor service/ 

■»> component access' Top/ bott panels 080" 
j* thick alum alodine type 1200 finish (gold lint 
^T color) lor best paint adhesion after modification 
*. Vented top & bottom panels for cooling efficiency 
3 as --z."^ ""^o^ \ Rl 9'd construction provides unlimited applications 

"•89 — ♦/ Assembly Instructions included 

DTE-8 Panel Width 7.5" $24.95 

DTE-11 Panel Width 10.13" $27.95 

DTE-14 Panel Width 13.5- $29.95 

DTE 20 Panel Width 19.25" $34.95 

DTE 22 Panel Width 21.375" $39.95 





Pert N* 



No el 
Ceoteeti/ 
Conductors 



CARDEDGE 

CONNECTOR 

Mates with double iidod 

1/16~ PC board with 

contact linger i an 

100" centers 

CARD-EDGE CONNECTORS 

19 10 99 100* 



C?0 
CM 
C34 
C40 
CM) 



20 

n 

34 
40 
SO 



2 31 

2 69 
320 

3 69 
430 



200 
230 

2 95 
329 

3 95 



1 09 

209 

2 SO 

2 09 

3 30 



SOCKET 

CONNECTOR 

Metes wtth 2 rows el 

02S" sq or dla posts 

on potior rts ot 100" 
centers and shielded 
receptacles 

No of 



Part No 




V * mmmm m • » * 

SOCKET CONNECTORS 



Conductors 



19 



1099 




SOLDER 

TRANSITION 

CONNECTORS 

FOR PERMANENT 

TERMINATION TO PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS 



No oi 
Contacts 



1-9 



1099 



100« 



ST20 
ST20 

ST34 

ST40 
STSO 



20 
26 
34 
40 
SO 



1 IS 
1 2S 
I 40 
1 69 
1 00 



99 
1 IS 
1 35 
1 55 
t 69 



00 

99 

1 IS 
1 35 
149 




36-Pin 
CENTRONICS 



RIBBON 
CONNECTORS 



Port No 



No ol 

Contorts 
Stylo 



1-9 



1099 



24-Pin 
IEEE488 



100 < 



CEN14M 
CEN14F 
CEN24M 
CEN24F 
CEN36M 
CEN36F 



14 Moto 
14 Femoie 
24 Male 
24 Female 
36 Mow 
36 Fomole 



6 39 

6 19 

7 95 
7 69 
6 69 
9 75 



5 49 

5 29 

6 95 

6 79 

7 59 
6 95 



4 49 

4 29 

5 95 

5 75 

6 49 

7 95 



S20 
S26 
S34 
$40 
$50 
$60 



20 
26 
34 

40 
SO 
60 



1 30 

1 60 

200 
220 

2 00 

3 39 



1 2S 
1 40 

1 70 
200 

2 39 
29S 



1 09 
1 3$ 
1 SO 

1 70 
200 

2 SO 



MALE CONNECTOR 



10" x 10- 



No 01 
Contorts/ 




1-0 



10-00 



10 



M26 
M34 
M40 
MSO 



20 
20 

34 
40 
50 



400 

4 40 
40S 

5 40 
040 



3 65 
309 
440 

4 00 

5 75 



3 10 
3 40 
3 95 
420 
405 



D-SUB 
CONNECTORS 




No ol 

Contacts/ 

Style 



*«-**'»#*-# 



10 



10 99 



I00< 



C0E9P 

C0E9S 

C0A1SP 

C0A15S 

CD025P 

C0025S 

C0C37P 

CDC37S 



9 Moto 
9 Femokt 
15 Male 
15 Fomolo 
25 Mots 
25 Fomolo 
37 Male 
37 Female 



2 95 

3 30 

3 95 

4 75 

5 40 
5 95 
7 79 

a 95 



2 65 
300 

3 55 

4 10 

4 70 

5 49 

6 95 

7 95 



2 29 

2 69 
300 

3 60 

4 25 
4 05 
6 09 
6 95 



28AWG FLAT GREY CABLE 



No ol 
Contorts/ 
londuclori 



Connector t 
Wire Type 



Price 
Per Foot 



171 9 

17114 

171-15 

171-16 

171 20 

171-24 

171-25 

171-20 

171-34 

171-36 

171-37 

171 40 

171 SO 





14 
IS 
10 
20 
24 
25 
26 
34 
36 
37 
40 
SO 



76AWG Flat 
20AWG Flat 
20AWG Flat 
?8AWG Flat 
20AWG Flat 
20AWG Flal 
26AWG Flat 
20AWG Flat 
2RAWG Flat 
20AWG Flat 
20AWG Flat 
20AWG Flat 
26AWG Flat 



Stranded 
Slrjndod 
Stfindod 
Strondod 
Strondod 
Slrandod 
Strondod 
Stranded 
Stranded 
Strondod 
Slrandod 
Stranded 
Strondod 



10 
25 
27 
29 
36 
45 
47 
49 
62 
65 
69 
75 
89 



CUSTOM ASSEMBLIES 



Use the pan numbers trom the connectors and cable to order your own 
custom assembled cables 

EXAMPLE It you desire a 25 toot cable with a male Centronics con 
nector on one end and a female Centronics connector on the other 
end you would order 

CEN36M 25' CEN36F CUSTOM 

SB t>9|CEN36M) ♦ 9 75|CEN36F|« $10 44 

65 x 25 125 feet 36 cond coble) > $16 25 

2 00 Set-up charge on all custom cables » $2 00 

Tins ICEN36M25' CEN36F CUSTOM) Cable would cost $36 60 
P'ease specify CUSTOM alter the pari no to ensure your order will 

be tilled correctly i Important Please specify cable in FEET not mchesi 



AIL CUSTOM ASSEMBLIES MUST BE PREPAID BEFORE ASSEMBLY 
THERE ARE NO RETURNS ON CUSTOM CABLE ASSEMBLIES S? 00 
SET UP CHARGE iPER STYLE] ON ALL CUSTOM CABLES 



ACCESSORIES FOR APPLE* COMPUTERS 



Numeric/Auxiliary Keypad 
for APPLE Me* 




JE614 



Tha JEOU is a newly introduced numeric/auxiliary keypad for the 
APPLE ue • H otters Ihe llembiiity of a 10 Key pad and the convenience 
of 23 directly accessible functions Screen manipulating functions 
make word processing a snap and cursor controls make the keypad 
ideal for VisiCaic" users The JE6U Keypad is housed in a durable 
metal enclosure and is color coordinated with your APPLE f'e 
computer Operation of the keypad can begin within minutes trom un 
packing Special functions include Home. Clear. Clear to End ol 
Screen Scroll Up Scroll Down. Tab. Delete. Left. Right Up and Down 
Each key has auto-repeat 

JE614 Assembled end Tooted $89.95 



Switching Power Supply 
for APPLE II, II + and lie* 




• Can drive tour (loppy disk drives and up to eight expansion cards 

• Short circuit and overload protection • Fits inside Apple compulrti 

• Fully regulated »5V * SA. < 12V At 3A. -SV », SA l?V 5A 

• Apple-type plug ,n power cord included • Sue 9\ "L m I 

- .veignt 2 lbs 

Port No. KHP4007 $79.95 



Extended 80 Column /64K RAM 
Card for APPLE /fe* 




JEB64 

Now you can double the memory capacity and gel an 00 column 
display formal tor your APPLE lie computer at an affordable price Just 
plug the JE854 card into your APPLE and expand your display 10 
BO characters per line Perfect lor word processing The JE864 also 
features 64K bytes of additional memory to allow programming not 
possible with standard APPLE lie computers 

Board: High density board design squeezes 64K bytes ol RAM onto a 
Ott " x 4v, * board • Fully tested to assure proper operation 

Usee: Word processing - displays 1000 more characters per screen 
• Extra memory allows running ol extremely large programs • Ultra 
High Resolution Graphics (when sottware available) 

JE864 Assembled and Tested $149.95 



Cooling Fan for APPLE II, 
II + and//e* 




• Snap* on the s*o> of APPLE M ti ♦ ana ■»■ .retou've ■ EhmtnjteM 
ovejrhesatiog proMoxnt. thexejOy boosting reliability and operation hfa ot 
compute* * Switch on front of Ian serves as pews* Switch tor fan com 
puter and provided *»tra outlet 

Part No. APF-1 $49.95 



'APPLE and APPLE He are registered trademarks ol APPLE Computers — "VisiCaic is a registered trademark of Visi Corp Inc 




1~kJ 




POWER SUPPLY +5VDC @ 7.5 AMP, 12VDC @ 1.5 AMP SWITCHING 

Input 115VAC. 50-60H2 ,; 3amp/230VAC. 50H* (a 1 6 amp Fan volt. /power supply select iwtt- 
chos (115/230VACI Output 5V0C (a 7 6 amp 12VDC cr 1 6 amp Oft blk pow cord 11 '/, W « 

13V. D « 3'/4 H Wt 6 lbs 

Part No. PS94V0S $39.95 each 



POWER SUPPLY 4-Channel Switching - Apple Compatible 

Microprocessor mini-computer, terminal, medical equipment and process control applications In- 
put 90 130V AC 47-440H2 Output +5V0C «i 5A. -5V0C (a tA; ♦12VDC «i 1A. -12VDC rri 1A 
Line rerj ±0 2% Ripple 30mV p-p Load reg : ±1% Overcurrent protection Adj 5V main out- 
put ± 10% 6-3/B-L > 1-7/8~W ■ 4-15/16"H Wt. IVi lbs 

Part No. FCS-604A $69.95 each 



$10.00 Minimum Order — U.S. Funds Only 
California Residents Add 6V 2 % Sales Tax 
Shipping — Add 5% plus $1.50 Insurance 
Send S.A.S.E. for Monthly Sales Flyer! 



Spec Sheets — 30c each 
Send $1.00 Postage for your 
FREE 1984 JAMECO CATALOG 
Prices Subject to Change 




Mail Order Electronics - Worldwide 



ameco 



ELECTRONICS 



1355 SHOREWAY ROAD, BELMONT, CA 94002 
1/84 PHONE ORDERS WELCOME — (415) 592-8097 Telex: 176043 




112 Microcomputing, January 1984 




JE664 EPROM PROGRAMMER 

8K TO 64K EPROMS — 24 AND 28 PIN PACKAGES 

• Programs, validates, and chocks tor properly erased EPROMs • Emulates PROMs 
or EPROMs • RS232C Computer Interlace lor editing/ program loading • Loads data 
into RAM by keyboard • Changes data in RAM by keyboard • Loads RAM trom an 
EPROM • Compares EPROMs for content differences • Copies EPROMs • Power in- 
put 115VAC. 6OH2. •* 10W power consumption • Enclosure Color-coordinated 
light tan panels w/molded mocha brown end pieces • Size: 15-5/8"L > 8%»"0 i 
3Vi"H e wt SV> lbs 

JE664-A EPROM Programmer $995.00 

Assombled & Tested (Includes JM16A Module) 

JE665 - RS232C INTERFACE OPTION - The JE665 RS232C interlace 
Option implements computer access to the JE664 s RAM Sample software written in 
BASIC provided for TRS-80' Model I. Level II Computer Baud rate 9600 Word 
Igth 8 bits odd parity Stop bits 2 Option may be adapted to other computers The 
JE665 can be interfaced lo any computer with an RS232 port Information is also pro- 
vided tor interlacing to any CP/M system with an RS232 port 

JE664-ARS EPROM Programmer W/JE665 Option $1195.00 

Assembled and Tested (includes JM16A Module) 

EPROM JUMPER MODULES - The JE664S JUMPER MODULE (Personality 
Module) is a plug-in Module that presets JE664 tor proper programming pulses to 
the EPROM & configures EPROM socket connections lor that particular EPROM 



P/N 



EPROM 



EPROM MANUFACTURER 



PRICE 



JM08A 


2708 


JM16A 


2716.TMS2516 


JM16B 


TMS2716 


JM32A 


TMS2532 


JM32B 


2732 


JM32C 


2732A (21V) 


JM64A 


MCM68764. 




MCM68L764 


JM64B 


2764 


JM64C 


TMS2564 



AMD Motorola National Intel. TI (25V) $14 95 

Intel Motorola National NEC TI (25V) $14 95 

Motorola. Tl(+ 5. 5. +12) $14.95 

Motorola. TI (25V) $14.95 

AMD. Fujitsu. NEC. Hitachi. Intel (25V) $14.95 

Fujitsu. Intel (21V) $14.95 

Motorola (21V) $14.95 

Intel (21V) $14.95 

TI(25V) $14 95 



UV-EPROM Eraser 



8 Chips — 51 Minutes 




Erases 2708, 2716, 2732. 2764, 2516, 2532, 2564. Erases up lo 8 chips 
within 51 minutes (1 chip in 37 minutes). Maintains constant exposure 
distance of one inch. Special conductive foam liner eliminates sialic 
build-up. Built-in safety lock to prevent UV exposure. Compact — only 
9.00" x 3.70" x 2.60". Complete with holding tray for 8 chips. 

$ 79.95 

....$16.95 



DE-4 UV-EPROM Eraser . . 
UVS-11EL Replacement Bulb 




5V." APPLE™ 

COMPATIBLE 

DISK DRIVE 

• Uses Shugart SA390 mechanics • 143K 
formatted storage • 35 track! - compatible 
with Apple controller • Complete with connec- 
tor and cable — gust plug into your disk con- 
troller card • Size: 6"L x 3V,-* x 
8-9/16"D • Weight 4% lbs 

PartNo.ADD-514 $195.95 



8?FLOPPY DISK DRIVE 




iern^? 

• Shugart 801 R 
compatible 

• Single-Sided 

• 77 Tracks 

• 400/800K Bytes 
Capacity 

• Industry Standard 



The FDO100-8 6" Floppy Disk Drive (Industry Standard) features 
single or double density. Recording mode: FM single, MFM double 
density. Transfer rate: 250K bits/sec. single density; 500K bits/sec. 
double density. The FDD100-8 is designed to work with the single- 
sided soft sectored IBM Diskette I, or eq. disk cartridge. Power 
115VAC @ 50-60Hz, +24VDC® 17 amps max., + 5VDC & 1.2 amps 
max. Unit as pictured above (does not include case, power supply, or 
cables) Size: 855 "W x 14"L x 45"H Weighs 12 lbs. Incl 96 pg 
manual. 

FDD100-8 ..$1 69.95 ea. 



IBM MEMORY EXPANSION KIT 



SAVE HUNDREDS OF $$$ BY UPGRADING 
MEMORY BOARDS YOURSELF! 

Most of Ihe popular memory boards allow you to add an additional 
64K, 128K, 192K, or 256K. The IBM64K Kit will populate these boards 
In 64K byte Increments. The kit is simple to Install — |ust Insert the 
nine 64K RAM chips in the provided sockets and set Ihe two groups 
of switches. Directions are Included. 

IBM64K (Nine 200ns 64K RAMs) $49.95 



EXPAND YOUR MEMORY 



TRS-80 to 16K, 32K, or 48K 

••Model 1 ■ From 4K to 16K Requires (1) One Kit 
Modal 3 = From 4K to 48K Requires (3) Three Kits 
Color ■ From 4K to 16K Requires (1) One Kit 

"Modal 1 equipped with Expansion Board up to 48 K Two Kill Required 
— One Kit Required for each 16K of Expansion — 

TRS-16K3 *200n$ for Color & Model III $12.95 

TRS-16K4 *250ns for Model I $10.95 



TRS-80 Color 32K or 64K Conversion Kit 



Easy to install Kit comes complete with 8 ea. 4164-2 (200ns) 64K 
dynamic RAMs & conversion documentation. Converts TRS-80 color 
computers with E circuit boards, & all new color computers to 32K. 
Minor modifications of 32" memory will allow the use of all the 64K of 
the dynamic RAM providing you have a FLEX DOS operating system. 



TRS-64K2 $44.95 



Circle 41 on Reader Service card. 



SELECTRONICS January Warehouse Clearance Sale 



HAZELTINE 
EXECUTIVE 80 

• I 5" (38 cm) diagonal, yellow green phosper 
•24 lines x 80 characters (plus 25th status line) 
•80 x 24: 7x8 dot matrix plus 2 lower case descender in a 

9x12 window 
•Cursor is switch selectable as block or blinking underline 

•EIA RS232C. Asynchronous 

• I 1 0. 300. I 200. 1 800. 2400. 4800. 9600 or 
19.200 baud, switch selectable 
•Even. odd. 1 . switch selectable 

Standard featurs include-. Anti-glare screen; nonreflective working 
surfaces: color coded, contoured keyboard: convenient contrast 
control, reverse video and blinking fields: variable intensity: up- 
per and lower case characters: line drawing graphics. 
•$500.00 fob. our warehouse 

Beehive 100 Series 

• I 2 inch P4 phos 
•24x 80 characters 
•5x7 dot matrix 
•full cursor control 
•u/l case 

•RS232C. HDX FDX BLOCK modes 
•75.1 10.150.300.600.1000.1200. 

1800.2000.2400.3600.4800.7200. 
9600. 1 9200 baud-swtich selectable 
•shipping wt. 65 lbs. 

• $300.00 fob. our warehouse 



SYLVANIA MONITOR 

• 1 2 inch — composite video 

• 40 x 24 chars. 

• black 8. white $35.00 

• green phos $60.00 

• shipping wt. 30 lbs. 

• all prices f.o.b. our warehouse 




CONRAC RGB 
COLOR MONITOR 

• 1 9 inch— high res.— 1 mh 

• 80 x 24 chars.— 500 line res. 

• w/o cabinet 

• shipping wt. 75 lbs. 

• RGB video in $375.00 

• Composite video in $475.00 

• all prices f.o.b. our warehouses 




Data Royal 
SERIAL PRINTER 



• upper/lower case &. graphics capability 

• bidirectional, 132 character line 

• RS232, 1 20 cps, ASCII. 7 x 9 dot matrix 

• built in self test 

• sprocket feed, 2Vi" to I 5" width 
•110, 300, 1200 bps 

• keyboards available (limited quantity) $7 5.00 

• shipping wt. 80 lbs. 

• $400.00 fob. our warehouse 





GATES SOUND PROOF CABINET 

Brand New!!! 

• 40'h x 25"w x 24 "d 

• two compartments 

• 25"h x 23' w x 2 1 "d (inside lower compartment) 

• 1 1 5 VAC line — cooling fan — electrical connectors 
&> switches in top section 

• smoke colored plastic top on hinges 

• 1 55 lbs. shipping wt. 

• $ 1 25.00 f.o.b. our warehouse 



Hazeltine 1410 Package 

• Brand new Hazeltine 1410 terminal 

• 24 x 80 crs. — 5 x 7 dot matrix 

• 64 display able ASCII chrs. 

• P4 phos— RS232— 1 10 to 9600 baud 

• Bell 103 compatable direct line modem 

• auto ans./org. 

• 300 baud— RS 232 

• modular jack connectors 

• RS 232 cable 

• male to male 

• $375 fob our warehouse (shp. wt. 45#) 






PERKIN-ELMER 3 10 

• letter quality printer terminal 

• microprocessor controlled 

• tractor & friction feed 

• 76 key alphanumeric keyboard w/10 key numeric pad 

• 40 cps print rate 

• 1 32 char, buffer 

• full or half duplex 

• parity — odd, even, none 

• refurbished — excellent condition 

• shp. wt. 100# 

• $600.00 f.o.b. our warehouse 



Keytronic Keyboards 

• ASCII encoded 

• + 5 volts 

• complete w/case 

• new — never used 

• shipping wt. 7 lbs. 

• $45.00 f.o.b. our warehouse 



CABLES & MISC. 

• DB-25 m/m, m/f , f/f , 10 + ' 
•DB-25m/blank5-i-' 

• •muffin" fans (4'/2") 

• 3" quiet fan (steel frame) 

• RCA 4GB20 uhf/vhf-am antenna 




— $10.00ea.3/$25.00 
— $ 5.00 ea. 3/$ 10.00 
— $ 3.00 ea. 6/$ 15.00 
— $ 3.00 ea. 6/$ 15.00 
— $15.00 ea. 



Visa & MasterCard Accepted 



s&fcrxo/wcs 



1229 S. Napa Street Philadelphia PA 19146 
Phone: (2 1 5) 468-4645 • (2 / 5) 468-789 1 



Circle 205 on Reader Service card 



Microcomputing, January 1984 113 



n. 



Microcomputing® 




Peterborough NH 03458 

List of Advertisers 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



232 A-l Computer Paper Co 72 

494 Apple Computer, Inc 136 

408 Aspen SoftwareCo 121 

58 Atari SW io, n 

348 Awareco 7 

8 BRS 77 

465 Barron's Educational Series, Inc 127 

• Becks Manufacturing 9 

467 Best Programs 128 

112 Bill Cole Enterprises 46 

54 Bookman PublishingCo 72 

396 Bytek Computer Systems 23 

283 CGRS Microtech 52 

283 CGRS Microtech 52 

369 Cardco, Inc IF 

98 Cases, Inc 29 

406 ChangLabs 120 

170 Chips&Dale 36 

90 Compucover 102 

18 Computer Design Labs 37 

185 Computer Friends 56 

272 Computer Humor 103 

36 Computer Shopper 102 

404 Computer Tax Service 121 

460 Concentric Data Systems, Inc 127 

297 Concord Computer Products 109 

252 Cuesta Systems 102 

293 D & N Micro Products 53 

462 Data Associates 127 

23 Data Base Industries 59 

72 DataTek 103 

490 Data Terminals & Communications 132 

310 Data Terminals & Communications 25 

461 Design Trends, Ltd 126 

483 Digital Engineering 133 

403 Digital Marketing Corp 120 

• Digital Research Comps 110, 111 

392 Diskette Connection 135 

402 DowJones&Co., Inc 121 

401 Durant Software 120 

60 Eastern House Software 98 

380 Edwards & Associates 22 

169 Elcomp Publishing 57 

349 Enchanted Forest 73 

52 Engineering Specialities 31 

488 Epson America, Inc 136 

41 1 Escape Computer Software 120 

78 Expotek 48 

307 Friendly Computer Center 15 

261 GtekCorp 103 

166 General Electronics Technician 33 

150 General Systems Consulting 84 

17 Gloucester Computer, Inc 60 

469 Graphicon Software, Inc 128 

161 Greenbriar Computer Service 52 

6 H & E Computronics CIII 

251 Holmes Engineering 85 

285 IBM 86, 87 

• ICS 27 

99 I.P.F. Co 47, 81 

496 Information Sources, Inc 134 

128 Innovative Technology 31 

481 Inateractive Structures, Inc 133 

134 JV Software 22 

41 Jameco Electronics 1 12 



Reader Service Number 



Page 



219 Jaxon 73 

471 Knoware, Inc 129 

391 Langley-St. Clair, Inc 32 

355 Leading Edge Products, Inc CIV 

373 Logical Devices, Inc 83 

165 Lyben Computer Systems 31 

204 Lyben Computer Systems 22 

316 MFJ Enterprises 27 

66 Mastermind Computing 35 

115 Mechanix Illustrated 52 

464 Micro Business Applications 126 

143 Micro Innovations 30 

493 Micro Labs, Inc 134 

495 Micro Office Systems Technology, Inc 132 

* Microcomputing 

'Back Issues 135 

•Dealer Sell 130 

•Foreign Dealers 73 

•Microcomputing Subscriptions 18 

•Moving 23 

•Run Subscription 131 

•Sub Problems 64 

482 Micrographics Technology Corp 136 

489 Microtek, Inc 136 

15 Midwest Farm Software 33 

235 Midwest Micro, Inc 120 

* NRI Schools 45 

55 New England Business Systems 119 

487 Novation, Inc 133 

470 OA Software, Inc 129 

330 Omnitronix 130 

126 Omnitronix 130 

212 Pacifica Technology 32 

263 Palantir Software 61 

70 PryorCorp 80 

473 Pyramid Date, Ltd 129 

412 Random House School Division 121 

191 Riverlake Systems 84 

205 Selectronics 113 

474 Sensor Based Systems 126 

14 Sintec 14 

132 Sixty Eight Micro Journal 64 

409 Software 128 127 

492 Soft Warehouse, The 120 

472 Software Automation, Inc 129 

361 Star Micronics, Inc 3 

39 Sunlock Systems 85 

2 Sweet Gum, Inc 83 

189 TabSales 33 

484 TaborCorp 132 

492 TeltoneCorp 134 

260 Thoughtware, Inc 49 

468 U.S. Digital Corp 128 

466 VisiCorp 128 

485 Waterloo Distance Education, Inc 135 

* Wayne Green, Inc. 

367 * Bind-in 34 

367 • Shelf Boxes 130 

359 Weiss Associates, Inc 51 

463 Weiss Associates, Inc 127 

216 Western Wares 30 

64 White Lable Software 64 

388 Writing Consultants 103 

296 Writing Consultants 30 

480 Yokogawa Corp. of America 136 



•This advertiser prefers to be contacted directly. 



For further information from our advertisers, please use the Reader Service card. 



114 Microcomputing, January 1984 



KfcAUHK ^JbKVldi 



This card valid until February 29, 1 984. 



My vote for the best advertisement in this issue goes to 
Service number is 



I 



(company) whose Reader 



Which microcomputing systems do you own'' Check all that apply 

1 Apple II. IU . Ill 10 Franklin Ace 

2 Apple lie 11 Heath/Zenith 

3 Atari 400, 800 12 Hewlett-Packard 

4 Atari 1200 XL 13 IBM PC 

5 Commodore VIC-20 14 Kaypro 

6 Commodore** 15 NEC 

7 Commodore/PET 16 North Star 

8 Cromemco 17 Osborne 

9 DEC 



18 PMC 80/81 

19 S 100 based system 

20 Sanyo 

21 Texas Instruments 

22 Timex/Sinclair 

23 TRS80 

24 Xerox 

25 Other 



Which of the following systems do you 
26. Apple Lisa 

27 Apple lie 

28 Atari 1200 XL 

29 Commodore-64 

30 Compaq 

31 Epson HX 20 

32 Epson OX 10 

33 Franklin Ace 

34 Hyperion 

35 IBM XT PC 

36 Morrow Micro Decision 

37 North Star Advantage 

38 Osborne Executive 



plan to buy during the next 12 months'' 

39 Otrona Attache 

40 Panasonic JR-200 

41 Sony SMC 70 

. 42 Texas Instruments Compact 

43 Texas Instruments Professional 

44 Timex/Sinclair 2000 

45 TRS80 Model 12 

46 TRS-80 Model 16 

47 Tandy Model 100 

48 Zenith 100 

49 Zorba 

50 Other 



B How much have you invested in computer hardware (including peripherals) during the last 12 months' 7 
Nothing 3 $500 $1 000 5 $1,500 $2,000 

2 Underfcoo 4 $1,000-$ 1,500 6 Over $2,000 

C How much do you plan to spend on computer hardware during th>> next 12 months? 

1 Nomina 3 $500-$1,000 5 $1.500-$2.000 

2 Under $500 4 $1,000-$ 1.500 6 Over 12.000 

D. How much have you invested in computer software during the last 12 months? 

Nothing 3 $100- $250 5 $500$ 1.000 

2 Less than $100 4 $250-$500 6 Over $1,000 



E How much do you plan to spend on software during the next 12 months? 

Nothing 3 $100-$250 5 $500 $1,000 

2 Less than $100 4 $250 $500 6 Over $1,000 



F Do vou influence friends or business associates purchases of computing equipment'' 
1 Yes I 2 No 

G What do you consider the best source Of information about computers? Check one only 

1 Computer magazines 5 Seminars/courses 

2 Other magazines 6. Word of mouth 

3 Newspapers 7 Other 

4 Books 

H If you use a microcomputer at work, what is your primary application? 

1 Word Processing 6 Scientific/Technical 

2 Database Management ' Programming/Data Processing 

3 Other Business 8 Hardware Design 

4 Home Finance/Household 9 Graphics 

5 Education 10 Other 



For the most part, the articles in Microcomputing art 
i Too simple 2 Too complex 



3 Just right 



Which of the following columns do you read'' Please rate them on a scale of 1 (seldom read) to 5 (always 
read) 



1 Publisher's Remarks 

2 What's New. Big Blue? 
3. Dial-up Directory 

4 PET Ddurri 

5 Micro Software Digest 

M If you are not a subscriber, please circle 500 



6. Conversions 

7 Book Reviews 

8 New Software 

9 New Products 

10 Software R eviews 



rceaaer service: Keturn mis cara to receive run information on me products ad- 
vertised in this issue. Refer to the ad. You will find numbers near the logo of 
each advertiser. Each represents the advertiser's individual Reader Service 
number. Circle the corresponding numbers on one of the cards on this page, in- 
clude your name, address & zip, and drop in a mailbox. In 4-6 weeks you'll 
hear from the advertiser directly. 



1 


6 


11 


16 


21 


126 


131 


136 


141 


146 


251 


256 


261 


266 


271 


. 376 


381 


386 


391 


396 


2 


7 


12 


17 


22 


127 


132 


137 


142 


147 


252 


257 


262 


267 


272 


377 


382 


387 


392 


397 


3 


8 


13 


18 


23 


128 


133 


138 


143 


148 


253 


258 


263 


268 


273 


378 


383 


388 


393 


398 


4 


9 


14 


19 


24 


129 


134 


139 


144 


149 


254 


259 


264 


269 


274 


379 


384 


389 


394 


399 


5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


130 


135 


140 


145 


150 


255 


260 


265 


270 


275 


380 


385 


390 


395 


400 


26 


31 


36 


41 


46 


151 


156 


161 


166 


171 


276 


281 


286 


291 


296 


401 


406 


411 


416 


421 


27 


32 


37 


42 


47 


152 


157 


162 


167 


172 


277 


282 


287 


292 


297 


402 


407 


412 


417 


422 


28 


33 


38 


43 


48 


153 


158 


163 


168 


173 


278 


283 


288 


293 


298 


403 


408 


413 


418 


423 


29 


34 


39 


44 


49 


154 


159 


164 


169 


174 


279 


284 


289 


294 


299 


404 


409 


414 


419 


424 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


155 


160 


165 


170 


175 


280 


285 


290 


295 


300 


405 


410 


415 


420 


425 


51 


56 


61 


66 


71 


176 


181 


186 


191 


196 


301 


306 


311 


316 


321 


426 


431 


436 


441 


446 


52 


57 


62 


67 


72 


177 


182 


187 


192 


197 


302 


307 


312 


317 


322 


427 


432 


437 


442 


447 


53 


58 


63 


68 


73 


178 


183 


188 


193 


198 


303 


308 


313 


318 


323 


428 


433 


438 


443 


448 


54 


59 


64 


69 


74 


179 


184 


189 


194 


199 


304 


309 


314 


319 


324 


429 


434 


439 


444 


449 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 


180 


185 


190 


195 


200 


305 


310 


315 


320 


325 


430 


435 


440 


445 


450 


76 


81 


86 


91 


96 


201 


206 


211 


216 


221 


326 


331 


336 


341 


346 


451 


456 


461 


466 


471 


77 


82 


87 


92 


97 


202 


207 


212 


217 


222 


327 


332 


337 


342 


347 


452 


457 


462 


467 


472 


78 


83 


88 


93 


98 


203 


208 


213 


218 


223 


328 


333 


338 


343 


348 


453 


458 


463 


468 


473 


79 


84 


89 


94 


99 


204 


209 


214 


219 


224 


329 


334 


339 


344 


349 


454 


459 


464 


469 


474 


80 


85 


90 


95 


100 


205 


210 


215 


220 


225 


330 


335 


340 


345 


350 


455 


460 


465 


470 


475 


101 


106 


111 


116 


121 


226 


231 


236 


241 


246 


351 


356 


361 


366 


371 


476 


481 


486 


491 


496 


102 


107 


112 


117 


122 


227 


232 


237 


242 


247 


352 


357 


362 


367 


372 


477 


482 


487 


492 


497 


103 


108 


113 


118 


123 


228 


233 


238 


243 


248 


353 


358 


363 


368 


373 


478 


483 


488 


493 


498 


104 


109 


114 


119 


124 


229 


234 


239 


244 


249 


354 


359 


364 


369 


374 


479 


484 


489 


494 


499 


105 


110 


115 


120 


125 


230 


235 


240 


245 


250 


355 


360 


365 


370 


375 


480 


485 


490 


495 


500 



Name _ 
Address 
City 



State 



Zip. 



Microcomputing • January 1984 




NO POSTAGE 

NECESSARY 

IF MAILED 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES 



BUSINESS REPLY MAIL 

FIRST CLASS PERMIT NO. 73 PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 



POSTAGE WILL BE PAID BY ADDRESSEE 



MICROCOMPUTING 

P.O. Box 316 

Dalton, MA 01226-0316 



® 



1983 Index 



Apple 

A Subroutine Library at Your Fingertips Kubicz 

Sports Management Series Hansen 

New Hope for the Harried Tax Filer Florini 

VisiSchedule Crom 

Holy Macro! Hurt 

Graphics Processing System Brieger 

CDEXTrainingforVisiCalc Goodfellow 

Karei and the Robot Derr V 

Screenwriter II Sutcliffe 

Pathfinder II Daniel 

Fine-Tune Your Monitor Forbes 

Evolution Hansen 

How to Succeed in Business 

(with a Little Help from Apple) Glau 

The DOS Enhancer Elliott 

Quick File Crom 

Scope It with Your Apple Kin 9 

Magic Window II Cnerrv 

Apple 11-6502 Assembly Language Tutor Goodfellow 

Apple Goes to School Canipe 

When Apple Gets the (Big) Blues (or, IBM Gets Fruity) Schmidt 

Apples and Food Co-ops? Food for Thought Hoffman 

Check the Chill Worle V 

Health-Aide Thompson 

Bag of Tricks Daniel 

Make a Real Investment in Your Micro Gillette 

Pick Apart Those Apple Interface Problems Carnevale 

Einstein Glau 

Bizpakll G,au 

Applications 

VIC Invades Space Franke 

Look at That Sound Reid 

Healthful Hints from Heath Shoemaker 

Meet the Monthly Billing Deadline Davis 

Scope It with Your Apple Km 9 

Disk User or Disk Duffer? Bishop 

Say It in Bar Code Verzino 

Disk User or Disk Duffer? Part II Bishop 

Apple Goes to School Canipe 

Moore on the H120: A New Generation Moore 

A Touch of Braille Hoefer, 

Arnold & 

Waddell 

Apples and Food Co-ops? Food for Thought Hoffman 

Take an Atari and Call Me In the Morning Banse 

Check the Chill Worlev 

Make a Real Investment in Your Micro Gillette 

Commodore and Condominiums Steinfeld 

Atari 

Reach into Atari's Bag ot Tricks Nitchka 

A Close Encounter with Atari Banse 

TheCompleat Atarist Multer 

Diskey Maryanski 

Atari's JoystickyPrinter Connection Engels 



90 


Jan 


159 


Jan 


48 


Feb 


158 


Feb 


84 


Mar 


174 


Mar 


146 


Apr 


143 


May 


141 


May 


146 


Jun 


82 


Jun 


146 


Jun 


74 


Jul 


146 


Jul 


146 


Aug 


76 


Aug 


142 


Sep 


142 


Sep 


40 


Oct 


32 


Nov 


44 


Nov 


38 


Nov 


146 


Nov 


146 


Nov 


36 


Dec 


56 


Dec 


143 


Dec 


144 


Dec 


50 


Jan 


56 


Jan 


48 


Jan 


44 


Mar 


76 


Aug 


80 


Sep 


36 


Sep 


60 


Oct 


40 


Oct 


60 


Nov 


50 


Nov 


44 


Nov 


40 


Nov 


38 


Nov 


36 


Dec 


52 


Dec 


72 


Jan 


52 


Feb 


122 


Mar 


142 


Apr 


80 


Aug 




Microcomputing, January 1984 115 



MICROCOMPUTING 
Are You Puzzled? 

You Can Make me TS-IOOO Fit 




Atari Number Roundup Fabac 

Take an Atari and Call Me In the Morning Banse 

Book Reviews 

Nailing Jelly to a Tree Hallen 

Taming Your Computer Blackman 

Basic BASIC-English Dictionary and The Basic Conver- 
sions Handbook Lukeroth 

The VIC-20 Programmer's Reference Guide Keen 

Introduction to Word Processing Barbier 

Microprocessor Interfacing Daniel 

Introduction to CP/M Assembly Language Perelman 

Microprocessors for Measurement and Control Hansen 

Practical Basic Programs: IBM Personal Computer Edition . .Bonoma 

Assembly Language Programming for the Apple II Derry 

PET Interfacing Strasma 

Computer Choices: Beware of Conspicuous Computing . . Daniel 

Legal Care of Your Software Daniel 

Basic Apple Basic crom 

Micro Cookbook Vol. 1, Fundamentals Doonan 

Practical Pascal Programs Florini 

The Systems Programming Series Commander 

Learning IBM Basic (for the Personal Computer) Daniel 

Atari Sound and Graphics Baker 

Some Common Pascal Programs Derry 

Microbook: Database Management 

for the Apple II Computer Derry 

Computers in Number Theory Hansen 

A Programmer's Notebook: Utilities for CP/M-80, Inside 
CP/M: A Guide for Users and Programmers with CP/M-86 
and MPIM-2 and Your IBM Personal Computer: Uses, 

Applications and Basic Lord 

Microcomputer Data Communication Systems Daniel 

Understanding Computer Systems Barber 

Personal Graphics for Profit and Pleasure 

on the Apple II Plus Computer crom 

The VisiCalc Book— Apple Edition Glau 

Oh! Pascal! Elliott 

The Elementary Apple Glau 

Apple II Assembly Language Keuchman 

Word Processing and Information Processing Hansen 

Some Common Basic Programs: 

IBM Personal Computer Edition Bonoma 

How to Buy a Personal Computer (Without Anxiety) Barbier 

Basic Exercises forthe Apple Goodfellow 

Introduction to Computer Architecture and Organization . Hansen 
A Practical Guide to Word Processing and Office Manag- 
ment Systems Data Processing: An Introduction with 

Basic Badgett 

The Basic Conversions Handbook for Apple, TRS-80 and 

PETUsers Berenbon 

The Official Silicon Valley Guy Handbook and The Official 

Computer Hater's Handbook Canale 

How to Use SuperCalc and Doing Business with Super- 

Ca,c Daniel 

MasteringCP/M Barbier 

Enhancing Your Apple II, Vol. 1 Derry 

The Easy Guide to Your Apple II Glau 

A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century Shoemaker 

Microcomputers Crom 

Inside the IBM PC: Access to Advanced Features and 

Programming Switzer 

Mastering Machine Code on YourZX-81 Aldreidge 

Write, Editand Print Goodfellow 

The Reader's Guide to Microcomputer Books Glau 

How to Solve it by Computer Blackman 

So You Are Thinking About a Small Business Computer . . . Bishop 

Income from Your Home Computer Lord 

Making Money with Your Microcomputer Berenbon 

Commodore 

VIC Invades Space Franke 

Bridging the VIC-PET Communication Gap Gunn 

Run This Program and Jog Your Memory Szepesi 

Survival or Shish Kebab? Henry 

Flick Your Switcher Sander 

Calculator-Like Input for Basic Wampler 

A Worldwide PET Interface Witmer 

Commodore Launches a Winner Baker 

v,cmon :::.:Rhoads 

Supercharge Your VIC r ud j s 

Quick Brown Fox Gunn 

Sprites, Graphic Eyes and the C-64 McClellan 

Do-lt-Yourself Recorder for the VIC-20 Brousseau 



112 Oct 
40 Nov 



140 Jan 

140 Jan 

142 Jan 

142 Jan 

144 Feb 

144 Feb 

145 Feb 
145 Feb 
160 Mar 
160 Mar 
162 Mar 
162 Mar 
128 Apr 

128 Apr 

129 Apr 
129 Apr 
122 May 
124 May 
124 May 
126 May 

124 Jun 

126 Jun 



126 Jun 

124 Jul 

124 Jul 

125 Jul 

126 Jul 
126 Jul 

124 Aug 

125 Aug 
125 Aug 

125 Aug 

126 Aug 
130 Aug 
130 Sep 



132 Sep 

133 Sep 
128 Oct 

128 Oct 

129 Oct 

130 Oct 
126 Nov 

126 Nov 

127 Nov 

128 Nov 

128 Nov 

129 Nov 
122 Dec 

122 Dec 

123 Dec 

124 Dec 

125 Dec 



50 Jan 

100 Jan 

86 Jan 

78 Feb 

68 Feb 

62 Mar 

132 Mar 

98 Mar 

178 Mar 

48 Apr 

142 Jun 

60 Jun 

88 Jul 



116 Microcomputing, January 1984 



/u~; r M~w ■** 



Daley 

The C-64 Sounds Off! Steber 

A VIC Printer for the Do-It Yourself er 

Discover the Secret of VIC's inner Structure Memy^ 

Picture Magic on the VIC-20 .McClellan 

CalcResult •••••• McClellan 

The Born-Again Word Processor Hobaek 

Keyboard Magic Pruett 

Let's Interface It Taylor 

Give Your VIC Some Character Q j^ 

HESWriter - • .Fichtelman 

The Low-Down on Downloading Hoefer 

A Touch of Braille Arnold's, 

Wadded 

Commododore And Condominiums Franks 

The VIC-Epson Connection 

Construction Project 

Robillard 

The intelligent Toaster Robillard 

The Intelligent Toaster E\N\ng 

The Super Tweenie .Robillard 

The Intelligent Toaster o arhi p r 

Mating a Winchester with a Controller JtoWlfard 

The Intelligent Toaster ^ 

Low-Cost Housing for the ZX-81 ■ ■ ^ 

The Makings of a HERO Bmil „ Mll 

Do-lt-Yourself Recorder for the VIC-20 Land 

Stickltfor$10 ctower & 

Seeking a Cheap Output? Calabraro 

Pruett 

Let's Interface It. ..Robillard 

The intelligent Toaster Robillard 

The Intelligent Toaster 

CP/M 

Head 

Raid ... Evans 

Nevada PILOT Hallen 

UNERA and Conflict Smart 

CP/Power Frenaer 

Do-lt-Yourself CP/M Utilities Perelman 

badlim . ;/ . :;;;::*.Mobteh 

Increasing CP/M Power Evans 

Nevada Cobol Lutz 

Smartkey 

Epson 

Albrektson 

Pint-Sized Powerhouse Hansen 

The Quintessential Computer? 

Epson Unleashes a "Universal" Printer Hansen 

Vive la Difference! Valdocs ■ Le(jerman 

Powerful Printer Transformation Franks 

The VIC-Epson Connection Albrektson 

Quick and Dirty Disassembler 

Games 

Run This Program and Jog Your Memory Szepesi 

Survival or Shish Kebab? e|| 

IBM-A Jack of All Trades Q 

KareltheRobot Hansen 

Evolution Lord 

Qu° trix Pepper 

Tank Commander Lord 

Wordtrix 

General Interest 

The Many Faces of theT,99/4A j^J^ 

The Great OS Debate ■-■■ Pedersen 

Multi-User Systems Offer Substantial Savings Brandt & 

No Data File is an island ^^ 

Easy-to-Use Software Premieres at Comdex Ocellus 

A Fearless Look at Micro Changes Christian 

Buyer's Guide to Portables ^^ ' 

Supercharge Your VIC ' Cana|e 

Osborne Draws Another Line rhri<;tian 

Buyer's Guide to Hard Disk Drives £™« 

How Much Memory Is Enough? rhiirtrpss 

Winchester Blasts the Memory Barrier omiarebb 

Banking on Micros L °"Jj 

HowtoBuy BankSoUware ■ Han y sen 

Printer Survival Kit ■•'• 

The Pied Piper. Will Computer Users Follow? i-ora 



38 Jul 

86 Jul 

62 Aug 

68 Aug 

140 Aug 

86 Aug 

86 Oct 

58 Oct 

46 Oct 

144 Oct 

96 Nov 



50 Nov 
52 Dec 
98 Dec 



42 Jan 

72 Feb 

108 Mar 

92 Mar 

34 May 

48 May 

76 Jun 

42 Jun 

88 Jul 

56 Sep 

82 Oct 

58 Oct 

100 Nov 

76 Dec 



162 Jan 

158 Jan 

162 Feb 

158 Feb 

96 Apr 

142 Apr 

72 Jul 

142 Aug 

144 Aug 



80 Apr 

66 Apr 

76 Apr 

86 May 

40 Aug 

98 Dec 

94 Dec 



86 Jan 

78 Feb 

86 Apr 

143 May 

146 Jun 

145 Jun 
88 Jun 

146 Jul 



76 Jan 
58 Feb 
61 Feb 















M, 






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108 
38 

114 
44 
48 
81 
42 
76 
26 
32 
34 
80 
100 



Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Apr 

Apr 

May 

May 

May 

May 

Jun 

Jun 

Jul 

Jul 




w%. 



^ 



L M» 



• 



<*S£§fc. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 117 



The Beleaguered Compaq 

Pocket-Size Floppies: Revolution or Rip-Off V " ' " ' o^L, 

Buyer's Guide to Systems Under $1000 rl . 

The Born-Again Word Processor . uXT 

The Changing Micro Scene McClellan 

Buyer's Guide to $1000-$2500 Systems. ..." SrtUL 

Keep YourSelectricShipshape ™ " ,an 

Surveying Storage Standards n ' 

Buyer's Guide to $2500-$4000 Systems. ..'..'.'.' chris'tT-n 

Buyer's Guide to $4000-$6000 Systems .... c 

Is the Future at Your Fingertips? Christian 

Kaypro Steps Up Its Software 17 '!, 

Buyer's Guide to $6000-$10,000 Systems .' . .' .' . . .cSan 

Graphics 

Reach into Atari's Bag of Tricks Nt h . 

Sprites, Graphic Eyes and the C-64 m'7., ,? 

Picture Magic on the VIC-20 Mcuellan 

Powerful Printer Transformation , ' * V 

QuickDraw' Lederman 

Rich 

Hardware Modifications 

Bridging the VIC-PET Communication Gap . . Gunn 

A Worldwide PET Interface . XAI ♦ 

„^ . . w _, Witmer 

Keyboard You Can Get Your Hands On stenhpn* 

El Cheapo Serial Interface Frank 

A VIC Printer for the Do-lt-Yourselfer ...... Steber S 

A Real-Time System Compiler Reiff in 

Atari's Joystick/Printer Connection Enoels 

A Sure Cure for TS Wobble . c*« k 

RollYourOwn!. * tephens 

c ^ t . , . w Hanson 

Sat.sfy.ng Your Lust for Memory Uf fenhprk 

TheT/S 1000: Make It on a Monitor Aker 

Solution to a Serial Saga \\\ [ Sergeant 

Hardware Reviews 

The Perfect Mate for the IBM PC Derr 

The Many Faces of the Tl 99/4A Kilian 

Commodore Launches a Winner Baker 

Survival Kit for Printer Buyers Hansen 

Pint-Sized Powerhouse . AIK 

T . ~ Albrektson 

ine Quintessential Computer? Hansen 

Epson Unleashes the "Universal" Printer .......... Hansen 

Blue-Collar Portable r% , 

T . ^ _ Daniel 

i he Computer That Roared . CM ^ 

▼ • . -,*« — edmondson 

Tandy s 100 Reasons to Go Portable Canale 

Quality Printer for the QX-10 Hansen 

Portability Plus ... e ... 

n . _ * bmith 

Printer Survival Kit . . . ,. 

T . _. . _. Hansen 

The Pied Piper: Will Computer Users Follow? Lord 

Should You Choose the Micro Decision? Derfler & 

Ferrata 
Sony's Marketable Micro K|jne 

Zorba the Portable , m M 

TS-1000 Printing Power for Under $100 Stephens 

Powerful Printer Transformation ' " .Lederman 

The Beleaguered Compaq Lord 

The Tiny Titan H 

The NEC 8023A: A New Breed of Printer . . . Cabrey" 

Heath's ET-100 Is Outta This World Danje , 

Something to Write About Lord 

Is a Fortune in Your Future? \ \ Hamj|ton 

How to Use MPF-I Programming Board Scarpelli 

The Chinese Are Coming! 

TK e Sol n ! SeAreC ° minfl! Scarpelli 

The H89 Revisited ... KA „ 

CP/Mforthe80s J?T 

T . a, Derfler 

The New Generation u«« r « 

„ , Moore 

Kaypro s Mega-Memory Hickey 

The MPF-II: An Apple Alternative? Daniel 

The Eagle: A High-Flying PC System Lord 

Speculations on SpectraVideo Aker 

Tl Hands It to You ~ „ » 

Derfler & 

Ferrata 

Heath 

Healthful Hints from Heath Shoemaker 

Keep Your Text Intact Cmi4K 

Edit 19 ;^..\\\\\\\\\"::;;;:;::::2SS I- ,,,. 

Tank Commander n 

Pepper 

Heath's ET-100 Is Outta This World Danie i 

The H89 Revisited ... \ t 

-.. _ Moore 

Disk User or Disk Duffer? Part II Bishop 

The New Generation Moore 

Moore on the H120: A New Generation ...... Moore 



72 Aug 

52 Aug 

100 Aug 

86 Aug 

90 Aug 

90 Sep 

30 Sep 

102 Oct 

66 Oct 

108 Nov 

59 Dec 

70 Dec 

108 Dec 



72 Jan 

60 Jun 

68 Aug 

40 Aug 

36 Aug 



100 

132 

54 

70 

86 

52 

80 

50 

98 

78 

70 

102 



Jan 

Mar 

Apr 

Jun 

Jul 

Jul 

Aug 

Aug 

Aug 

Nov 

Nov 

Dec 



94 
76 
98 
54 
80 
66 
76 
70 
82 
78 
52 
38 
80 
100 



Jan 

Jan 

Mar 

Mar 

Apr 

Apr 

Apr 

May 

May 

Jun 

Jun 

Jun 

Jul 

Jul 



44 Jul 

66 Jul 

48 Jul 

70 Jul 

40 Aug 

72 Aug 

58 Aug 

76 Sep 

60 Sep 

52 Sep 

105 Oct 

98 Oct 

96 Oct 

90 Oct 

32 Oct 

50 Oct 

72 Nov 

66 Nov 

100 Dec 

83 Dec 

91 Dec 



48 Jan 

70 Feb 

162 Feb 

88 Jun 

60 Sep 

90 Oct 

60 Oct 

50 Oct 

60 Nov 



IBM 

IBM's MVP (Most Valuable Program) Cort _ 

The Perfect Mate for the IBM PC n 

DLMS ... Derr V 

No Data File Is an Island Edwards 

Brandt & 

Software Breakthrough for Your IBM PC Rn™L 

Meet the Monthly Billing Deadline ... "" n.™ 

Real Estate Investor " 

IBM-A Jack of All Trades | B °"° ma 

1-2-3 vsMultiplanvs MBA « 

You Can Count on 1-2-3 f° n ° ma 

Memory/Shift... Bonoma 

Quotrix.... Lord 

Wordtrix... Lord 

TKiSolvenlsltMagic? ^ 

QuickDraw! Dan,el 

Proofreader R,ch 

DataFax Hobish 

Graph 'n'Calc... . L ° rd 

AStory of Sorts ... , 

The Final Word Derfler 36 " 

Make a Real Investment in Your Micro . rnLttl 

Real Estate Analysis Program c , l 

WordStars Frohch 

Lord 

Music/Speech Synthesis 

The Perfect Mate for the IBM PC Derr 

A Close Encounter with Atari Banse 

TheCompleatAtarist m,,i^, 

—._-„_ Multer 

The C-64 Sounds Off!. ^ . 

Daley 

Osborne 

Tricks You Can Use on Your Osborne Lord 

Osborne Draws Another Line Canale 

Debug Your Osborne Software Mitchell 

Quickpro 

Lord 

Portables 

Look at That Sound . . 

_. _, Heid 

Blue-Collar Portable no „ , 

,. n , Jrv Daniei 

The Pied Piper: Will Computer Users Follow? Lord 

Zorba the Portable . . , M 

Lord 

Printers 

Survival Kit for Printer Buyers Hansen 

Quality Printer for the QX-10 u ancon 

_ . . _ ncinsen 

Printer Survival Kit . 

T _ „„_ n . Hansen 

TS-1000 Printing Power for Under $100 Stephens 

The NEC 8023A: A New Breed of Printer Carbrey 

Software Reviews 

DLMS _ . . 

e Edwards 

Sports Management Series Hansen 

Raid 

Head 

Nevada PILOT ^ 

... , _ tv3ns 

VisiSchedule . . ^ 

« t _ Crom 

Software Breakthrough for Your IBM PC ... . Bonoma 

UNERA and Conflict .'.'.'.'. .Hal. en 

Edit 19 ... 

CP/Power McLaughlm 

_ , _ Smart 

Real Estate Investor Bonoma 

Graphics Processing System Rrian«r 

VICMON "!, e9 ® r 

Rhoads 

Easy-to-Use Software Premieres at Comdex Derfler 

JRT Pascal ' 

^ . _ . Aronson 

Snl u? m,nfl forVisiCalc Goodfel.ow 

BADLIM _ 

_ . Perelman 

Diskey .. 

., „ . ... . Maryanski 

1-2-3 vsMultiplanvs MBA Bonoma 

You Can Count on 1-2-3 Bonoma 

Karel the Robot De 

Vive la Difference! Valdocs Hansen 

Memory/Shift . . 

_ Lord 

Screenwriter II c , . ... 

~ ,. ,. . Sutchffe 

Pathfinder I ^ 

^ , „ _ Daniei 

Quick Brown Fox ^ 

,~ Caunn 

Quotrix . 

c . Lord 

Evolution 

... . Hansen 

Wordtrix , 

The DOS Enhancer ".'.'.'.'.'.'.' .Elliott 

ZX Disassembler/Debugger Stephens 

HexPrintR , 

~ , _., Zucconi 

Quick File ^ 

Crorrv 



64 Jan 

94 Jan 

156 Jan 



108 
40 
44 
175 
86 
62 
60 
141 
145 
146 
30 
36 
146 
144 
146 
56 
146 
36 
146 
140 



Feb 

Feb 

Mar 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

May 

May 

Jun 

Jul 

Aug 

Aug 

Sep 

Sep 

Oct 

Nov 

Nov 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 



94 Jan 

52 Feb 

122 Mar 

38 Jul 



100 Apr 

81 May 

74 Oct 

143 Oct 



56 Jan 

70 May 

100 Jul 

48 Jul 



54 Mar 

52 Jun 

80 Jul 

70 Jul 

76 Sep 



156 Jan 
159 Jan 
162 Jan 
158 Jan 
158 Feb 
40 Feb 
162 Feb 
162 Feb 
158 Feb 
175 Mar 
174 Mar 
178 Mar 
38 Mar 
143 Apr 
146 Apr 
142 Apr 

142 Apr 
62 May 
60 May 

143 May 
86 May 

141 May 

141 May 
146 Jun 

142 Jun 

145 Jun 

146 Jun 
146 Jul 
146 Jul 
142 Jul 
144 Jul 
146 Au<j 



118 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Circle 55 on Reader Service card 




Calc Result McClellan 

TK'.Solver. Is It Magic? Daniel 

Nevada Cobol Evans 

Magic Window II Cherry 

Apple 11-6502 Assembly Language Tutor Goodfellow 

Proofreader Hobish 

DataFax Lord 

Graph 'n 1 Calc Lord 

VU-Calc Nielson 

Quickpro II Lord 

HES Writer Gunn 

Health-Aide Thompson 

The Final Word Derf ler 

Bag of Tricks Daniel 

Stepping Out Derf ler 

Kaypro Steps Up Its Software Hickey 

The Real Estate Analysis Program Frolich 

WordStar 3.3 Lord 

Einstein Glau 

Bizpak II G,au 

t 

Timex/Sinclair 

A Small Wonder Kin 9 

Break the 1 K Barrier Mears 

The Little Computer That Could Blechman 

Keyboard You Can Get Your Hands On Stephens 

A Sinclair Quick Fix Sehmer 

Low-Cost Housing for the ZX-81 Hearn 

T/S 1000 Printing Power for Under $100 Stephens 

ZX Disassembler/Debugger Stephens 

A Sure Cure for TS Wobble Stephens 

Space Reservations Confirmed Jainschigg 

T/S 1 000 Road Maps for the Weary Traveler Henry 

Hexing Your Timex/Sinclair Stephens 

VU-Calc Nielson 

The T/S 1000: Make It on a Monitor Aker 

Tutorials 

How Video Displays Work Callaghan 

How Video Displays Work Callaghan 

Tricks You Can Use on Your Osborne Lord 

Virtual Memory Kin 9 

Apple II-6502 Assembly Language Tutor Goodfellow 

Utilities 

IBM's MVP (Most Valuable Program) Cortesi 

DLMS Edwards 

A Subroutine Library at Your Fingertips Kubicz 

New Hope for the Harried Tax Filer Florini 

Keep YourText Intact Smith 

The Little Computer That Could Blechman 

Holy Macro! Hurt 

A Small Wonder Kin 9 

Break the 1 K Barrier Mears 

Calculator-Like Input for Basic Wampler 

CBasic's Super Sleuth Monagan 

Do-lt-Yourself CP/M Utilities Frenger 

A Sinclair Quick Fix Sehmer 

Fine-Tune Your Monitor Forbes 

ZX Disassembler/Debugger Stephens 

Quick File Crom 

TKlSolver: Is It Magic? Daniel 

Discover the Secret of VIC's Inner Structure Henry 

Smartkey Lutz 

Calc Result McClellan 

T/S 1000 Road Maps for the Weary Traveler Henry 

Proofreader Hobish 

Space Reservations Confirmed Jainschigg 

Up Periscope! McClellan & 

Pazderka 

In Search of Better Floppy Performance Potochnak 

Atari Number Roundup Fabac 

Keyboard Magic Hobaek 

Debug Your Osborne Software Mitchell 

Give Your VIC Some Character Taylor 

Hexing Your Timex/Sinclair Stephens 

The Low-Down on Downloading Fichtelman 

Sorts Illustrated Lutz 

A Story of Sorts Johansen 

When Apple Gets the (Big) Blues (or, IBM Gets Fruity) Schmidt 

P\ck Apart Those Apple, \u\ert ace Problems Carnevale 

Quick and Dirty Disassembler Albrektson 



140 


Aug 


30 


Aug 


142 


Aug 


142 


Sep 


142 


Sep 


146 


Sep 


144 


Sep 


146 


Oct 


142 


Oct 


143 


Oct 


44 


Oct 


146 


Nov 


146 


Nov 


147 


Nov 


62 


Dec 


70 


Dec 


146 


Dec 


140 


Dec 


143 


Dec 


144 


Dec 


72 


Mar 


82 


Mar 


66 


Mar 


54 


Apr 


56 


May 


76 


Jun 


70 


Jul 


142 


Jul 


50 


Aug 


70 


Sep 


44 


Sep 


38 


Oct 


142 


Oct 


70 


Nov 




104 Jan 

104 Feb 

100 Apr 

40 May 

142 Sep 



64 


Jan 


156 


Jan 


90 


Jan 


48 


Feb 


70 


Feb 


66 


Mar 


84 


Mar 


72 


Mar 


82 


Mar 


62 


Mar 


110 


Mar 


96 


Apr 


56 


May 


82 


Jun 


142 


Jul 


146 


Aug 


30 


Aug 


62 


Aug 


144 


Aug 


140 


Aug 


44 


Sep 


146 


Sep 


70 


Sep 


64 


Sep 


102 


Sep 


112 


Oct 


86 


Oct 


74 


Oct 


46 


Oct 


38 


Oct 


96 


Nov 


85 


Nov 


56 


Nov 


32 


Nov 


56 


Dec 


94 


Dec 




**5*** 



CO 



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Microcomputing, January 1984 119 



Micro Software Digest 



Micro Software Digest presents capsulized software reviews from various computer-related publications. 



MemoPlan 

System Requirements: Any computer running PC DOS, MS 
DOS, CP/M-80 or CP/M-86; 64K RAM; one 150K disk drive; 
printer 

Manufacturer: Chang Labs, 5300 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 200, 

San Jose, CA 95129 

Price: $195 

Comments: According to the review, MemoPlan s outstanding 

asset is the "ability to capture thoughts as they occur, without the 

burden of opening, closing and transferring files." 

The program is a memo- or letter-oriented word processor that 
supports automatic save, a crash utility and the ability to cancel 
commands at any time. 

Split-screen abilities and text enhancement features are also in- 
cluded. In short, MemoPlan provides the "writing features 
necessary to complete most writing tasks." Reader Service 
number 406. 

(Reviewed in Info World, October 10, 1983) 



Micro Link II Version 1.10 

System Requirements: CP/M, MS DOS or CP/M-86 
Manufacturer: Digital Marketing Corp., 2363 Boulevard Circle, 
Suite 8, Walnut Creek, CA 94595 
Price: $89 

Comments: With the growth of the micro industry, intercom- 
puter communication is becoming increasingly necessary. Micro 
Link II allows you to log onto time-sharing systems, information 
services or other micros, directly or with a modem. 

Micro Link can send or receive almost any type of file and all 
types of data at 300, 1200 or 9600 baud. Up to 20 standard phrases 
can be saved and sent by number. 

The review concludes, "If you need computer-to-computer 
communication, Micro Link II is for you." Reader Service num- 
ber 403. 

(Reviewed in Info World, September 26, 1983} 






Daisy-Aids 

System Requirements: 8080- or Z-80-based system; CP/M 2.0; 
48K RAM; 5Vi- or eight-inch disk drive; daisy -wheel printer 
Manufacturer: Escape Computer Software, Inc., PO Box 1771, 
Roswell, GA 30075 
Price: $275 

Comments: Daisy-Aids is designed to graph almost any informa- 
tion you need to present using the plot mode of most letter-quality 
printers. You can chart line, bar or scatter graphs. There's also a 
great deal of flexibility for titles and labels on all axes of each graph. 
New parameters can be saved in place of existing ones. There's 
also a built-in editing mode and, if your printer has the option, col- 
or capabilities. Fixed variable selection is designed to eliminate er- 
rors. "If you need to generate charts and graphs," the program is 
highly recommended as being "worth its price." Reader Service 
number 411. 

(Reviewed in Info World, October 17, 1983 J 



Master Grades 

System Requirements: PET with 32K and CBM disk drive or Ap- 
ple II with 16K and 3.3 DOS 

Manufacturer: Midwest Software, Box 214, Farmington MI 
48024 

Price: $39.50 

Comments: Gone are the days when precocious students could 
steal the teacher's grade book— now there's a program to keep aca- 
demic records on disk and away from inquisitive eyes. 

Master Grades, written in compiled Basic, keeps track of both 
grades and attendance. There are also six print options, including a 
progress letter to parents. The program allows the teacher to set 
both points and relative weight for each grade. Each teacher can 
keep tabs on up to 200 students. A source code is also provided- 
just in case. Reader Service number 405. 

(Reviewed in Micro, September 1983} 



Simplifile 

System Requirements: Any CP/M system 
Manufacturer: Durant Software, 2532 Durant Ave., Berkeley, 
CA 94704 
Price: $100 

Comments: As the review observes, some operating systems 
"can make many new users yearn for their pencils, scratchpads 
and typewriters." Simplifile is designed to alleviate operating 
system problems, especially for neophytes. It's a front-end pro- 
gram that offers additional identification information on files, 
allows files to be chained and facilitates the file backup process. 

The file description function lets you enter up to 42 characters to 
pinpoint exactly what's in each file. The review recommends, 
"Simplifile is an excellent utility which offers advantages to any 
user." Reader Service number 401. 

(Reviewed in InfoAge, October 1983} 



muMath 

System Requirements: IBM PC; 64K RAM; one or two disk 
drives 

Manufacturer: The Soft Warehouse, Box 11174, Honolulu, HI 
96828 
Price: $250 

Comments: Most mathematical computations on computers are 
usually done by numerical methods, but symbolic mathematics 
(computer algebra) is actually better suited for general problem 
solving. muMath, says the review, "performs exact arithmetic and 
symbolic manipulation just as people do (without the errors)." 

muMath can handle extremely large numbers and complicated 
functions easily. Matrix algebra, symbolic differentiation and inte- 
gration are also part of the repertoire. The program is written in 
muSimp language, which is a cortex phrase for an internal Lisp 
interpreter. Reader Service number 409. 
(Reviewed in Softalk for the IBM Personal Computer, August 1983) 



120 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Money Street 

System Requirements: Apple II or II Plus; 48K RAM; ROM Ap- 
plesoft; at least one disk drive 
Manufacturer: Computer Tax Service, Box 7915, Incline Village, 

NV 89450 

Price: $99.95 

Comments: If you're having trouble tracking down your transac- 
tions, Money Street may be for you. According to the review, the 
program is for everyone, from "scared-stiff computerphobes to 
CPAs " Money Street covers all aspects of personal money man- 
agement, including checks, charge cards, automated teller transac- 
tions and budgets. 

Money Street also prints running totals of tax deductions and in- 
come, so it's also possible to estimate next year's taxes ahead of 
time A code dictionary allows for customized categorizing of any 
aspect of the program. The program easily takes care of your 
money management -however, income generation is still up to 

you. Reader Service number 404. 

(Reviewed in Softalk, September 1983} 



Random House Courseware 

System Requirements: TRS-80 Model III; TRS DOS 1.3 with 48K 
or 16K cassette and SVi-inch disk drive or 16K cassette 
Manufacturer: Random House School Division, 400 Hahn Road, 
Westminster, MD 21157 

Price: Word Count: $60 disk or $39 cassette; Word Mount: $66 
disk or $45 cassette; Telling Time: $57 disk or $45 cassette 
Comments: This educational package is composed of three pro- 
grams: Telling Time, Word Mount and Word Count, Telling Time, 
designed for kindergarten level and above, teaches time telling in 
hour, half-hour and quarter-hour installments through matching 

exercises. 

Both Word Mount and Word Count are aimed at increasing vo- 
cabulary and developing thinking skills. Word Count presents the 
child with a word and he or she must create new words using the 
same letters. Word Mount asks for rhyming words. 

Word lists can be adapted. All three are easy to use and include 
sample problems and built-in directions. Programs can even be a 
challenge for adults. The reviewer enthuses, "They are a welcome 
relief in a sea of overpriced and sloppy software." Reader Service 

number 412. 

(Reviewed in InfoWorld, October 24, 1983) 



Grammatik 

System Requirements: TRS-80 models I, II or III, Apple II, He or 
III with CP/M card, IBM PC, Osborne 1 or any other CP/M- or MS 
DOS-based system 
Manufacturer: Aspen Software Co., PO Box 339, Tijeras, NM 

87059 

Price: $75 

Comments: As the review observes, spelling checker programs 

take you only halfway toward perfect professional writing— 

"cleaning up grammar and searching for apt synonyms is much 

more time consuming." Grammatik is aimed directly at these 

literary nemeses. 

Based on the prodigious Chicago Manual of Style and The Ele- 
ments of Style, Grammatik analyzes your document for total word 
count, average word and sentence length and the number of "to 
be" verb phrases. It also spots outdated phrases, capitalization er- 
rors and a host of other common grammatical mistakes. Reader 

Service number 408. 

(Reviewed in Popular Computing, September 1983) 



Market Analyzer 

System Requirements: IBM PC; 64K; at least one disk drive; 
DOS 1.10; BasicA; RS-232C serial port; an Epson or IBM prmter 
with Graftrax Plus is helpful 
Manufacturer: Dow Jones and Co., Inc., PO Box 300, Princeton, 

NJ 08540 

Price: $349 

Comments: Dow Jones, no slouch in stock market circles, has 
produced a program that works in conjunction with its News/ 
Retrieval service to help technical analysts peer into the invest- 
ment future. 

Market Analyzer's abilities are twofold: The program can re- 
trieve historical information on specific stocks and then chart the 

results. 

The review says, "The heart of the Market Analyzer is its chart- 
ing functions." You can graph a single stock over time or compare 
up to five accounts at once. Stocks can also be compared against 
the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Technical knowledge is 
necessary-as the review observes, "Like a hammer in the hands 
of a skilled carpenter, it can be used to create great things." Reader 

Service number 402. 

(Reviewed in PC World, November 1983) 



Bookends 

System Requirements: Apple II or II Plus; 48K RAM; ROM Ap- 
plesoft; at least one disk drive 
Manufacturer: Sensible Software, 6619 Perham Drive, West 

Bloomfield, MI 48033 

Price: $124.95 

Comments: Raves this review, "Sensible's programs do what 

they say they will and do it well. . .with Bookends, Sensible has 

outdone itself." The program is a reference management system 

for anyone who keeps extensive files on periodicals, books, 

records, movies or software. 

Sorts are quick, editing is "cinchy" and it's possible to find a 
reference with only a few bits of knowledge-the program relies 
on an extensive keyword function that can find even the most 
obscure connections. 

Concludes the review, "If you have no use for a reference man- 
agement system, create one— this package is just about worth it." 

Reader Service number 410. 

(Reviewed in Softalk, August 1983) 



InfoAge, published by Plesman Publications, Ltd., 211 Consumers 
Road, Suite 302, Willowdale, Ontario, M2J 4G8, Canada. 

InfoWorld, published by Popular Computing, Inc., 375 Cochituate 
Road, Box 880, Framingham, MA 01701. 

PC World, published by PC World Communications, Inc., 555 
DeHaro St., San Francisco, CA 94107. 

Micro, published by Micro Ink, PO Box 6502, Chelmsford, MA 
01824. 

Popular Computing, published by BYTE Publications, Inc., 70 Main 
St., Peterborough, NH 03458. 

Softalk and Softalk for the IBM Personal Computer, 11160 McCor- 
mick St., North Hollywood, CA 91601. 

Table. Addresses of the magazines publishing the software reviews 
digested in this department. 



Microcomputing, January 1984 121 




L 



CALENDAR 



Computer Lectures at USC 

The Annenburg School of Communication at the University 
of Southern California is hosting a series of lectures focusing on 
various aspects of the computer industry. 

On J^iuary 1 1 , William Zinsser, executive editor of the Book- 
of-the-Month Club, will speak on Word Processing and Creative 
Expression. For further information on the five-part series, con- 
tact Diane Woods at 213-743-5976. 



Public Course Offerings 

Ken Orr and Associates, a systems technology research and 
development company, is offering two public courses this 
month. Structured Requirements Definition will be on January 
10-13 in Los Angeles, CA and Structured Program Design/ 
Maintenance will be on January 23-27 in Dallas, TX. 

For more information, contact Georganna Carson, Ken Orr 
and Associates, Inc., 1725 Gage Blvd., Topeka, KS 66604; 
800-255-2459 or, from within Kansas, 913-273-0653. 



Software Opportunities in Japan 

A two-day seminar entitled Software Business Opportunities 
in Japan will be held January 26 and 27 in Monterey, CA. 

Top Japanese and American computer and legal experts will 
be on hand to discuss marketing strategies. Seminar topics also 
include distribution, licensing and competition. Several key- 
note speakers will address the group. For more information, 
contact Patsy Vyner Hawks at Technology Analysis Group 
Inc., 202-483-6642. 



Sauk Valley Computer Fair 

The Sauk Valley, IL, Computer Club will host the Fourth An- 
nual Computer Fair January 14 and 15, 1984. The fair will be 
held at the Northland Mall, Rt. 2 in Sterling, IL. 

For more information, contact Vinus Williams, Rt. 1, Millege- 
ville, IL 61051; 815-625-8585 days. 



Computers in the Cocoanut Grove 

The second annual Santa Cruz Computer Festival will be 
held February 3-5 at the Cocoanut Grove on the Santa Cruz 
Boardwalk. Feb. 3's program will focus on business and agricul- 
tural uses of the computer and Feb. 4's schedule will address 
educators. 

Both days will feature displays, demonstrations and work- 
shops. Seminars will discuss the computer job market and offer 
guidelines on purchasing systems. For more information call 
Judy Immerman at 408-425-1503. 



HE Seminars— Atlanta 

The Institute of Industrial Engineers will host two seminars 
in January. On January 16 and 17, the topic will be Robot- 
ics—Equipment, Applications and Methodology. On January 
19 and 20, a conference will cover Effective Utilization of Micro- 
computers for the industrial engineer. 

Both shows will be held at the HE Education Center in Nor- 
cross, GA. For more information, contact the IIE Conference 
Department, 25 Technology Park/Atlanta, Norcross, GA 
30092; 404-449-0460. 



Yankee Gatherings 

The Yankee Group will hold two IBM seminars in February. 
The New York show will be on February 7 and 8 and the San 
Francisco show is scheduled for February 14 and 15. 

For more information, write or call Lisa Caruso, Seminar 
Director, 89 Board St., Boston, MA 021 10; 617-542-0100. 



ICCs in the European Theater 

The European Spring Series of the Invitational Computer 
Conference kicks off in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 21. 
The ICCs are one-day, by-invitation-only conferences directed 
at a select audience of volume buyers. Each show features dis- 
plays of operating equipment and technical seminars. 

Paris will host an ICC on February 23 and Munich, West Ger- 
many, is the site of a show on February 28. For more informa- 
tion, write or call B.J. Johnson and Associates, 3151 Airway 
Ave., #C-2, Costa Mesa, CA 92626; 714-957-0171. 



UNIX in the Capital 

UNIFORUM, a user's group conference for people who use the 
UNIX operating system, will be held January 16-20, 1984, in 
Washington, D.C. The conference is being cosponsored by 
USENLX and Software Tools. 

Meetings are to be held all week long, and exhibits are sched- 
uled for January 17-19. For more information, contact Mark 
Weber at Professional Exposition Management Company, Suite 
205, 2400 East Devon Ave., Des Plaines, IL 60018; 800- 
323-5155 or, in Illinois, 800-312-299-3131. 



IT bEflLER DIRECTORY^ 



Southcon and Mini/Micro in Florida 

The Orange County Convention/Civic Center will host two 
shows January 17-19. 1984. Southcon/84 is billed as a High- 
Technology Electronics Exhibition and Convention. 

The show will share the hall with Mini/Micro Southeast-84, 
which specifically focuses on computers. For more information 
on either show, contact Nancy Hogan or Kent Keller at 213- 
772-2965. 



Aurora, IL 

Full line of Apple Computer and 
Fortune Computer, Hewlett-Pack- 
ard Personal Computers, Calcula- 
tors and Supplies. IDS Prism, SMC 
and Daisywriter Printers. Farns- 
worth Computer Center, 1891 
North Farnsworth Ave., Aurora, 
IL 60505 (851-3888) and 383 East 
North Ave., Villa Park, IL 60181 
(833-7100). 



Nokomis, FL 

We are the leading area computer 
store. We carry Cromemco, Apple, 
Vector Graphic; printers and termi- 
nals. We offer full software support in- 
cluding G/L, A/R, payroll and word 
processing. Computer Centre, 909 
S. Tamiami Trail, PO Box 130, 
Nokomis, FL 33555. 484-0421. 



Dealers: Listings are $15 per month in prepaid quarterly payments, or one 
yearly payment of $1 50, also prepaid. Ads include 25 words describing your 
products and services plus your company name, address and phone. (No 
area codes or merchandise prices, please.) Call Marcia at 603-924-9471 or 
write Microcomputing, Ad Department, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



122 Microcomputing, January 1984 



J 



CLATflFlEDS 



Circle 235 on Reader Service card. 



Classified advertisements are intended for use by persons desiring to buy, sell or trade used 
computer equipment. No commercial ads are accepted. 

Two sizes of ads are available. The $5 box allows up to 5 lines of about 35 characters per line 
including spaces and punctuation. The $10 box allows up to 10 lines. Minimize use of capital 
letters to save space. No special layouts allowed. Payment is required in advance with ad copy. 
We cannot bill or accept credit. 

Advertising text and payment must reach us 60 days in advance of publication (i.e., copy for 
March issue, mailed in February, must be here by Jan. 1). The publisher reserves the right to re- 
fuse questionable or inapplicable advertisements. Mail copy with payment to Classified Micro- 
computing, Peterborough, NH 03458. Do not include any other material with your ads as it 
may be delayed. 



The Egyptian Management Information 
Center, 93 Kasr Eleiny St., Cairo, Egypt, 
phone 27525, telex 92185, Hapi Un, is looking 
for interested manufacturers to market their 
hardware and software in Egypt and the Mid- 
dle East. Contact Adel Fahmy, Ph.D. 



Wanted— Your surplus electronic compo- 
nents: ICs, transistors, diodes, ribbon cable, 
connectors, etc. for my parts stash. Will pay 
COB (cash on barrelhead). Bill Kleronomos, 
4815-E Whiterock Cr., Boulder, CO 80301; 
303-530-1281 eves. 



For Sale: Atari 400 with 4 yr. guarantee on 
40K chip, Basic Cart, and Atari 410 for $250. 
Lenny Raniera, 32-03 20th Road, L.I.C., NY 
11105. 



For Sale: Two TRS-80 Model 1 disc drives to 
be used with a 16K Level II Basic TRS-80 mi- 
crocomputer. One is catalog #26-1160; one is 
#26-1161. $800 each. Anne Heitz, 2807 Av- 
enue C, Ft. Madison, 1A 52627; 319-372- 
3058. 



LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

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Commodore 64 

and 

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• UP/DOWNLOAD FORMATS — CBM, Xon-Xoff, 
ACK-NAK, CompuServe, etc. 

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etc. Even work off-line, then upload to system! 

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Write for the full story on SuperTerm; or, if you 
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Microcomputing, January 1984 123 




BOOK REVIEWS 



Larry 



A New Standard in Graphics Books, and . . . 
A "Fairly Complete" Graphics Complement 
Salvation for Your Systems House Start-Up 



Computer Graphics for the 
IBM Personal Computer 

Donald Hearn and M. Pauline Baker 
Prentice-Hall, 1983 
Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632 
Hardcover, 330 pp., $18.95 



Donald Hearn and M. Pauline Baker, 
both from the computer science depart- 
ment at Western Illinois University, have 
written a marvelously readable and ex- 
ceptionally useful book on computer 
graphics for the IBM PC. In Computer 
Graphics for the IBM Personal Com- 
puter, they cover everything from what a 
"system unit" is (the computer sans key- 
board) through character graphics and 
pixel graphics ("real" graphics). 

The book is written in a readable style, 
with a liberal number of full programs 
you can enter and run and with full-color 
photographs and even study questions at 
the end of each chapter. 

Computer Graphics contains 14 chap- 
ters and two appendixes; within this sub- 
division, there are some 118 programs 
and 16 full-color photographs. 

The authors start slowly, with a chap- 
ter devoted to "what makes the system 
tick, how the different hardware compo- 
nents function and what options are 
available for expansion boards, video 
monitors and other input-ouput devices 
(p. xvii)." 

Assuming you can get through the first 
chapter and the second— on character 
graphics for the PC (in which the de 
rigueur picture of a snowflake rears its 
ugly head)— the rest of the book is 
dynamite. 

Thankfully, the first two chapters take 
up only 30 pages, leaving a lot of room for 
learning about what we came to learn. 

The next section of the book (Part II) 
deals with plotting points, lines, color, 
shading and the Draw command (Chap- 
ter 3). 

Next, some fundamentals of graphing 
are covered through simple bar graphs. 
An entire chapter is devoted to curve 
drawing, with good coverage of the Circle 
statement and some applications in the 
form of pie-charting. Part II closes with 
menu creation, light pen usage and joy- 
stick/paddle peripherals as alternative 

124 Microcomputing, January 1984 



data input/control techniques. 

The authors include useful programs 
for each of these discussions. For in- 
stance, the one on menu control of graph- 
ics programs has a 59-line etch-a-sketch 
program that is sound coded, works well 
and is fun to boot. 

Part III of the book covers more ad- 
vanced graphics topics under the tide of 
"Display Manipulations." The chapters 
here are devoted to data transformations 
(e.g., rotation, zooming and the like), ani- 
mation and graphics windows, spotlight- 
ing and viewporting. 

Since Computer Graphics is current 
only through Basic 1.1 graphics com- 
mands, some of the techniques for view- 
porting, for instance, are outmoded with 
the new Basic 2.0 capabilities that auto- 
mate them. Nonetheless, the discussion 
is sound, the program examples excel- 
lent and the learning profound. 

Part IV gets to the tough stuff— three- 
dimensional displays. Hidden lines and 
surfaces, perspective views and shading 
and highlighting are covered, as are scal- 
ing, rotation and other transformations 
of 3-D imaging. This section, like the oth- 
ers, is replete with 12 different programs, 
ranging from 3-D bar graphs to surface 
plotting of a sine wave in three di- 
mensions. 

Part V involves applications of all of 
these tools. The authors cover business 
graphics (including project management 
graphs), educational graphics (like drill 
and practice programs as well as simula- 
tions) and "personal graphics" (by which 
the authors mean household financial 
graphing and game-playing). 

Again, some 16 programs, ranging 
from PERT-charting to modeling the 
solar system with rotating moon and 
earth, are presented for your erudition, 
coding and enjoyment. 

Judging by Its Cover 

As if all of this isn't enough, the book is 
hardbound, professionally produced and 
has appendixes with PC screen-tailored 
graph paper to aid in your own graphics 
programming adventures. It also con- 
tains excellent exercises at the end of 
each chapter so you can apply what you 
learned. 

Best of all, the writers fought off the 



academic tendency to write dry, dull 
copy with a lot of teaching but no rele- 
vance. They kept my interest throughout 
(mostly because of their programs). 

I keyed in about ten of the programs in 
the book, and I couldn't find a bug. Un- 
like most published code, Hearn and 
Baker seem to have taken pains to make 
sure theirs is "clean." 

The only negatives are: 

1 . The book did not come with a floppy 
disk, forcing the user to key in the pro- 
grams (a major negative; I just have to 
assume a disk will be available shortly). 

2. The text does not cover the new Ba- 
sic 2.0 commands on world and screen 
coordinates (although how to convert 
from world to screen coordinates is cov- 
ered nicely in the text and by program ex- 
amples). 

3. The "Applications" section of the 
book struck me as weak. 

This latter criticism is not one directed 
at the authors, who strove mightily to 
show how to pie-chart personnel division 
expenditures (in the business section), 
how to graph caloric intake of various 
foods and even biorhythms (in the per- 
sonal section) and how to do graphics 
drills (in the educational section). Its 
rather an indication that much of the true 
power of graphics on the PC has not been 
put to work in traditional applications in 
a useful way, because graphics program- 
ming is damned difficult even with the 
PC's power. 

That the authors have been able to un- 
lock the secrets of graphics on the PC so 
that even limited applications can be pur- 
sued effectively, however, is a major ac- 
complishment. Computer Graphics may 
be the standard graphics text on the PC 
for some time to come. 

Thomas Bonoma 
Concord, BAA 



Graphics Programs for the 
IBM PC 

Robert J. Traister 

Tab, 1983 

Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214 

Softcover, 243 pp.. $15.50 

In 243 pages, author Robert Traister 
has provided a fairly complete anthology 
about PC screen graphics, as performed 



using Basic. Not restricted to color, 
Graphics Programs for the IBM PC con- 
centrates on text graphics for the mono- 
chrome display as well. 

Written in an easy-to-read and conver- 
sational style, this book befriends the 
reader and leads him gently into and 
through the topic. 

It doesn't lead him quickly, however— it 
would appear that a conscious effort was 
made to flesh out the book in terms of 
pages. After telling us in the introduction 
that graphics is habit-forming, Traister 
takes until p. 160 to get to the part he 

calls "fun." 

Once beyond his introductory remarks, 
Traister gets into solid meat. He leads 
you largely into screen graphics, some of 
which appear in the book in color. 

Unfortunately, Tab chose to cut pro- 
duction costs and didn't use nearly as 
much color as it should have. Had there 
been more color plates, this book would 
have been much more of a value. 

The book is good, but it did leave some 
questions. It should have included a dis- 
cussion about dot-addressable graphics 
for the graphics printers. Just how does 
Sideways work? Are the only graphics 
outputs those that are first developed on 
the screen? 

Graphics Programs for the IBM PC is 
strong in the areas of drawing, the anima- 
tion of a picture and the allocation of col- 
or. If you wish to draw lines, circles, arcs, 
squares and rectangles and to complete 
the coloring, then this book will tell 
you how. 

That which this book contains is good, 
valuable, useful and workable. But the 
book's claim that it will help you to "use 
the full graphics potential of your IBM 
PC" may be overstated. 

Kenniston Lord 
Winchendon, MA 



How to Start Your Own 
Systems House 

Leslie Nelson 
Essex Publishing, 1982 
285 Bloomfield Ave. 
Caldwell, NJ 07006 
Softcover, 120 pp., $36 

Want to dump your 9-5 job to become 
a computer entrepreneur? You'll pro- 
bably fail. Most people do— but Essex 
Publishing is determined to make sure 
you beat those odds. 

This company has a series of books 
that will give you an MBA from the 
School of Hard Knocks. Fortunately, au- 
thor Leslie Nelson has done all of your 
homework. 

Nelson obviously knows how to run a 
successful systems house, as evidenced 
by his book How to Start Your Own 
Systems House. 

First, he defines just what a systems 
house is. Then he points out the limitless 
market and leaves you panting for the 
chance to begin. Don't worry, it'll come. 



Nelson lists three types of systems 
houses. One writes custom software for 
any application— too expensive for small 
systems. Another sells off-the-shelf soft- 
ware for every application— too inflexible 
and superficial. The last type develops, 
modifies and tailors its specialized soft- 
ware to a specific sector of industry. 
Nelson overwhelmingly demonstrates 
that the last is the only course to take. 

At this stage, Nelson has already sup- 
plied an invaluable pearl to the reader. 
He has forced the entrepreneur to con- 
centrate his aims and energy on one goal. 
Trying to be all things to all people is the 
perfect formula for failure in business. 

Nelson's next four chapters concen- 
trate on building up your stock of hard- 
ware and software. If you're going to sell 
this stuff, you had better know what it 
does and what it doesn't do. That's what 
you're going to get paid for. 

The author tells precisely how to con- 
tact suppliers, how to advertise and how 
to recruit sales staff. These chapters will 
be useful to anybody planning to go into 
retail business, whether it be computers 
or widgets. 

The next section of the book shows that 
Nelson is not a newcomer to the world of 
sales. Here you learn how to advertise 
your service, how to price it and how to 
convince your customer that he needs 
you. The author doesn't use vague prin- 
ciples or theories that look fine in class; 
he gives concrete examples. 

"How to Answer the Twelve Objections 
Most Frequently Raised by Prospects'' 
could be a book in itself. Obviously, Nel- 
son has had suspicious customers ques- 
tion his finances, ethics and ability. I'll 
bet most of these doubting Thomases 
later bought their own systems. 

So now that you have your company 
running successfully, are your troubles 
over? "No way," says Nelson. "Now you 
must fight to keep it solvent." He goes on 
to tell you how, and once again, his sug- 
gestions on protecting your assets, your 
share of the market and your sanity are 
specific and invaluable. 

The examples in How to Start Your 
Own Systems House are as useful as the 
advice. I have lost count of the specific 
cases Nelson uses from his own experi- 
ence to illustrate his points. There are 12 
forms, for such matters as sales agree- 
ments, lease arrangements and account- 
ing procedures. These will not substitute 
for specific agreements drawn up in 
cooperation with your accountant and 
lawyer, but they'll show you what to be 
looking for. 

Nelson has successfully distilled his ex- 
periences and presented them in a man- 
ageable package. In summary, this unas- 
suming book should be on the shelf of 
everyone considering setting up a sys- 
tems house. 

Bruce Evans 

Pickering, Ontario 

Canada 



From the MC Bookshelf 

A user's group for a book? It's a novel 
idea, anyway . . . 

Author Eric Burgess started a user's 
group after being flooded with modifica- 
tions to his Apple II programs in Celestial 
Basic: Astronomy on Your Computer 
(Sybex, 2344 Sixth St., Berkeley, CA 
94710; softcover, 228 pp., $13.95). 

Burgess has just finished work on a se- 
quel. In More Uses for Your Timex/Sin- 
clair lOOO: Astronomy on Your Com- 
puter, Burgess was able to "use many of 
the suggestions from the Celestial Basic 
user's group," he said. 

New and Noted 

New graphics books you may want to 
check out include Graphics Primer for 
the IBM PC (Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 2600 
Tenth St., Berkely, CA 94710; softcover, 
430 pp., $21.95). 

Authors Mitchell Waite and Christo- 
pher Morgan have written an impressive, 
colorful guide explaining how to create hi- 
res graphics. The book provides tips for 
programming pie charts, bar graphs, maps 
and two- or three-dimensional pictures. 

Atari owners may be interested in Ad- 
vanced Programming Techniques for 
Your Atari, Including Graphics and 
Voice Programs, by Linda M. Schreiber 
(Tab, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214; 
softcover, 207 pp., $14.50). Tab also has 
released 25 Graphics Programs in Micro- 
soft Basic, by Timothy J. O'Malley (soft- 
cover, 150 pp., $10.95). 

A myriad of books is available for 
small-business owners interested in 
computerizing their companies. 

A Guide for Selecting Computers and 
Software for Small Businesses, by Paul 
G. Enockson (Reston, 1 1420 Sunset Hills 
Road, Reston, VA 22090; hardcover, 109 
pp., $19.95), offers advice on how to best 
use hardware and software in organizing 
your business. 

Word Processing for Small Business- 
es, by Steven Jong, offers the same type 
of assistance, providing information on 
the different computers, printers and 
software available. It's published by 
Howard W. Sams & Co. (4300 W. 62nd 
St., Indianapolis, IN 46268; softcover, 
190 pp., $11.95). 

Who? 

For owners of machines no longer be- 
ing manufactured, there's Ken Lord's 
Using the Osborne Personal Computer 
(Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 135 W. 50th 
St., New York, NY 10020; softcover, 324 
pp., $13.45) and Steve Davis's Programs 
for the TI Home Computer (Prentice- 
Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632; soft- 
cover, 126 pp., $14.95). The latter 
features nearly 50 useful and unusual 
programs for Texas Instruments 99/4 
and 99/4A owners. 

L.C. 

Microcomputing, January 1984 125 



NEW soro 



Edited by Sheila Wright 



Accounting in Color on NEC's APC 

Managing with Metafile 

Get Ready for the IRS with Softax 

CIP: A DP Manager for Your IBM 



Micro Business 
Bundle 

The MBA Accountant is a 
color accounting software 
package that includes Gener- 
al Ledger with financial report 
writer. Accounts Receivable 
with invoicing and Accounts 
Payable with check writing. 

MBA's programs are writ- 
ten to utilize the color capabil- 
ities of the Advanced Personal 
Computer. Its full-screen data 
entry and review use word 
processing functions and dis- 
play screen titles, data fields 
and error messages in three 
different colors. Color allows 
you to easily spot important 
items. You can define your 
own color or use a standard 
color screen. 

A database integrates MBA's 
programs to eliminate the 
process of reentering and stor- 
ing the same information. 
This also reduces disk storage 
space and provides an effi- 



cient verification of updated 
and edited information on- 
line. 

The package also contains 
sample data that allows you to 
practice before entering com- 
pany data. The manual con- 
tains an "Introduction to Ac- 
counting'' section, which ex- 
plains the basic principles of 
accounting and the effect 
that computerized bookkeep- 
ing has on a company's 
books. Each application is 
presented with both written 
and visual illustrations in a 
step-by-step format. 

The MBA Accountant may 
be integrated with all of the 
MBA applications available 
for the NEC APC. These in- 
clude Multi-State/Local Pay- 
roll with check writing. Inven- 
tory Control with invoicing, 
Purchase Orders and requisi- 
tions. Fixed Asset Account- 
ing, Professional Time Ac- 
counting and Multi-Company 
Option. 




The MBA Accountant adds color to finances. 
126 Microcomputing, January 1984 



The MBA Accountant, for 
the NEC APC 16-bit comput- 
er, sells for $1495 from Micro 
Business Applications, 12281 
Nicollet Avenue S., Burns- 
ville, MN 55337. Reader Ser- 
vice number 464. 



Metafile for 

Management 

Metafile, an information 
management system, inte- 
grates several features into 
one program. 

Using Metafile's integrated 
facilities, you can 

• Prepare reports, menus, 
documents, data entry forms, 
letters and spreadsheets; 

• Merge data with text to 
generate reports and mailing 
lists; 

• Link spreadsheets to data 
files or other spreadsheets; 

• Combine information into 
multiple screen windows to 
form composite reports; 

• Generate simple to complex 
applications for a wide range 
of needs. 

Metafile retails for $995 and 



Correction: OpVal stock op- 
tion software, from Calc- 
Shop, Inc., [Microcomput- 
ing, November 1983, p. 132) 
is designed for the Apple II, II 
Plus and He. It can run on 
the Apple III with an emula- 
tor. The program takes only 
18 seconds to evaluate 96 
stock options. 



is available for the IBM PC or 
XT and the Compaq, and for 
PC DOS 1.1 or 2.0 operating 
systems. For more informa- 
tion, contact Sensor-Based 
Systems, 15 East Second St., 
Chatfield, MN 55923-1297. 
Reader Service number 474. 



Softax for Apple 

Design Trends has released 
Softax, a tax preparation and 
simulation program for the 
IBM PC or XT or the Apple II, 
lie or III. Its entry schemes use 
VisiCalc to speed and simplify 
data entry. All forms and 
schedules are printed for di- 
rect submittal to the IRS. 

Softax s features include a 
batch print capability that al- 
lows preparers to print re- 
turns for multiple clients with 
one command; A Proforma, or 
Organizer, that can be mailed 
to clients at the end of the year 
to show the prior year's fig- 
ures; and a print parameter 
file that can set options. Pre- 
parer information for printing 
is also included. 

Softax has a simulator that 
shows current tax positions 
based upon either detailed or 
summary entry. You can en- 
ter net change amounts to in- 
come and adjustment cate- 
gories for analysis as well as 
assess the impact of various 
tax scenarios. Softax can use 
either this year's or next 
year's tax tables for simula- 
tion purposes. 

The program is available 
in three versions. If you want 
to prepare your own return, 
you can buy the Individual 



version for $199. A Prepar- 
er's version of 1040 returns 
is available at $499. A Pro- 
fessional version that con- 
tains individual, trust, part- 
nership and corporate returns 
is available for $850. A dem- 
onstration system is available 
for $25. 

Softax is from Design 
Trends. Ltd., Box G, 644 Dan- 
bury Road, Wilton, CT 06897. 
Reader Service number 461. 



CIP: IBM DB Manager 

Concentric Information Pro- 
cessor (CIP) is an IBM data- 
base/information manage- 
ment and report writing pro- 
gram that requires no com- 
mand language. Its visual 
interface feature lets you see 
report-writing results on- 
screen as they'll appear in fi- 
nal reports. 

CIP features a calculation 
facility, including a date arith- 
metic, that lets you handle 
business applications. 

Other applications include: 

• An underlying file structure 
that supports information; 

• In-place file reorganization; 

• Context-sensitive instruc- 
tions, key graphics and help 
screens; 

• The consistent use of com- 
mand keys and pointing tech- 
niques. 

CIP interacts with such 
products as VisiCalc. 1-2-3 or 
MailMerge. It also can read 
files from pfs or dBasell. 

CIP accommodates the com- 
plex needs of business, profes- 
sional and personal record- 
keeping and report writing. 
Typical applications include 
inventory control, customer 
files, asset management, tick- 
ler files, order tracking, in- 
voicing, mailing labels and di- 
rectory lists. 

CIP, which sells for $395, is 
available from Concentric 
Data Systems, Inc., 18 Lyman 
St., Westboro, MA 01581. 
Reader Service number 460. 




Prepare for SATs 
On Apple, IBM or 
C-64 

Barron's Computer Study 
Program for the SAT is a soft- 
ware tool designed for stu- 
dents preparing for college en- 



Students can prepare for the SATs with Barron's Computer Study Program. 



trance exams. 

The program comes with 
three two-sided disks with col- 
or and sound effects, a user's 
manual and study guides for 
Mathematics and Verbal sec- 
tions of the exams. 

A student can take four full- 
length simulated SATs in ei- 
ther the Question Mode (with 
feedback on each question) or 
in the Test Mode (for uninter- 
rupted and timed test- taking). 

In the Question Mode, the 
computer will supply: 

• A complete explanation of 
the correct answer; 

• An explanation of wrong 
answer choices for verbal 
questions; 

• Problem -solving strategies 
for math questions; 

• A hint and a second chance 
to correct the wrong answer. 

In addiUon, the computer 
will calculate the student's 
scores, including a scaled 
SAT score and the percentage 
of correct answers in 42 skill 
areas. 

Once the computer ana- 
lyzes the student's strengths 
and weaknesses, a personal 
study program is created. It 
includes numerous computer 
drill items, sample math prob- 
lems and step-by-step solu- 
tions, as well as review mate- 
rial and exercises in the SAT 
text and workbooks. In addi- 
tion, the software includes 



sample math problems with 
solutions that appear on the 
screen one step at a time. 

Barron's Educational Se- 
ries, Inc. (1 13 Crossways Park 
Drive, Woodbury, NY 11797), 
sells its Computer Study Pro- 
gram for the Apple II, II Plus 
and He, IBM PC or Commo- 
dore-64 for $79.95. Reader 
Service number 465. 



A TRS-80 
Fitness Tool 

Toolkit 1 is a set of five pro- 
grams for development and 
maintenance of TRS-80 Mod- 
els HI and 4. 

The five programs are Pag- 
er, Pack, Compare, Rebackup 
and Copyfile. 

Pager permits formatted 
listings of Basic programs, al- 
lowing for left margin, inden- 
tation, page title and number 
capabilities. It also has the 
ability to skip past perfora- 
tions and to show the count of 
bytes, lines and pages in a 
listing. 

Pack provides selective re- 
moval of remarks and non- 
printing spaces or both. It 
also lets you limit the pack- 
ing to a selected block of line 
numbers. 

The Compare program ex- 
amines several versions of Ba- 



sic to show their differences 
and to provide a documented 
track of changes in hard copy. 

Rebackup and Copyfile let 
you make safety backup cop- 
ies of protected programs. 
They operate quickly, taking 
only 2.5 minutes to make a 
typical copy. Keyboard re- 
sponses are prompted by the 
screen display. 

Toolkit 1 gives you better 
control of protected software 
and reduces the risk of losing 
your backup copy. 

A 48-page operating manu- 
al explains the MBA Accoun- 
tant and presents special 
computer techniques. 

Toolkit 1 requirements in- 
clude one disk drive and at 
least 32K of memory. It's pro- 
vided on disk for TRSDOS 1.3. 

The price of Toolkit 1 is 
$89.90. It's available from 
Data Associates, Box 882, 
Framingham, MA 01701. 
Reader Service number 462. 



Venture with IBM 

Venture, an enhanced com- 
puter timesharing program 
for the IBM PC or XT, allows 
you to perform business and 
strategic plans as well as capi- 
tal investment analyses. 

The program contains ac- 
counting procedures, logic 



Microcomputing, January 1984 127 



features, calculations and 
reports. You can specify pa- 
rameters and enter data with- 
out writing equations or de- 
signing reports. 

Venture reports include In- 
come Statement, Balance 
Sheet and Source and Appli- 
cation of Funds. To interface 
with your text editing or word 
processing system, you can 
display reports on your screen 
or printer or you can write to 
disk in ASCII Text File format. 
Venture makes extensive 
use of all screen menus and 
function keys and includes 
a help facility. It also makes 
automatic calculations of de- 
preciation, cash and debt. It 
can model existing business- 
es, new ventures or capital 
projects. 

Venture's full repertoire of 
interactive English com- 
mands allows data projec- 
tions using growth rates, 11 
depreciation methods, a con- 
solidation of models, a meth- 
od factor data for inflation or 
currency conversion and an 
on-line model documenta- 
tion. 
Venture is available for the 



IBM PC or XT with PC DOS 
1.1 or 2.0, any monitor, two 
single- or one double-disk and 
192K. It sells for $495 from 
Weiss Associates, Inc., 127 
Michael Drive, Red Bank, NJ 
07701. Reader Service num- 
ber 463. 



Become a 
Finance Pro 

The PC/Professional Fi- 
nance Program (PC/PFP II) 
handles multiple accounts, 
split and transfer transactions 
and other complex financial 
transactions. 

It tracks income and ex- 
penses in 45 budget catego- 
ries, each with 26 subcatego- 
ries. PC/PFP II stores a years 
transactions on a single disk 
and generates a wide range of 
financial reports. It comes 
with an illustrated 368-page 
manual. 

PC/PFP ITs powerful record- 
keeping and reporting capa- 
bilities are especially useful 
for tax preparation. Its finan- 
cial summaries, on which all 
reports are based, are auto- 




matically compiled from indi- 
vidual transactions at the end 
of every entry session; there- 
fore, tax data is always up-to- 
date. This makes it possible to 
forecast end-of-year tax liabil- 
ities in time to avert major 
problems. 

To help you take full advan- 
tage of its tax-preparation ca- 
pabilities, the program comes 
preset with the standard IRS 
tax-deductible expense cate- 
gories already in place and 
ready to use. You can also cre- 
ate your own tax categories. 

When PC/PFP II compiles 
summary financial data from 
the individual transactions, it 
also automatically computes 
your net worth, which lists all 
of your assets and liabilities. It 
can also be used to support 
applications for credit, schol- 
arship aid and other similar 
requests. 

Designed for use on the IBM 
PC, XT or Compaq (with at 
least 128K), the PC/PFP II 
sells for $245 from Best Pro- 
grams, 5134 Leesburg Pike, 
Alexandria, VA 22302. Read- 
er Service number 467. 



t Financing for IBM and Compaq. 

128 Microcomputing, January 1984 



VisiWord Plus 
For IBM, TI Word 
Processing 

VisiWord Plus is an inte- 
grated word processing pro- 
gram for personal computers. 
It's capable of producing 
letter-perfect memos, corre- 
spondence and business-re- 
lated documents. 

The software includes 
course booklets, called Quick- 
Start, that let you create, 
revise, save, proof and print 
documents on your micro. A 
fully illustrated manual 
serves as a convenient refer- 
ence guide and back-up to the 
QuickStart courses. 

VisiWord Plus has a spell- 
ing dictionary of more than 
100,000 words. You can add 
terms and names to build a 
personal dictionary tailored to 
a particular application or in- 
dustry. A spelling memory 
feature in VisiWord Plus re- 
members your spelling habits 
and typing habits in order to 
present the most likely spell- 
ing from the program diction- 
ary. Corrections are made 
with a single keystroke. 

In addition, the VisiWord 
Plus program also extends the 



value of other VisiCorp soft- 
ware by enabling you to inte- 
grate data from existing 
program files, such as the 
VisiCalc, VisiFile and Visi- 
Schedule programs, into Visi- 
Word Plus-generated docu- 
ments. 

VisiWord Plus, which re- 
tails for $375 from VisiCorp 
(2895 Zanker Road, San Jose, 
CA 95134). is available for the 
IBM PC and XT. the Compaq, 
the Texas Instruments Per- 
sonal Computer and all IBM- 
compatible micros. Reader 
Service number 466. 



In vie w of IBM 

Graphicon's In view is a 
mouse-driven software pack- 
age. With special windows, 
Inview provides access to 
several applications and al- 
lows you to exchange data. 

A minimum number of win- 
dows requires 256K of mem- 
ory. Additional windowing 
depends upon the total a- 
mount of memory in a given 
system. 

The software takes advan- 
tage of the bit-mapped graph- 
ics available with the color 
graphics adapter. 

Inview is compatible with 
1-2-3, WordStar, dBasell and 
Indivisual (Graphicon's line of 
software) and with almost any 
packages written for PC DOS 
1.1 and 2.0. 

Inview is available for the 
IBM PC with a floppy or hard 
disk system and a mono- 
chrome monitor; it requires 
256K. It costs $295 from 
Graphicon Software, Inc., 399 
Sherman Ave., Suite 10, Palo 
Alto, CA 94306. Reader Ser- 
vice number 469. 



Digital's 
Communication Link 

Copylink is a communica- 
tions package that enables 
high-speed transfer of text 
and program codes between 
dissimilar computers and op- 
erating systems. 

Copylink provides access to 
public database services and 
has Telex and TWX capabili- 
ties. It can transfer unattend- 
ed data and emulate both 
smart and dumb terminals. 

Special features include a 



modem with speeds up to 
1200 bauds, the ability to re- 
ceive more than one disk of 
data and single-keystroke op- 
eration of functions such as 
electronic mailbox access. 

Copylink also has sophisti- 
cated downloading capabili- 
ties as well as other network- 
ing features. It offers local 
data and program transfers 
between computers using 
eight-inch and 5^4 -inch disk 
formats. Copylink also sup- 
ports transfers between MS 
DOS and CP/M operating 

systems. 

The program has an error- 
detection code that supports 
binary file transfer. An ad- 
vanced CP/M error-recovery 
technique (with DOS exten- 
sions) prevents loss of data by 
unintentional exit from a pro- 
gram or by disk overflow dur- 
ing file transfers. Errors 
are signaled by an audible 
prompt. 

Copylink comes with a 
manual and a free 334-page 
book— The Complete Hand- 
book of Personal Computer 
Communications. 

Copylink costs $99 from U.S. 
Digital Corp., 5699-D S.E. In- 
ternational Way, Milwaukie, 
OR 97222. Reader Service 
number 468. 



listings in alphabetical or nu- 
meric order. The module also 
has letter-writing capabilities. 
Number Cruncher comes 
with disk demonstration and 
training sessions, two refer- 
ence manuals, one training 
manual, a keyboard template 
and quick reference flip cards. 
In addition, complete audio 
and video training cassettes 
are available from Pyramid. 

Pyramid Data, Ltd. (PO Box 
10116, Santa Ana, CA 92711), 
sells Number Cruncher for 
$395. It's available for the IBM 
PC and XT, Compaq, Colum- 
bia and DECmate II. Reader 
Service number 473. 



Number Cruncher 

Number Cruncher version 
1.1 is a 100 percent inte- 
grated system with several 
new functions, including 
database management, infor- 
mation management, text 
editing, applications genera- 
tion and spreadsheet abilities. 
You can use these functions 
without swapping disks or 
programs in and out of 
memory. 

The data and information 
management functions let 
you build electronic files ac- 
cording to your needs. You 
also have indexing capabili- 
ties—Number Cruncher has 
full alpha and numeric 
capabilities. 

Number Cruncher has a 
foundation module that pro- 
vides you with a database 
management system. With it, 
you can store customer 
names and addresses as well 
as your own defined codes. 
The foundation module can 
produce listings based on 
your codes and can sort these 



Knoware on IBM 

Business professionals who 
want to learn how to use a per- 
sonal computer within hours 
should try Knoware. The pro- 
gram requires no experience 
or manual, and it comes with 
an easy-to-read keyboard tu- 
torial and three floppy disks. 

Knoware integrates enjoy- 
able learning with program 
applications. While you are 
being challenged by the 
"game" aspects of Knoware, 
you are also learning six of the 
most important business ap- 
plications: simple graphics, 
Basic programming, database 
management, spreadsheet ap- 
plications, text editing and fi- 
nancial decision-making. 

Knoware, available for the 
IBM PC or XT, costs $95 from 
Knoware, Inc., 301 Vassar St., 
Cambridge, MA 02139. Read- 
er Service number 47 1 . 



require. Advanced features 
include: 

• A knowledge algorithm that 
allows automatic navigation 
through the database; 

• A command assistant fea- 
ture that translates syn- 
tax-free natural language re- 
quests into valid Salvo com- 
mands; 

• A "Virtual John" capability 
that creates functions as rela- 
tional calculus operations, 
which creates views of joined 
relations without physically 
creating result tables. 

Salvo, available for eight- 
and 16-bit micros, sells for 
$495 from Software Automa- 
tion, Inc., 14333 Proton Road, 
Dallas, TX 75234. Reader Ser- 
vice number 472. 



Salvo— Software 
Salvation 

Salvo, the first fourth-gen- 
eration language for personal 
computers, comes complete 
with documentation and tu- 
torial. It combines two key 
features: a true relational 
database management sys- 
tem that links up to 16 files 
and a natural language inter- 
preter. Using English lan- 
guage commands, these fea- 
tures let you retrieve and/or 
manipulate data. 

A powerful software tool, 
Salvo allows you to create pro- 
grams in a fraction of the time 
Cobol or Basic or advanced 
database languages usually 



Obey the Law, 
Partner 

LawPartner is a sophisti- 
cated menu-driven program. 
It is designed to enhance ac- 
curacy and efficiency in law 
offices with calendaring/dock- 
eting, billing and comprehen- 
sive management information 
reports. 

LawPartner uses a func- 
tioning law office as the model 
for the program. It consists of 
three major categories: ac- 



counting, management and 
reporting, and docketing/cal- 
endaring. 

LawPartner utilizes a for- 
ward accounting system that 
allows prompt and efficient 
billing while providing up-to- 
the-second information on ac- 
counts receivable. It automat- 
ically produces computerized 
statements on business let- 
terheads. 

The management reporting 
feature provides a law firm 
with clear and meaningful in- 
formation. It has precise 
reports that analyze the prof- 
itability of the firm and of indi- 
viduals within the firm. 

The docket/calendaring fea- 
ture is one of the most power- 
ful segments of the package. It 
provides an attorney with in- 
dividualized and office-wide 
reports on such critical infor- 
mation as appointments, 
special target days, statute of 
limitations notices and 
documented filing deadlines. 

Access to each portion of 
LawPartner is protected by 
six password-activated levels 
of security. 

LawPartner sells for $1495 
from OA Software, Inc., 2170 
The Alameda, San Jose, CA 
95126. Its available for CP/M 
and MS DOS operating sys- 
tems. Reader Service number 
470. 




LawPartner software package is a legal aid. ^ 

Microcomputing, January 1984 129 




MAKE IT 

EASY 

TO 

SAVE 
your copies of 




M!CROCOMPUT!NG 

Your magazine library is your prime reference source— keep it 
handy and keep it neat with these strong library shelf boxes. 
They are made of white corrugated cardboard and are dust resis- 
tant. Use them to keep all your magazines orderly yet available 
for constant reference. 
Self-sticking labels are available for the following: 
80 Micro 73 Magazine Radio Electronics 

Microcomputing QST Personal Computing 

mCider C Q HOT CoCo 

Desktop Computing Ham Radio Interface Age 
One box (BX1000) is $2.00, 2-7 boxes (BX1001) are $ 1.50 each, 
and 8 or more boxes (BX1002) are $ 1 .25 each. Be sure to specify 
which labels we should send. 

Call TOLL-FREE for credit card orders: 

1-800-258-5473 

Or use the order form in this magazine and mail to: 



MICROCOMPUTIN G 

Attn: Book SaJes, Peterborough, NH 03458 

□SHIPPING AND HANDLING CHARGES $2 .00 per order up to and 
including a quantity of eight 25c for each additional box ordered.D 




Selling Micro- 
computing will 
make money for you. 
Consider the facts: 
Fact 1: Selling Microcomputing 
increases store traffic— our dealers 
tell us that Microcomputing is one of 
the hottest-selling computer magazine on 
the newsstands. 
Fact 2: There is a direct correlation between store 
traffic and sales— increase the number of people com- 
ing through your door and you'll increase sales 
Fact 3: Fact 1 + Fact 2 = INCREASED $ALE$, which 
means more money for you. And that's a fact. 
For information on selling Microcomputing, call 
800-343-0728 (in New Hampshire call 1-924-9471) and 
speak with Ginnie Boudrieau, our bulk sales manager. 
Or write to her at Microcomputing, 80 p>ine St Peter- 
borough, N.H. 03458. 



MICROCOMPUTING 

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WOW! 



DON'T MISS OUT ON OUR GREAT 
HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE 
DEALS FOR THE VIC-20/C64. 

Send in your name and address to 
receive our FREE catalogs on fantastic 
hardware and software for your VIC- 
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the best quality and/or least expensive 
items for your computer. Take advant- 
age of our special introductory offers. 

Mark off the reader service card (if this 
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130 Microcomputing, January 1984 




THESE COULD 




THE 



KEYS TO YOUR FUTURE 



Unlock all the potential of your 
Commodore 64 and VIC-20* with 
RUN. 

Explore . . . Experiment . . . Enjoy . . . 
Beginner and expert alike will be 
taken beyond the manual to the limits 
of their abilities. Enter your own game 
programs. Construct a simple hardware 
add-on. Broaden your scope with unique 
applications. . .And. . .get a 13th issue 
FREE! 

Enjoy key features like these: 

• Games for fun & strategy. 

• Programming tips help you learn short cuts. 

• Candid reviews help you make money-saving 
decisions. 

• Programs to add to your library. 

• Instructions & tutorials to increase your skills. 

• Hardware & software modifications help your 
machine work smart. 

• Unique applications broaden your scope. 

Here's a system-specific magazine written with 
you in mind. Written by and for the reader to give 
time-saving, money-saving hints. You'll get instruc- 
tions and tutorials to increase your skills, and candid 
reviews to help you make the right decisions. Most 
of all though, you'll have fun. 




Commodore 64 and VIC-20 
owners are one of the largest 
groups of computerists today. 
Enjoy the benefits of this with 
your own magazine. Be in con- 
trol like never before. Order 
RUN today and get a 13th 
issue free with your prepaid 
order (check or credit card) 
of only $17.97. Send in the 

coupon or call toll free 
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Edited by Sheila Wright 



DTC's 1 7 Font Printer, Daisy-Wheel Style 
The Road Runner Takes the Portable Route 
TC1000: A Megabyte ot Memory 



A Printer with Style 

The DTC Style Writer is a 
daisy-wheel printer for the 
IBM PC or Apple or TRS-80. It 
offers 35K of buffered memo- 
ry that allows the computer to 
fully load the printer memory 
within seconds and still ac- 
cept information while print- 
ing. A multicopy feature 
makes copies without the 
need to reload the printer buf- 
fer memory. An optional 67K 
expanded buffer is available 
at $49. 

Other features include bi- 
directional printing, propor- 
tional spacing, a Centronics 
parallel interface, graphics 
plotting, two-color printing, 
and programmable pauses for 
paper, print wheel and ribbon 
changing. 

Seventeen different type 
fonts are available. The print- 
er uses a cartridge ribbon. 

The DTC Style Writer is 
available from Data Termi- 
nals and Communications, 
590 Division St., Campbell. 
CA 95008. It costs $899. 
Reader Service number 490. 



Computer 
RoadRunner 

The RoadRunner is a com- 
pact portable computer with 
64K (RAM and ROM). It can 
function as both an office 
communication link and a re- 
mote terminal for traveling 
professionals. 

The machine features a 
CP/M-compatible operating 
system and communications 
capability. A cover protects 
the keyboard and display 
from damage and, when 
opened, automatically powers 




The DTC Style Writer is a new daisy wheel printer from Data 
Terminals Communications. 




The RoadRunner is a new portable computer from Micro Of- 
fice Systems Technology, Inc. 



up the unit. 

The system incorporates a 
standard-sized, 73-key type- 
writer-style keyboard that in- 
cludes: 18 function keys, 
eight of which are used for 
single-key menu selection; an 
eight line by 80 character li- 
quid crystal display that lets 
you see how information will 
appear in its final full-width 
form; and removable, and re- 
usable data and program stor- 
age cartridges. One cartridge 
can store 32K of data and up 
to 128K of program code. 

The main memory power 
supply of RoadRunner is a re- 
movable battery pack that 
runs for more than eight 
hours before it needs to be re- 
charged. 

RoadRunner is equipped 
with an RS-232C interface 
and 300 bps autodial, auto- 
answer modem. 

The RoadRunner is avail- 
able from Micro Office Sys- 
tems Technology, Inc., 35 
Kings Highway East, Fair- 
field, CT 06430. It costs 
$1895. Reader Service 
number 495. 



132 Microcomputing, January 1984 



1M Storage on 
Microfloppy Disks 

Model TC lOOO Drivette 
is a double-sided microfloppy 
disk that offers one megabyte 
of storage capacity on 3Vi- 
inch flexible disks. It is avail- 
able for all computer systems. 

The TC 1000 Drivette is 
plug- and data-compatible 
with standard double-sided. 
96-track-per-inch, 5 l /4-inch 
drives. This compatibility lets 
you download double-sided, 
5V4-inch applications and op- 
erating systems software to 



the unit's 3 ^ -inch disks with 
no modifications. 

The model TC 1000 Driv- 
ette is available from Tabor 
Corp., Lyberty Way, West- 
ford, MA 01886. It costs $295. 
Reader Service number 484. 



Print with 

ShuffleBuffer 

ShuflleBufier is a printing 
buffer that performs mix-and- 
merge printout operations. It 
is an enhanced version of In- 
teractive Structures' Pipeline 
and is compatible with all mi- 
crocomputers having a stan- 
dard serial or parallel port. 

ShuffleBuffer has the capa- 
bility to "shuffle" text, graph- 
ics, spreadsheet information 
and other computer-gener- 
ated material into any desired 
combination for printing, 
plotting or telephone trans- 
mission. 

Applications include mail- 
ing lists, letter mergings, 
preparation of personalized 
form letters and other repeat- 
ed or rearranged material. 

The product has two addi- 
tional modes of operation: the 
standard "dumb buffer" func- 
tion of first in/first out (FIFO) 
printing of material that does 
not need rearranging or re- 
printing, and Bypass, to inter- 
rupt a long printout in order to 
produce a separate document 
on an immediate basis. 

ShuffleBuffer has front 
panel controls that permit 
stacking. It comes with its 
own cables, power source and 
manual. ShuffleBuffer also 
has a full year warranty. 

ShuffleBuffer is available 
from Interactive Structures, 
Inc., 146 Montgomery Ave., 
Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004. It 
costs $299 with 32K; $349 
with 64K; and $445 with 
128K. Reader Service num- 
ber 481. 



Retro-Graphics for 
DEC Terminals 

The DQ640-Series Retro- 
Graphics is a printed circuit 
card and CRT assemblies that 
install in DEC terminals. The 
package provides Tek 4010/ 
4014 graphics features and 
compatibility with programs 
written for Digital Engineer- 
ing's VT640-Series Retro- 




Perform mix and merge printout operations. 




The DQ640Series Retro-Graphics package includes printed 
circuit cards and CRT assemblies for DEC terminals from 
Digital Engineering. 




Graphics for DEC displays. 
The DQ640-Series is available 
in 800 x 240 bit resolution. 

Because it is 4010/4014 
based, Retro-Graphics can be 
used to draw dot/dash/solid 
vectors, plot points and trans- 
mit (x,y) coordinates with a 
crosshair cursor. Additional- 
ly, 800 x 480 bit resolution 
models can be utilized for dis- 
playing all four Tektronix 
4014 character sizes. 

The DQ640-Series is com- 
patible with both Summa- 
graphics-built digitizers and 
an optional DE light pen. For 
graphics presentation, the 
terminals locally support an 
array of serial printers, in- 
cluding ones from DEC, HP, 
Epson and Okidata. 

The I/O peripherals inter- 
face to Retro-Graphics' en- 
hanced DEC terminals via an 
optional DE connector as- 
sembly. The connector as- 
sembly also provides an RS- 
170 composite video output 
port for connecting to video- 
formatted devices. 

The DQ640-Series will work 
on a variety of Tek-based utili- 
ty and applications programs 
such as DISSPLA, PLOT10 
and Template. 

The DQ640 is available 
from Digital Engineering, 630 
Bercut Drive, Sacramento, 
CA 95814. It costs between 
$970 and $1195. Reader Ser- 
vice number 483. 



Access 1-2-3 is a complete data communications system from 
Novation, Inc. 



Data 

Communications 
System 

Novation, Inc., has in- 
troduced its PC1200B smart 
modem and packaged it to- 
gether with Crosstalk XVI 
from Microstuf, Inc. Called 
Access 1-2-3, this data com- 
munication system is avail- 
able for the IBM PC or XT, 
Columbia MPC, Columbia 
Portable, Corona PC, Corona 
Portable PC and Compaq. 

Engineered to fit in a com- 
puter slot. Novation's PC- 
1200B uses large scale 
integration technology and 
features commands and re- 
sponses that provide tele- 
phone line status. It has a 
built-in dialer (touch-tone or 
rotary) with dial tone and 
busy detect, which allows the 
modem to be programmed to 
redial. It can also autoanswer 

Microcomputing, January 1984 133 



and provide audio monitoring 
through the computer's inter- 
nal speaker. 

Capable of operating at 
either 300 or 1200 baud full 
duplex, the PC1200B can also 
perform an automatic self-test 
and receiver alignment at 
power on. It can also be put in- 
to analog or digital loopback 
test modes. 

Crosstalk XVI is an intelli- 
gent terminal and file transfer 
program. It employs all the 
features of the Novation 
PC1200B smart modem to ac- 
complish autodial, autologon 
and autoanswer, and allows 
for disk-to-disk data transfer. 

Since it stores up to 40 sep- 
arate log-on passwords and 
IDs, information utilities or 
mainframes can be reached 
with a single keystroke. It pro- 
vides complete control of stop 
bits, parity, baud rate and du- 
plex while on-line. 

Crosstalk's file transfer is 
performed with extensive er- 
ror-checking and automatic 
retransmission. Captured da- 
ta can be sent to the printer, 
disk or the buffer. The pro- 
gram displays both available 
disk space and transmission 
time for each file at the appro- 
priate bit rate. 
Access 1-2-3 is available 



from Novation, Inc., 20409 
Prairie St., Chatsworth, CA 
91311. It costs $595. Reader 
Service number 487. 



Sourcebooks for 
Software/Services 

A new two-volume Small 
Systems Software and Ser- 
vices Sourcebook for mini-, 
micro- and personal comput- 
ers is now available. 

The directory combines 
over 1000 pages and 3000 
listings of applications, sys- 
tems, databases, word pro- 
cessing, graphics and other 
software. Both volumes also 
list complete descriptions, op- 
erating systems, hardware, 
languages, prices, terms, 
number of installations, train- 
ing features, documentation, 
sources, services and more. 

The Sourcebook is designed 
to help you determine 
whether or not a program is 
best for your needs. For exam- 
ple, the directory answers 
such questions as: For whom 
is the software package or ser- 
vice designed to serve? What 
equipment will it run on? 
What is its operating system? 
What can it be compared to? 



If you already have a com- 
puter and plan to change to 
another or if you are about to 
make your first computer in- 
vestment, the Sourcebook 
will help you learn before- 
hand what kinds and types of 
software are available for each 
computer. 

The Sourcebook is available 
from Information Sources, 
Inc., 1807 Glenview Road, 
Glenview, IL 60025. It costs 
$125. Reader Service number 
496. 



A Smart Modem 

Teleport 300 is a new 
modem that allows you to en- 
ter computer data from a re- 
mote touch-tone telephone 
without using a terminal as 
well as to perform standard 
computer-to-computer data 
transmissions. 

The modem also provides a 
sophisticated password secu- 
rity system to prevent un- 
authorized users from enter- 
ing the system. 

The Teleport 300 is compat- 
ible with the Bell 103 proto- 
col and offers standard fea- 
tures such as autoanswer/ 
originate. The new modem is 
user-programmable and re- 
quires no setting of physical 
switches. 



Two modes of operation are 
possible for the Teleport 300. 
In the first mode, conven- 
tional computer-to-computer 
data transmissions are possi- 
ble at terminal data speeds 
ranging from 75 to 9600 
baud. 

In the second mode, you 
can call into the system from 
any touch-tone telephone, en- 
ter a log-on password using 
push-button code and then 
enter data into the computer 
system using the Teleport 
300s DTMF-to-ASCII conver- 
sion capability. 

Teleport 300 is available 
from Teltone, 10801 120th 
N.E., Kirkland, WA 98033. It 
costs $349. Reader Service 
number 492. 



Joy-Mouse for 
TRS-80 

Joy-Mouse A/D Interface for 
the TRS-80 Model III and 4 is a 
hardware device that allows 
two joysticks, trackballs 
and/or mouse controls to be 
connected to your computer. 

The hardware provides in- 
stantaneous high-resolution x 
and y position values ranging 
from 0-255. It also has sound 
and music features. The cas- 
sette cable plugs into the 
built-in audio amplifier, 




Teletone's Teleport 300 modem provides touch-tone tele- 
phone data entry. 

134 Microcomputing, January 1984 



A new two-volume Small Systems Software and Services 
Sourcebook for mini-, micro- and personal computers is now 
available from Information Sources, Inc. 



which features a proportional 
volume control with on/off 
switch. 

Joy -Mouse can be used with 
either Basic or assembly lan- 
guage programs. It also works 
with all game programs writ- 
ten for joysticks. The first 
mode returns the exact joy- 
stick position while the se- 
cond returns eight possible 
directions. 

Joy-Mouse lets you use any 
device that is designed to be 
plugged into the TRS-80 Col- 
or Computer joystick port 
with the Model III and 4 com- 
puters. Four analog-to-digital 
ports are available for moni- 
toring analog signals such as 
temperature, wind speed, 
light intensity and voltages. 

Joy-Mouse comes with its 
own power supply and con- 
nects to the TRS-80 I/O ex- 
pansion port. The I/O bus is 
extended so that other periph- 
erals may be connected at the 
same time. 

Joy-Mouse is available from 
Micro-Labs, Inc., 902 Pine- 
crest, Richard, TX 75080. It 
costs $99.95. Reader Service 
number 493. 



New Single- 
Board Computer 

Microtrainer 2 is a new 
single-board computer de- 
signed to teach the theory of 
digital electronics, micropro- 
cessors and interfacing. 

Based on the Motorola 6802 
microprocessor, it contains a 
2K monitor in ROM. IK RAM 
and memory expansion for an 
extra 2K RAM or ROM. Pro- 
grams are entered using the 



25-key keypad with 16 hexa- 
decimal keys and nine func- 
tion keys. Data is displayed 
with eight seven-segment 
LED digit displays. 

A built-in cassette interface 
allows you to store and load 
programs from audio cas- 
settes. Two 18-pin edge-con- 
nector sockets are provided 
for connection to the outside 
world. A 6821 PIA connected 
to these sockets is available to 
the user. 

A prototyping area at the 
top of the board can be at- 
tached to the 6850 serial chip 
(normally used by the cas- 
sette circuit) to provide serial 
interfaces on the prototyping 
area. 

A complete instruction 
manual with basic instruc- 
tions and a complete circuit 
diagram and listing of the 
monitor ROM is included. The 
Microtrainer 2 replaces the 
Microtrainer 1, a Motorola 
MEK6802D3 computer con- 
nected to an expansion board 
containing a cassette inter- 
face and two parallel ports. 

A set of I/O modules espe- 
cially designed for teaching 
purposes is also available. 
These include a Digit Display 
Board; an LED board with 
eight LEDs for monitoring a 
parallel port, a speaker board 
and an A/D conversion board. 
An EPROM programmer and 
E^PROM eraser/programmer 
module will be available soon. 

The Microtrainer 2 is avail- 
able from Waterloo Distance 
Education, Inc., PO Box 62, 
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. It 
costs $295. Reader Service 
number 485. 



*1 S^T 



1 



5 * 











. 



flfwlt Wi~ 



1 



- '■ »*4* *•**.. - 



Waterloo Distance Education's Microtrainer 2 with four plug- 
in experiment modules. 



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Microcomputing, January 1984 135 



Graphmate II 
Portability 

Graphmate II is a portable 
graphics plotter that utilizes 
an alphanumeric keyboard 
and single-line display. It of- 
fers graphics with 50 mm res- 
olution. 

Special features include 
automatic pen selection (for 
four colors), automatic pen 
capping and the ceramic- 
tipped or oil-based felt-tip 
pens. The unit can also be 
used as a printer and the 
graphics ROM contains com- 
mands that let you plot bar 
graphs, line segments and pie 
charts. 

With a battery backup for 
memory (standard), the plot- 
ter can have both the type of 
graph and its data entered 
and transported to another lo- 
cation for drawing graphs. 

An optional micro-disk unit 
($985) allows storage of both 
data and graphs for reviewing 
at a later date. 

Graphmate II is available 
from Yokogawa Corp. of 
America, 2 Dart Road, Shen- 
andoah, GA 30265. It costs 
$2950. Reader Service num- 
ber 480. 



Epson Dot 
Matrix Printer 

The Epson RX-80 F/T is a 
dot matrix printer that gives 



you dot addressable graphics, 
a standard Centronics com- 
patible interface with a wide 
range of interfaces to suit 
most machines and a fast, 100 
characters-per-second print 
speed. 

It offers you a choice of two 
full 96-character ASCII sets in 
addition to nine international 
character sets and 32 HX-20 
graphics characters. You may 
choose from 128 type styles, 
including emphasized, dou- 
blestrike, elite and italics. 

The RX-80 F/T incorporates 
both friction and tractor feed 
(which allows for variable 
paper width). Other standard 
features include a disposable 
printhead, which can easily 
be removed or replaced; logic 
seeking, bidirectional print- 
ing; an underline mode; and a 
special Quiet mode that re- 
duces the noise level for use at 
home or office. 

The Epson RX-80 F/T is 
available from Epson Amer- 
ica, Inc., 3415 Kashima St., 
Torrance, CA 90505. It costs 
$599. Reader Service number 
488. 



Apple Serial Card 

The Apple Serial Card III is a 
serial communications device 
for Apple III computers. 

By inserting the card in one 
of the Apple Ill's internal 
slots, you can communicate 
with a variety of modems, 



plotters, printers and other 
serial (RS-232C) communica- 
tion devices without discon- 
necting or reattaching any of 
the system's cables. Up to 
four cards can be used simul- 
taneously to fit your com- 
munications requirements. 

With appropriate software, 
the card enables professionals 
and small businesses to per- 
form multiple communica- 
tions tasks, such as printing 
documents while communi- 
cating with another computer 
using a modem. 

An accessible switch on the 
card permits changing from 
DTE to DCE formats without 
having to replace the modem 
eliminator cable. 

If you require only one seri- 
al communications device, it 
can be connected directly to 
the built-in serial port on the 
Apple Ill's back panel. 

Apple Serial Card HI is avail- 
able from Apple Computer, 
10260 Bandley Drive, Cuper- 
tino, CA. It costs $225. Reader 
Service number 494. 



Interface from Apple 
To Color Video 
Monitors 

The Rainbo-256 is a high- 
resolution analog RGB inter- 
face card designed to interface 
Apple II Plus and lie comput- 
ers to Electrohome, Taxan 
and other similar color 
monitors. 




The RX-80 FAT is a new dot matrix printer from Epson America, Inc. 
136 Microcomputing, January 1984 



The Rainbo-256 is said to 
eliminate smearing problems 
inherent in the video circuits 
of the Apple, Franklin or other 
look-a-likes. 

The Rainbo-256 is also pro- 
grammable. Instead of being 
limited to the computer's 
color capabilities, the Rainbo- 
256 may be programmed for 
256 individual colors by ad- 
dressing 16 additional memo- 
ry locations that the Rainbo- 
256 adds to the Apple. 

The Rainbo-256 is available 
from Microtek, Inc., 4750 
Viewridge Ave., San Diego, 
CA 92123. It costs $279. 
Reader Service number 489. 



IBM Adapter 

MasterGraphics 1 Adapter 
is a single-module replace- 
ment for such IBM adapters as 
the monochrome display and 
parallel printer adapter, the 
color/graphics monitor adapt- 
er and the parallel printer 
adapter. 

The MasterGraphics 1 
Adapter provides both hard- 
ware interrupt logic and two 
display buffers for color an- 
imation in a medium resolu- 
tion (320 x 200 16-color) 
graphics mode. 

The interrupt logic in- 
creases animation speed from 
the five to seven screens per 
second permitted by IBM 
adapters to 30-60 screens per 
second. 

In addition to smoothing 
animation, the MasterGraph- 
ics 1 Adapter eases the mix- 
ing of text and graphics by of- 
fering CPU access to the char- 
acter generator. The CPU can 
read the character pattern 
from the character generator 
and place a text character 
anywhere on the screen using 
graphics commands. 

The MasterGraphics 1 
Adapter also quadruples the 
display storage provided by 
IBM adapters from 16K to 
64K, increases active colors 
from four to 16 and allows 640 
x 200 16-color resolution and 
768 x 340 monochrome 
resolution. 

MasterGraphics 1 Adapter 
is available from MicroGraph- 
ics Technology Corp., 1820 
McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 
95035. It costs $579. Reader 
Service number 482. 




Now is your 
chance to cash in 
on your robotics pro- 
gramming skill and cre- 
ativity. Enter the first Micro- 
mputing/Heath Company 
HERO 1 programming contest and 
win up to $500 worth of prizes. 
Microcomputing magazine, in conjunction 
with the Heath Company, manufacturers of the 
HERO 1, invites all HERO 1 programmers to sub- 
mit their best applications to this contest. Entries 
11 be judged in the following categories: 
1. Standard HERO 1 with arm. 
Modified HERO 1, including additional RAM or ROM, as well 

as any mechanical or 



electrical modifications. 

Prizes will be awarded to the top three entrants in 
each category. Two $500 gift certificates (one from 
each category) will be awarded. Each first place 
winner will select the prizes of his choice, worth up 
to $500, from the latest Heath Company catalog. 
A $100 gift certificate, good toward any purchase 
from the Heath catalog, will be awarded to both 
second place winners. Third place winners 
from each category will receive a copy j£g9i 
of Microcomputing column- 
ist Mark Robillard's new 
book, "HERO 1 Advanced 
Programming and Inter- 
facing," plus a one-year 
paid subscription to Mi- 
crocomputing magazine. 

CONTEST RULES 

1 . All programs must be 
submitted both on cas- 
sette tape and in hard 
copy form. A brief, writ- 
ten description of the ap- 
plication must accom- 
pany each entry. 

2. Entries in the modi- 
fied category must in- 
clude a complete descrip- 
tion of the alterations 
performed on the robot. 

3. The contest is open to 
all HERO 1 owners, except 




^ 




employees of Wayne 
Green Inc. (publisher 
of Microcomputing), 
j,^ and the Heath 

^^v Company and 
^n ^d their 

immediate 
families. 
r 4. All entries, in- 
cluding programs, 
become the property 
of Microcomputing. 
5. All entries must be re- 
ceived by Microcomputing by 
March 1, 1984. 

Send submissions to: 

Robotics Contest 

Microcomputing 

80 Pine Street 

Peterborough, N.H. 03458 

7. Contestants may submit 
more than one entry in one or 

both categories. 
Entries will be judged on origi- 
nality and technical feasibility. 
The more practical and easily 
adaptable the application, the 
better. Winners will be an- 
nounced in the June 1984 
issue of Microcomputing. So rev 
up your robot, and let's put the 
Heath's HERO through its paces! 



MICROCOMPUTING 



80 PINE STREET PETERBOROUGH, NH 03458 



Microcomputing, January 1984 137 



REVIEWS 



(From p. 146) 



Budget.DIF. I then loaded this into pfs: 
Graph and plotted it as a pie chart. Fig. 1. 
The percent calculations are automati- 
cally performed by the program. The 
whole process is straightforward and a 
pleasure to work with. Pie charts are 
limited to eight sections. 



Fig. 2 illustrates a combination of four 
sets of data on one chart consisting of line 
and bar graphs. The individual sets of 
numbers are shown in Table 1, which 
was printed out by the pfsrGraph pro- 
gram. Fig. 3 illustrates a stacked bar 
graph consisting of four different items. 

The data and graphs may be saved on 
standard DOS 3.3 formatted disks. You 
can save approximately 45 graphs on one 
disk. Pie charts look elliptical on my 
monitor, but are printed as circles. Al- 
though the plots for this article were 
printed with an Epson FX-80 printer, all 
the Epson printers are supported. In ad- 



N 



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PRICE TREND 





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KH 


70 


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60 


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50 


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40 


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MJJASOND 
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Fig. 2. A combination line/bar graph combining four sets of data. 



COMPUTERS INC. 



3000 



2000 " 



1 000 - 




COMPUTERS 
□ SOFTWARE 



EAR 
E2 PRINTERS 

E3 ACCESSORIES 



Fig. 3. A pfsiGraph-generated stacked bar graph. 
138 Microcomputing, January 1984 



dition, there are printer drivers for the IDS 
Prism. Okidata 82A, Apple Dot Matrix, 
C.Itoh and the Apple Silentype. Printers 
not listed here can be accessed if you 
have a Grappler interface card that uses 
your particular machine. 

You can also plot your graph in blush- 
ing color with the Hewlett-Packard 
7470A graphics plotter (option 001 only). 
Your printer card must be in slot 1 and 
the Hewlett-Packard plotter must be con- 
nected to slot 2. 

To sum up, this is a simple program 
that performs well within its limitations. 
The control C key command is used most 
frequently, but I would have preferred 
the open- or closed-Apple key on the He 
instead. Limiting attachments like a 
printer or plotter to a specific slot can also 
be a problem. 

Jerry Brleger 
Redmond, WA 



VisiCalc IV 

System Requirements: IBM PC or IBM 

XT with at least 64K. 
Manufacturer: Personal Software, 0895 
Zanker Road, San Jose. CA 95134. 
Price: $250. 

VisiCalc IV consists of two software 
products: VisiCalc and StretchCalc. 

VisiCalc IV comes with documentation 
for VisiCalc and StretchCalc and a disk 
for each program. 

Since VisiCalc has already been re- 
viewed in Microcomputing, I'll discuss 
StretchCalc and its new enhancements. 
StretchCalc alone costs $99.95 and offers 
three key features: 

• It creates defined function keys of your 
choice. 

• It sorts rows in spreadsheets. 

• It quickly graphs information directly 
from your spreadsheet. 

StretchCalc puts an end to the long pro- 
cess of sorting spreadsheet rows and saves 
you the burden of buying additional 



High Low 


' Volume 12 Mo 






( x 1000) Cum. A vg. 


1 25 


21 


49 


16.80 


2 27 


19 


51 


17.60 


3 24 


18 


40 


18 


4 23 


15 


30 


18.40 


5 27 


13 


26 


18.50 


6 30 


26 


30 


19.20 


7 31 


27 


34 


20.50 


8 28 


20 


40 


20.80 


9 32 


26 


50 


21.60 


10 35 


29 


68 


22.60 


11 40 


34 


80 


24.70 


12 45 


41 


74 


26.80 


Table 1 . 


Numbersfor 


Fig. 2, printed 


out by a 


pfs.Graph program. 



subroutines. With StretchCalc you sim- 
ply select which row to sort and the 
sort will be complete in just a few sec- 
onds. If you must repeat a long sequence 
of commands, StretchCalc lets you de- 
fine up to 80 keystrokes with a function 
key or letter. 

StretchCalc's documentation is well- 
organized. Each command has a full ex- 
planation and many examples. Flow 
charts for the command tree let you 
quickly find the option you're looking for. 

I used a dot matrix copy for reviewing 
StretchCalc and found some of the pages 
were light. I assume that this is one of the 
first printings and that future editions 
will be easier to read. 

These new enhancements will give 
you some assurances that VisiCalc will 
not be left behind in the Calc wars that 
pervade the microcomputer industry. 
Now, if they would only integrate vari- 
able column widths . . . 

Keith Thompson 
Microcomputing Staff 



BPS Business Graphics 
Package 

System Requirements: IBM PC; 128K; 
two disk drives (single-sided for screen, 
double-sided for printer and plotter driv- 
ers); color graphics adapter and monitor; 
asynchronous communications adapter. 
Manufacturer: Business & Professional 
Software, Inc., 143 Binney St., Cam- 
bridge, MA 02142. 
Price: $350. 

If nothing were right about BPS Busi- 
ness Graphics Package, the superb docu- 
mentation would more than compensate 
for its shortcomings. The instructions 
and tutorial simplify complex concepts 
and thoroughly teach the use of the 
package. The package, like the software 
it describes, is thoroughly professional. 

The BPS Business Graphics package 
can prepare all graph forms (pies, bars, 
lines, points, areas and any combination 
thereof). The graphs are available in 16 
colors for output (including more than 40 
printers and plotters). Graphs use data 
directly entered from SuperCalc, Visi- 
Calc files or similar source files with the 

direct command simplicity inherent in a 
Basic program. Because BPS recognizes 
that data can come from foreign sources, 
the package can also extract data from 
word processing files. 

The BPS package offers you graph de- 
velopment concepts that use an interpre- 
tive compiler approach to the specifica- 
tions developed on-screen. Bit by bit, the 
visual develops and can be modified with 
simple commands until it's correct. 

You can specify titles and legends and 
select the colors used for lines, graphs, 
bars, wedges, fill and legends. In essence, 
a graphics formula is developed and then 
filed. 



When needed, the description of the 
graph is recalled into the program along 
with filed data. It is used to prepare one of 
the many kinds of plots and presenta- 
tions of that data. 

The package also lets you connect vis- 
uals in a computerized slide show, print 
them in black and white on a graphics 
printer, print them in color on a color 
graphics printer and plot them using a 
plethora of inexpensive plotters. 

The software and support package will 
have you developing worthwhile visuals 
after reading only a few pages of the tuto- 
rial. The self-running demonstration that 
accompanies the package may be viewed 
in less than ten minutes. The tutorial 
manual is easy to read and extremely 
well-illustrated. 

Here's a short example to prove how 
easy BPS is to use. This graphics pro- 
gram is designed to draw six horizontal 



If nothing were 

right about BPS, 

the superb documentation 

would more than 

compensate for 
its shortcomings. 



bars on a graph that identifies the 
number of bicycle owners (male and 
female) who purchase a bicycle for one of 
three reasons: weight, speed or 
miscellaneous. 

First, the data has been typed and 
saved in separate files, known as Male 
and Female. The format of the files is as 
follows: 

MALE 

REASON FOR 
PERCENT PURCHASE 

20 WEIGHT 

62 SPEED 

18 MISC 

FEMALE 

REASON FOR 
PERCENT PURCHASE 
56 WEIGHT 

20 SPEED 

24 MISC 

That data can be plotted with this pfs: 
Graph program, which may be either 
typed or read from a description file: 
LOAD MALE 

SET HORIZONTAL TITLE "PERCENT" 
SET VERTICAL TITLE "PURCHASE 
REASON" 

SET HORIZONTAL RANGE 100 
SET FILL ON 

DRAW HORIZONTAL BAR 2 
LOAD POINTS FEMALE 
SET FILL OFF 
DRAW HORIZONTAL BAR 



SET FLOATING TITLE "MALE" 
SET FLOATING TITLE "FEMALE" 
SET TITLE "BICYCLE SURVEY" 

The end product is a chart with three 
horizontal bar pairs (weight, speed, mis- 
cellaneous), with the pair identified by a 
tide "floated" to the end of the middle 
set, a horizontal (x axis) scale graduated 
0-100 identified as Percent and a vertical 
scale identified as Purchase Reason. The 
entire chart is titled Bicycle Survey. 

The system's commands are easy to 
learn. Drawing is as simple as saying 
Draw. To turn features (such as fill or 
color) on or off, use the Set command. 
Editing is easy, as is file handling. This 
package lets you use the VisiCalc printer 
output as input. In fact, you can use any 
print file as input. 

In addition to eight List commands, 17 
Set commands, five Clear commands 
and nine Draw commands, there are 
commands for disk and file handling, 
data editing, curve definitions, business 
functions and math functions. In short, if 
a command doesn't exist in this package, 
you don't need it. If you run into trouble, 
there are help screens throughout the 
package to instruct you and to correct 
any misunderstandings. 

The tutorial takes a couple of hours to 
learn and will lead you directly into the 
reference manual. By the time you arrive 
there, you'll be more than familiar with 
the package and you'll be able to put it to 
good use. The documentation and tutori- 
al include nine easy-to-digest chapters, 
plus appendixes. While the reference 
manual is useful for fine points, you'll 
find that the pocket reference card, with 
occasional reference to the wall chart, 
will be more than sufficient. 

BPS is best-suited for a business or a 
school system, both of which can make 
extensive use of its capabilities. 

Kenniston Lord 
Winchendon, MA 



Bottom Line Strategist 

System Requirements: TRS-80 Model 

II with 64K and a CP/M card or Apple II 

with 64K and a CP/M card or IBM PC with 

128K. 

Manufacturer: Ashton-Tate, 9929 W. 

Jefferson Blvd., Culver City, CA. 

Price: $400. 

Ashton-Tate is best known for dBasell. 
In conjunction with World Information 
and Technology Systems Corp., it now 
brings you a cleverly constructed, easy- 
to-use econometric modeling tool: the 
Bottom Line Strategist, version 1.10. 
Knowledge of economic or financial theo- 
ries is not required to benefit from this 
program. 

To run Bottom Line Strategist (BLS), 
two disk drives are helpful, but not essen- 
tial. The system's many hard-copy op- 
tions require a 120-column printer with 

Microcomputing, January 1984 139 



continuous feed capability. If you use a 
Centronics interface, enable the extra 
line feed suppression or all printouts will 
be double-spaced. 

Most BLS features can be sampled 
from a canned scenario on the demon- 
stration disk. If you aren't convinced of 
the usefulness of the model, take advan- 
tage of the money-back guarantee by re- 
turning your unopened distribution disk 
to Ashton-Tate within 30 days. 

BLS is completely menu-driven. 
There's even a menu choice that lets you 
read your registration agreement. (Slight 
overkill?) 

Two other main menu selections dis- 
play the flow chart for BLS and furnish a 
good tutorial overview for use of the 
model. 

The system is well-designed. Prompts 
are easy to understand and buzzword- 
free. Menus, program result screens, help 
information and error messages are 
clearly and attractively presented. 

The guts of the program involve typing 
your "key business assumptions" for 
creation of the model. Chapter 3 of the 
manual and two demonstration prob- 
lems aid you in developing model param- 
eters. You can speed your work with BLS 
by quickly accessing help screens for the 
various prompts rather than flipping 
through the manual for any explanations 
you need. 

Business growth is assumed to follow 
an exponential logistic curve based on 
your responses for timing and volume of 
initial and maximum sales. You may fac- 
tor in marketing and advertising policy, 
entering assumed customer response to 
advertising expenditures, or you may 
run the model without it. 

Since the heart of the program com- 
prises interaction of the data you supply 
with a form of break-even analysis, you 
have a considerable amount of flexibility 
when entering start-up, fixed and vari- 
able costs, choosing pricing methods, 
and determining timing for the produc- 
tion and sales cycles. Effects of inflation 
on costs and revenues may be adjusted 
separately. 

If you deem it necessary for your busi- 
ness, labor cost savings resulting from 
experience can be simulated with a 
learning curve. Tax impact is considered 
by utilizing either no depreciation, 
straight line declining balance, sum of 
the year's digits or the new Accelerated 
Cost Recovery System for either personal 
property or real property as depreciation 
methods for fixed assets affected by your 
tax rate. When you determine the cost of 
capital, the tax deductibility of interest 
costs can be taken into account. 

The Pun Starts 

Once you have entered the data, the 
fun begins. Selecting Forecasting from 
the main menu produces a series of ta- 
bles on the screen: Sales and Marketing 

140 Microcomputing, January 1984 



Analysis; Profitability; and Depreciation 
and Tax Shelter. It also produces a sum- 
mary of your assumptions and cash flow 
and break-even information. 

You can pause the display at any point. 
Hard copy is available as well. If you 
enter data that is "inconsistent or 
illegal," the latter term referring to pro- 
gram limitations, warning screens alert 
you, specifically listing your bad re- 
sponses. 

When the problem is not self-evident, 
the related help screen usually furnishes 
sufficient information for a proper revi- 
sion of the data. You must be familiar 
with the limitations and requirements for 
the depreciation method you use in order 
to understand the nature of an erroneous 
input for depreciation, since details of 
this kind are not supplied. 

The inflation factor is figured into the 
net present value calculation, but reve- 



The beauty of this 

program rests 

in the ease 

and rapidity with 

which you can 

change assumptions. 



nues and costs are not adjusted in either 
the tables or the graphs. This is the major 
drawback to BLS. (If you have dBase II, 
you can develop all of these figures in 
reports structured to your specifications 
then transfer them to BLS.) 

In presenting a complete package to 
obtain financing, for example, figures are 
generally expected to be in future year 
dollars after inflation, rather than current 
year dollars. For example, payments on a 
long-term loan may remain constant, but 
revenues presumably will be affected by 
inflation with payback in inflated dollars. 

Assuming this capability is added to 
BLS, the greatest flexibility would be to 
give you the option of adjusting sales and 
revenue projections. If I were limited to a 
single format, figures and graphics ad- 
justed for inflation would be preferable to 
unadjusted figures. 

BLS graphics facilities are outstand- 
ing. Not only can you graph any of the 1 1 
financial plan components simply by se- 
lecting choices from menus, but you can 
easily expand any section of a graph on 
either the x or y axis and print either the 
original or blown-up portion with the 
zoom feature. Expansions can be repeat- 
ed to some extent and are autoscaled. 
Separate help screens aid in interpreting 
the different graphs. 

Another graphics feature is alternative 
graphing of monthly or cumulative 
amounts, month-to-month changes or 



month-to-month percentage changes di- 
rectly from the graphics menu, all from 
the original data. 

On-screen bar graphs are more dra- 
matic than the printouts, which use as- 
terisks to delineate individual points on 
the curves equivalent to the bar limits. If 
you have an Epson MX-80 with the Graf- 
trax option, an MX-82 or MX- 100, your 
printed graphs will reproduce the screen 
display with solid bars. 

Quick and Easy 

The beauty of this program rests in the 
ease and rapidity with which you can 
change assumptions regarding major 
business decisions and obtain detailed fi- 
nancial printouts, a host of graphical 
analysis visualizations, or both. You 
don't need to know or enter any 
formulas. 

A range of proposed business scenarios 
can be generated quickly; this isolates 
the effects of altering any one or more of 
the major variables. 

The last set of data for a model is auto- 
matically saved when you exit BLS. Un- 
fortunately, the mechanism for saving 
model data requires exiting BLS to set up 
the file into which your new assumptions 
will be placed when you save each differ- 
ent group of model parameters. 

The interface between BLS and dBasell, 
alluded to above, is a new function added 
in version 1.10. Simply running the con- 
version program included in the software 
creates a database in dBasell format im- 
mediately available for use with all of the 
manipulative power of dBasell. Interplay 
between BLS models and the analytical 
abilities of dBasell is limited only by your 
imagination and understanding of the 
data and the capabilities of the two pro- 
grams. Sales, costs or any other figures 
can be selected from BLS-converted files 
and compared or adjusted with historical 
information in other databases or with ar- 
bitrary factors. BLS lets you rapidly cre- 
ate a database to support your model, 
and dBasell lets you dissect, expand or 
intertwine the data in the most advanta- 
geous manner. 

What makes BLS particularly valuable 
is the tutorial information contained in 
the manual. There is a wealth of explana- 
tion for pragmatic applications of the pro- 
gram. Complete with a detailed table of 
contents and an index, the documenta- 
tion comes in a quality three-ring binder, 
nicely tabbed, printed with wide margins 
and containing numerous charts and 
sample screens. 

Creating and using data files with BLS 
deserves clarification. After an overview, 
the first chapter discusses the control 
keys used by the software. Chapter 2 con- 
tains examples of analysis for two differ- 
ent types of businesses and a tour 
through the graphics package. 

Practical application of BLS mandates 
a careful reading of Chapter 3, which gets 



down to the nitty-gritty of determining 
essential model inputs for real-life situa- 
tions for your own business or a projected 
new project. Each major segment of the 
program is analyzed with helpful discus- 
sions of both financial and graphics re- 
sults. Additional economic theory related 
to BLS is included in the fourth chapter of 
the manual. 

Chapter 5, which covers BLS and 
dBasell interaction, was in preliminary 
draft form and undoubtedly will be im- 
proved. Additional explanatory material 
is needed, particularly with regard to the 
more sophisticated report forms included 
for demonstration purposes. 

You'll find the final complex illustra- 
tions difficult to understand if you aren't 
reasonably familiar with dBasell opera- 
tion and the general type of financial 
planning techniques involved. Neverthe- 
less, the initial presentation is coherent 
and logical, utilizing one of the pro-forma 
sample files as an example of the opera- 
tion of the conversion from BLS to 
dBasell. 

Appendix A contains a marginally use- 
ful glossary, but appendixes B and C pro- 
vide vital information for advanced 
users. Basic calculus formulas are given 
for the different essential aspects of the 
econometric model in Appendix B, along 
with the helpful explanations. 

Appendix C is a bibliography of source 
and reference material. 1 located many of 
the texts in the UCLA library. (In partic- 
ular, I recommend that you survey the 
Reinhardt article dealing with the Lock- 
heed Tri Star for a better understanding 
of BLS and the application of an econ- 
ometric analysis to practical business 
planning. If you are not familiar with 
break-even analysis. The Treasurer's 
Handbook will enlighten you. Other ref- 
erences contain more generalized theo- 
retical dissertations.) 

Included on the BLS distribution disk 
is an installation program. If your ter- 
minal is among the 31 popular types 
listed, just identify it by number and 
enter the drive on which BLS is located. 
Otherwise, you must enter descriptive in- 
formation regarding control sequences 
for operation of your terminal. A help 
screen explains what is needed for the 
novice computerist. 

Printer selection offers options for the 
Epson printers mentioned above, or for 
other standard printers. 

BLS is not copy-protected. Within its 
limits, the software is quite flexible, but it 
cannot be modified, because the program 
code is compiled Fortran. 

Registered users receive corrections, 
updates and technical support. The hot- 
line number is 213-558-0086. 

My queries regarding technical mat- 
ters from initial exposure to BLS were an- 
swered promptly. Questions about eco- 
nomic aspects of program applications 
took a couple of days, but Ashton-Tate 



did follow through with the information. 

Both the demonstration and distribu- 
tion copies of BLS changed the cursor 
from a solid block to an underline. Lo and 
behold, it didn't change back after exit- 
ing from BLS! I had to reset the computer 
to regain the block cursor. Ashton-Tate 
states they will cure this bug in future 
versions. 

Almost all inputs can be selectively by- 
passed to simplify your model, except for 
the growth curve. You are limited to an 
exponential curve, the S-shaped logistics 
curve. Considerable shaping of the curve 
can be accomplished by your choice of 
maximum growth point, time horizons 
for the entire model, time required to 
reach the 50 percent growth point and 
your entry for market saturation. 

A steady state is simulated by setting 
initial sales at maximum. This enables 
you to model an income stream from an 



We need more 
programs like this . . . 



asset such as an apartment building, 
which can be adjusted for inflation. Un- 
fortunately, the inflation adjustment 
does not show up in the calculations and 
graphs of revenues and costs, but only in 
net present value computations as men- 
tioned above. 

You can produce a complete package of 
information for a variety of business 
plans, including the graphics material. 
For each permutation or combination of 
essential factors, you can determine 
when cash flow becomes positive, when 
overall break-even is reached and the ef- 
fect of different alternatives on the net 
worth of your company. 

A Welcome Package 

The Bottom Line Strategist is a fine ad- 
dition to software for practical business 
planning with microcomputers. Creation 
of ready-to-run dBasell files offers many 
interesting possibilities. 

We need more programs like this be- 
cause they model common business sce- 
narios and aid managers in using so- 
phisticated and scientific approaches to 
planning. 

There are tradeoffs between model 
complexity, number of inputs, details re- 
quired for inputs, flexibility in changing 
scenario parameters and purported ac- 
curacy or usefulness of predictions based 
on the model results. The Bottom Line 
Strategist does an excellent job in balanc- 
ing these factors to produce a worth- 
while, understandable and easy-to-use 
econometric model with excellent graph- 
ics facilities. 

Charles Perelman 
Los Angeles, CA 






ic 



For IBM's Home Computer 



The new 
system- 
specific 
magazine 
for the 
IBM PC jr. 
The premiere 
issue is 
on its 
way! 

From The 
Wayne Green 

Publications 

Group 




Microcomputing, January 1984 141 



Infotory 



System Requirements: IBM PC with 
minimum 64K RAM, or IBM Video mon- 
itor, or IBM 80 cps Matrix Printer; min- 
imum of two disk drives. 
Manufacturer: SSR Corp., 1600 Lyell 
Ave., Rochester, NY 14606. 
Price: $39.95 

Infotory is a good, easy-to-use inven- 
tory program. If you can accept the av- 
erage cost method for pricing your inven- 
tory and you don't need to keep goods in 
process in your inventory, Infotory will 
meet the needs for a nonintegrated in- 
ventory system. The reporting facilities 
available and ease of use make this an in- 
ventory system that is hard to pass up. 

Why a Separate Inventory System? 

A clerk in a stationery store had just 
sold a $25 slide rule to an anxious young 
student. Noticing that there were no 
more slide rules in stock, she ordered an- 
other dozen. Later that week, the stu- 
dent's parents returned the slide rule 
with the explanation that no one uses 
them in this computer age. The station- 
ery store was now stuck with 13 slide 
rules. If the clerk had known that one 
slide rule had been sold in four years, she 
wouldn't have reordered more. 

Accurate inventory information is just 
one element a business needs to provide 
information to manage and record busi- 
ness activities. In theory, inventory 
should be part of an integrated account- 
ing system where the purchase or sale of 
an item in inventory updates the ac- 
counts receivables, accounts payable, 
general ledger, income statement and 
inventory. 

The Infotory inventory management 
system by SSR Corp., is intended to pro- 
vide a separate inventory system that en- 
hances existing accounting systems. 

Documentation 

When contemplating the purchase of a 
system, you should first evaluate the doc- 
umentation. 

The instructions on Infotory are clear 
and crisp. They are written so well that I 
was able to start up the program imme- 
diately without a hitch. 

A review of the documentation against 
my criteria for an inventory system re- 
veals several factors. The Infotory sys- 
tem tracks and records goods that are 
available for sale. The system is probably 
not applicable for inventory control of a 
manufacturing firm because there are no 
procedures for a goods-in-process inven- 
tory. Note that if all a manufacturing op- 
eration wanted to do was keep track of its 
raw materials inventory (those goods 
used to manufacture the finished prod- 
uct), the Infotory system would work 
fine. 

142 Microcomputing, January 1984 



The information on record for each 
item meets the demands for inventory. 

The Infotory system has several unique 
features. A category code determines 
how many items are available. For exam- 
ple, not only is it possible to keep track of 
more than 200 pencils, but you can get a 
report on pencils as a category. 

A "Per" field provides you with input 
capabilities. It lets you sell by the unit 
and by the piece. It also calculates the 
correct purchase cost in order to keep 
track of the balance of the package. 

Reorder flags are provided to deter- 
mine when it is time to reorder an item. 
Data fields kept on the inventory record 
include average cost, price per unit of 
measure, vendor code location of item 
and reorder level. 

Processing of orders and sales automa- 
tically maintains the month-to-date cost, 
quantity sold, sales, receiving cost, quan- 
tity-on-hand and average cost. It also 
keeps track of the margin and the year- 
to-date average price, profit and percent 
of gross profit on sales. 

The Infotory system meets or sur- 
passes all of my requirements for a 
"stand alone" inventory system, except 
for pricing of the inventory. The only in- 
ventory pricing method available is aver- 
age cost. For most businesses and the 
IRS, average cost is acceptable. However, 
the ability to recognize the cost of the 
goods sold as the cost of the latest pur- 
chase (Lifo), or the earliest purchase price 
(Fifo), could affect the book and tax profit- 
ability of many firms. This is a definite 
weakness. 

Before leaving the review of the docu- 
mentation and going into the actual op- 
eration of the system, the most unique 
feature of the Infotory system is a subsys- 
tem called Anyreport. Although there is a 
variety of reports available with the sys- 
tem, Anyreport is a screen-driven feature 
that allows the user to select virtually 
any report from the data. 

The documentation for this feature is 
excellent and, combined with the 
screens which are used for generating 
the report, almost anyone can use 
Anyreport. Formats for frequently used 
reports can be saved. The Anyreport 
feature provides the inventory and sales 
report with features that encourage the 
purchase and use of the system. 

The Infotory System 

Following the instructions in the man- 
ual, there was absolutely no problem in 
bringing up the system. One nuisance is 
that the disk provided is only single sid- 
ed. This is a waste of one disk side of my 
system. However, since the system is de- 
signed for single-sided disk drives or dou- 
ble-sided drives, the reason for a single- 
sided disk is obvious. 

The documentation stated that Info- 
tory could contain 2600 items in a two- 
drive double-sided double-density sys- 



tem. That is a lot of items. However, 
being energetic, I made the effort to test 
the capacity. 

After you fill up one disk drive, the sec- 
ond can be used; however, not all the In- 
fotory system programs are resident in 
RAM, thus pauses occur while the sys- 
tem tells the user to reinsert the system 
disk. As a possible method around this 
inconvenience, an internal RAM drive 
was set up in memory and the program 
disk copied into the internal RAM. This 
works well. 

The Infotory program was also tested 
using a Tall Grass 20M hard disk in the 
"B" drive slot. This procedure worked 
even though I was not using the hard disk 
version of the Infotory system. This 
should provide more than enough room 
for any person. 

The speed of the Infotory system is ade- 
quate. Speed limitations during entry of 
transactions are usually due to the skill of 
the person doing the entry rather than 
the system itself. This is especially true 
using the hard disk environment. Using 
floppies, search and retrieval has the 
usual limitations on speed. 

Use of the System 

To evaluate the system, I sought the as- 
sistance of a data processing innocent. It 
became quickly obvious that the manual 
was well- written. Its screen design is ex- 
cellent and all of the transactions are 
easy to use. 

Several aids assure you of accuracy 
when using this program. Each screen 
requests sight verification prior to the 
final entry. Prompts reduce possible data 
losses or accidental over-writing of data. 
The screens are easy to understand and 
are used without reference to the docu- 
mentation. 

The manual is excellent. Its only defect 
is the absence of an index which makes 
looking up instructions a difficult pro- 
cess. The manual is organized on a func- 
tional basis, thus, absence of an index 
isn't critical. All you have to do is look for 
the instructions under the function that 
is being worked on. 

Without help, the innocent operator 
can learn and use the system for all trans- 
actions. Putting more than 1500 inven- 
tory items on the system took me about 
27 hours to do over a six-day period. This 
should help you when deciding whether 
or not to purchase the system. This man- 
ual actually gives you conversion in- 
structions to help you get started. 

I asked the data processing innocent to 
write reports using the Anyreport fea- 
ture. He had no problem with it, but it did 
take about ten minutes for the report to 
run on full file. 

In general, this data processing inno- 
cent's opinion is that the Infotory system 
is an excellent first experience! 

Harold Frohlich 
Holliston, MA 



CLIP Version 2.0 

System Requirements: any 8-bit CP/M 

system. 

Manufacturer: Though tware, Inc., PO 

Box 41436, Tuscon, AZ 85717. 

Price: $49.95. 

Command Line Interpretive Program, 
(CLIP) Version 2.0 is a set of enhance- 
ments with some of the capabilities of 
larger and more advanced operating 
systems. 

CLIP runs as a program under CP/M. 
However, it intercepts and interprets 
command lines as well as invokes the ap- 
propriate CP/M facilities. 

Once CLIP is running, you can enter 
commands and CLIP will run them as 
usual. It presents you with the illusion 
that you are running under the most 
powerful CP/M you have ever used. 

The basic package, containing the en- 
hancements themselves, costs $49.95. 
For $25 more you can buy a set of soft- 
ware tools which greatly increases the 
power and flexibility of CLIP. And with 
another $25 you can buy a file encryption 
program. 

CLIP is contained in a file, CLIP.COM, 
and is supplemented by an overlay file 
named CLIP.OVL. These files must be on 
a properly SYSGENed disk mounted on 
Drive A. To run CLIP, you simply type 

AXXIP 

The .COM file is loaded and CLIP takes 
over, announcing and reminding you of 
its presence by another prompt. 

In this review, I'll identify CP/M com- 
mands by using the CP/M prompt and 
CLIP commands by using the CLIP pro- 
mpt. To run programs under CLIP you 
simply enter commands in the usual 
way; the difference is that you now have 
a much larger and more flexible set of 
commands available to you than you 
would have under CP/M alone. You can 
still run programs of your own, and they 
can take advantage of the increased 
power of CLIP, as I'll explain. 

To exit CLIP and return to CP/M (which 
you would ordinarily do only at the end of 
a session), type 

A) BYE 

CLIP cleans things up, bids you farewell 
and returns you to CP/M. 

Macros 

In my opinion, there are three impor- 
tant enhancements provided by CLIP. 

• A highly developed, complex command 
language that permits you to use it as a pro- 
gramming language for scheduling and se- 
quencing jobs run by the computer. 

• The ability to select a program's input 
and output devices from the command line 
instead of having to go inside the program. 

• The ability to chain independent pro- 
grams together so that they work togeth- 
er as a unit from the command line. 

The first enhancement builds on the 
existing CP/M command structure but 



adds the ability to branch (with if/else/ 
endif commands) and loop (with a next 
command) and to use variables. These 
capabilities are intended to be used in 
programs known as Macros. 

Macros are programs made up of oper- 
ating system commands. CP/M provides 
a rudimentary macro capability in its 
submit command. You may recall that if 
you write 

A>SUBMIT JOB PROG 

then CP/M will look for a file, JOB.SUB, 
and will proceed to read it and execute its 
commands line by line. You can pass vari- 
ables to the .SUB file (for example, PROG). 
Specifically, JOB.SUB may contain 

PLI$1 

LINK $1 (NL.NR) 

$1 

When you write 

A>SUBMIT JOB PROG 

Submit will put this together with the 
contents of JOB.SUB and generate the 
command sequence, 

A>PLI PROG 

A>LINK PROG (NL.NR] 

A>PROG 

CLIP'S macros are like an extended 
SUBMIT capability. The first difference 
you'll notice is that you don't have to 
type SUBMIT or any other keyword; just 
typing the name of the macro invokes it. 

One exception to this is that you're 
allowed to use the same name for a macro 
and for a .COM file. This means that you 
say MACRO <file> if you want the macro 
or EXEC <file> if you want the .COM file. 
The macro language includes branching, 
controlled by ifs, thens, and elses so that 
you can bypass certain steps if neces- 
sary, and looping, so that portions of the 
macro can be repeated if desired. It also 
gives you a more flexible set of variables 
so that you can work with character 
strings, numbers and even data gener- 
ated by programs run from inside the 
macro. 

You have ten numerical variables, ten 
string variables and three file variables. If 
these aren't enough, you can stack these 
working variables, along with CLIP'S cur- 
rent state, by means of push and pop 
commands. Push causes these items to 
be saved in a file on your disk and the pop 
command restores the most recently 
pushed values. CLIP'S state is also 
pushed before execution of any program 
and before signing off and returning to 
CP/M. 

The macro concept seems heavily in- 
fluenced by Unix, although it is imple- 
mented, in one form or another, in almost 
every important command processor to- 
day. 

Learning to write and use macros effec- 
tively will take time and practice. This is 
true of all macro languages. I have yet to 
see a well-planned introduction to 
macros. 

You need to build up your repertoire of 
instructions gradually, as you do with 
any other language. The best way to get 



started is to find someone who already 
knows the language. Once you have mas- 
tered the language, you can write extra- 
ordinarily powerful programs simply by 
stringing together existing programs by 
means of macros. Most often, the reason 
for buying the software tools offered by 
Thoughtware is to have a set of handy 
primitives out of which to make macros. 

Why should you write a command-lan- 
guage macro to do something when you 
could just as well write a program to do 
the same thing. After all, what is Basic 
for? There are a number of answers to 
that. 

For one thing, Basic is not very good at 
invoking other programs other than by 
chaining them and it cannot invoke pro- 
grams which aren't themselves written 
in Basic— e.g., text editors. Even some- 
thing as simple as the compile-load-and- 
go example in JOB.SUB is beyond the 
reach of all Basics known to me. 

Another answer is that there frequent- 
ly are jobs to be done which: require func- 
tions for which programs already exist 
(so you would rather not have to rewrite 
them just for this problem); require a 
rather complicated and variable se- 
quencing of these functions, so that it's 
not practical to pack the commands into 
a SUB file; and are repetitive, so you must 
babysit the terminal if you are going to do 
the whole thing by hand. 

I/O Redirection 

I/O redirection works this way: Many 
programs are designed to accept their in- 
put from your CRT keyboard and to de- 
liver their output to your CRT screen. Oc- 
casionally, it would be handy to be able to 
send the output to a file, instead. 

Traditionally, the only way to do this is 
to rewrite the program, including code 
for obtaining the filename from the user, 
opening the file, writing to the file, clos- 
ing the file and maybe a few other things. 

The writers of the Unix operating sys- 
tem pioneered a different way: you can 
instruct the computer to redirect the out- 
put of the program to a special file. If you 
write 

% prog 

(% is the Unix prompt), then the input to 
PROG is assumed to come from the key- 
board and the output goes to the CRT 
screen. But if you write 

% prog >outflle 

then the output of PROG automatically is 
redirected to OUTFILE. 

That is, OUTFILE is opened (and creat- 
ed too, if that's necessary) and the output 
of PROG is automatically written into 
OUTFILE instead of being displayed on 
your CRT screen. 

Similarly, if you write 

% prog <lnflle 

then PROG will ignore your terminal and 
take its input from INFILE instead. 

The only difference in the CLIP version 
is that the redirection must be indicated 

Microcomputing, January 1984 143 



as an option switch: that is, you don't just 
write 

A) PROG X)UTFILE 

but must write 

A) PROG/X)UTFILE 

This doesn't look as nice as the Unix/CP 
DOS version, but it was a lot cheaper to 
implement. 

On the other hand, CLIP gives you a 
feature which Unix doesn't: I/O redirec- 
tion has been expanded to permit a si- 
multaneous display on your CRT screen. 
If you write 

A) PROG/>FILE 

the output of PROG goes to FILE instead 
of to your terminal; but if you write 

A) PROG/>&FILE 

the output of PROG goes to FILE and also 
to your terminal. Similarly, 

A) PROG/<&FILE 

reads the input from FILE but also dis- 
plays what it reads on your CRT. Of 
course, your input file must be in ASCII 
characters for this to make any sense. 
This sounds like an admirable debugging 
tool. 

Once you are used to this concept, you 
tend to design programs with the as- 
sumption that they will have a standard 
input and a standard output which de- 
fault to the terminal but can be redirected 
at will. In fact, you come to think of pro- 
grams as big boxes with an input at one 
end and an output at the other. 

Pipes 

The next stage is clearly to cascade 
these filters, so the output from one pro- 
gram becomes the input to the next. A se- 
quence of these filters can be imagined as 
a big pipeline, with data gradually flow- 
ing through it, from filter to filter, until it 
finally appears on your screen or comes 
to rest within some file. These program 
sequences are, in fact, known as "pipes." 

In the Unix system, the notation is as 
follows: 

% prog 1 | prog2 | prog3 >outflle 

the symbol "|" represents the coupling 
between successive programs. In this ex- 
ample, PROG1 gets its input from the 
keyboard, passes its output to PROG2, 
which passes its output to PROG3: the 
output of PROG3 ends up in the file OUT- 
FILE. 

These features are now proliferating 
outside of Unix. Most notably, they have 
been incorporated in the latest version of 
IBM's PC DOS for their personal com- 
puter. And they have been implemented 
in CLIP with essentially the same nota- 
tion; you write 

A) PROG 1 | PROG2 | PROG3/>OUTFILE 

I should mention one difference be- 
tween Unix pipes and these others. Unix 
is a multitasking system. That is, it can 
make the computer work at many differ- 
ent tasks at once. 

One of the most common applications 
of this principle is time-sharing a com- 
puter among many different users, all of 

144 Microcomputing, January 1984 



whose programs can be run at once. 
Each program becomes a task; the com- 
puter allocates a short time slice to each 
task and also drops tasks whenever they 
have to wait for an I/O operation, picking 
them up again after the operation is com- 
plete. 

When you create a Unix pipe, all the 
programs piped together are started at 
once, each one as a task, and data emerg- 
ing from the standard output of Program 
1 is immediately picked up by Program 
2— and so on. CP/M 2.2 is not a multi- 
tasking operating system, which ex- 
plains its slightly different operation. 

The programs making up the pipe are 
run one at a time. CLIP puts the standard 
output of Program 1 into a temporary file 
named PIPE.$$$. When Program 1 fin- 
ishes and Program 2 starts up, Program 2 
reopens PIPE.$$$ and reads its input 
from there. Hence 

A) PROG 1 |PROG2 

operates as if it were the sequence, 

A)PROGl/>PIPE.$$$ 
A) PROG2/<PIPE.$$$ 

This may be a minor point, but it's 
worth knowing about because PIPE.$$$ 
occasionally shows up in your directory if 
one of the programs bombs before the se- 
quence is finished. 

Occasionally there are other conse- 
quences. I ran this review through 
SPELL, the spelling checker which is 
part of The Word Plus package from 
Oasis Systems. 

I thought it would be nice to see the list 
of misspelled words in lowercase for a 
change, so I piped SPELL's output into 
the CLIP lowercase command. SPELL 
usually tells you what it's doing: "Com- 
piling Word List," "Checking Main Dic- 
tionary," and so forth; but I never saw 
any of these messages because they were 
all being redirected into PIPE.$$$. After 
SPELL had terminated & LCASE took 
over, then for the first time these status 
messages, long out of date, began to ap- 
pear. This problem is inherent in this 
way of simulating a pipeline, but for- 
tunately it doesn't hit you very often. 

In my experience, I/O redirection is ex- 
tremely handy; pipes are handy only if 
you have a large repertoire of programs 
built around the concept of standard in- 
put and output. For utilities which are 
run hundreds of times, it's usually better 
to have one special program that does the 
whole job in a single step. For example, 
the CLIP manual shows this sequence of 
commands: 

A) DIR/W: 1 I SRT 

which produces an alphabetically-sorted 
directory of your disc. But it's only one 
column wide and will go scrolling down 
your CRT screen endlessly so that you 
will never see the whole thing at once. I 
have no doubt that, given sufficient time 
and sufficient ingenuity, you can cause it 
to present four columns all in alphabetic 
order— but why bother? The well-known 



public-domain directory program, XDIR, 
will give you exactly what you want, with 
(in my version, anyway) the write-protect 
status of each file. 

CLIP Commands and Software Tools 

There are a lot of commands and soft- 
ware tools available with the CLIP pack- 
age; I'll touch on a few of the interesting 
ones here. 

There is a line editor, named UEDT. It 
is a wonderful boon if all you have had in 
the past was ED, but I found it no better 
than any other line editor when com- 
pared to a good screen editor. My first 
step after familiarizing myself with CLIP 
was to delete UEDT from my disc forever 
and go back to Word-Master. There's 
really no alternative. 

There is a wonderful desk-calculator 
program named CALC. It is handy and 
takes virtually no time to run, since it's in 
memory already and doesn't have to be 
loaded from anywhere. Having recently 
tried the Lisa calculator as well as CLIP'S 
I must say that for looks Lisa is way 
ahead, but for doing anything useful, I'll 
take CLIP. 

Using CLIP you don't have to take your 
hands off the keyboard; you get logical 
operations in addition to the usual four 
functions; and because there's also a 
RADIX command, you can do calcula- 
tions in any base from two to 16. (So long, 
TI Programmer!) My only regret is that 
they didn't extend its range to 32-bit 
numbers. But the most important thing 
is that you can use it for only one opera- 
tion at a time. You can't say 

A) CALC 

and then do half-a-dozen different calcu- 
lations, or possibly the same calculation 
on half-a-dozen different sets of numbers, 
without reinvoking CALC. 
and then do half-a-dozen different calcu- 
lations, or possibly the same calculation 
on half-a-dozen different sets of numbers, 
without reinvoking CALC. 

This is inherent in the whole software 
tools concept: tools tend to be one-shot 
operations because they have to be to fit 
into pipes. Of course, you can probably 
create a macro which gives you the illu- 
sion of not reinvoking CALC. This ability 
is typical of languages with an extensive 
command-language macro facility, by 
the way. You can always macro yourself 
out of any tight spot. 

SET is used for altering file attributes. 
It replaces CP/M's STAT function and in 
my opinion is far superior to STAT. If you 
wish to make a file read-only, CP/M re- 
quires that you do 

A>STAT FILE $R/0 

There will then be a pause while CP/M 
loads STAT from the disk and figures out 
what to do with it when it's loaded. If at 
any point in the process you should 
touch as much as one key, you'll get the 
message 

• •Aborted* • 



and you'll have to do the whole thing all 
over again. With CLIP you write 

A) SET/R FILE 

and it's done, with no pause or abortion. 

CLIP'S file deletion command, DEL, 
seems identical in all respects to CP/M's 
ERA, except for the trivial difference that 
you can get DEL to omit the "not found" 
message if you wish. (It may be desirable 
to suppress the message if DEL is in a 
macro.) 

The more important verify option 
(which allows you to go through an entire 
disc and delete or not by answering "y" 
or "n" for each file) doesn't appear, main- 
ly because details of the CP/M file search- 
ing operations prevent it. 

DIR, similarly, isn't significantly better 
than the CP/M DIR, and both are inferior 
to XDIR and its congeners. 

COPY and REN (rename) both incor- 
porate a language decision that is a near 
disaster. There are two general ways of 
indicating old and new files in operations 
of this sort. In CP/M and a lot of other sys- 
tems deriving ultimately from early DEC 
systems, the convention is to use 

<new> = <old> 

For example, to copy a file, we write 

A>PIP NEWFILE = OLDFILE 

This makes a kind of sense, because we 
all associate the equals sign with trans- 
ferring what's on the right-hand side to 
the left-hand side. More modern systems 
have taken to omitting the equals sign, 
and they use 

<old> <new> 

without any punctuation in between. So 
you quickly learn the rule: if the equals 
sign is there, follow the PIP convention; if 
not, do it the other way. I have yet to 
destroy a file under either of these con- 
ventions. 

So now comes CLIP, and what do you 
suppose they do? 

COPY <new> <old> 
REN <new> <old> 

This is a sure death-trap for any user 
who has to work with many systems. I 
understand that the sequence is changed 
to the standard one in new releases. In 
the meantime, the easiest solution to this 
is to write a Macro which will take these 
two names and reverse their sequence. 
This is another instance of using the 
macro capability to avoid a sticky situa- 
tion. 

The package includes provision for set- 
ting and obtaining the data and time. It 
only provides for these operations, how- 
ever; it doesn't actually implement them. 
The program's provision consists of com- 
mands and hooks with which the user at- 
taches routine implementations. 

The documentation of these routines 
and exactly how they are supposed to 
interface with the commands is sketchy, 
however, and it would probably require a 
fair amount of experimentation to get 
them working. It is assumed that you 
have a hardware clock/calendar some- 



where on your bus and that your routines 
will set and read time and date using this 
board. 

Many of the software tools are for text 
manipulation, most notably editing, 
selecting, padding and sorting. One of the 
purposes of these tools is to facilitate 
writing macros. 

Macro commands are usually clumsy 
in their ability to select operands. Using 
XW to put each word of a file on a single 
line, for example, or using XC to isolate 
selected columns in the file makes it 
easier for other commands to get at the 
desired operands. 

The file encryption program uses a sin- 
gle keyword. This word is used to gen- 
erate an 89-bit seed for a random-number 
generator which then spins out as much 
key as the size of your file requires. The 
ciphertext is generated by an exclusive- 
OR between the key and the plaintext. 
This is a pretty secure system, although 
methods for cracking random-number 
generators are not unknown (but not 
easy, either). 

General Comments 

Perhaps the most important observa- 
tion is this: CLIP is not copyprotected. I 
can't live without the reassurance of 
backup copies, and I won't buy or recom- 
mend any software which you can't back 
up as much as you need. Yes, I think the 
piracy problem is terrible, and I'm willing 
to do everything I can to combat it, but 
I draw the line when the software by 
which I live is at risk. I'm happy to be able 
to recommend CLIP to you. 

CLIP is extensively user-modifiable. 
Suppose you can't break yourself of the 
habit of using ERA to delete files; you can 
actually enter the command table using 
DDT and change DEL to ERA for your 
personal convenience. 

The choice of editing keystrokes main- 
ly follows that of WordStar; but if you 
would rather have it conform to another 
arrangement, you can get at all of those 
keystrokes as well and change them as 
you will, again using DDT. You can even 
change the prompt by means of a CLIP 
command, although after a brief experi- 
ment using 

Hey. Stupid! 

I reverted to 

A) 

and have not changed it since. 

The one real problem CLIP has is that it 
is big. By my count, the basic package re- 
quires 

Com flies 28K 

Overlays 22K 

Message files 72K 

Total 122K 

If you also buy the programming tools, 
these require 98K more. Furthermore, 
these files must all be on your main 
disk— that is, on Disk A. If, as I do, you 
have a set of disks: one for text process- 
ing, one for Fortran, one for PL/I, one for 
Basic, one for Lisp, one for number 



crunching and graphics, you will want a 
complete set of CLIP files and tools on 
each one of these discs — and you'll find, 
as I did, that there isn't room for them all. 
(It's particularly difficult on the text pro- 
cessing disk, which already has an enor- 
mous chunk of space given over to the 
40,000 word spelling dictionary.) Of 
course, you can drop the Help files once 
you have mastered the system, and you 
may decide there are software tools in the 
kit which you will never need. But CLIP 
will still be taking up a sizable amount of 
space. 

CLIP also introduces a slight delay into 
the execution of any transient program. 
This is because there is an extra layer of 
control involved: first you go through 
CLIP and then through CP/M. Since 
CLIP'S state is always pushed before a 
program, there is at least one disk access. 
Some CLIP commands also require ac- 
cess to the CLIP.OVL file for execution. 
It's these extra disk accesses that cause 
most of the delay. Of course, if you are us- 
ing any of the popular memory disks, 
which use random-access memory to 
simulate a super-high-speed disk, this 
problem vanishes. 

A newer version of CLIP will give the 
user the option to leave portions of it resi- 
dent in memory, so that there will be 
fewer delays in reading overlays from the 
disk. My own feeling is that because of 
the extra disk accesses and the large 
amounts of disk storage required for the 
program in the first place, CLIP really 
comes into its own in hard-disk systems, 
where you have plenty of room and ac- 
cess times are short. 

I found the documentation good for the 
first time around. Most documentation 
benefits from a few revisions. Every com- 
mand is described twice — once in a sum- 
mary, where it is grouped with similar 
commands and the whole group is dis- 
cussed, with examples, and once in an 
alphabetical listing where each com- 
mand gets an article of its own. This sec- 
ond listing seems to be copied from the 
Unix documentation style. When I say 
copied, this is high praise: the best soft- 
ware is developed by selectively copying 
features found elsewhere. There is a table 
of contents and an index. 

The current version of CLIP is written 
for the Z-80, not the 8080. Versions for 
other processors will be forthcoming 
soon; first in line is an 8086 version 
(which may be out by the time this ap- 
pears), but CLIPs for the 8080 and the 
68000 are also in the works. There is 
some disagreement over whether CP/M 
will continue to be the de facto standard 
operating system for these larger proces- 
sors; the availability of an enhancement 
as cheap and powerful as CLIP is going to 
give CP/M a greater competitive advan- 
tage than it may otherwise have had. 

Thomas W. Parsons 
Brooklyn, NY 

Microcomputing, January 1984 145 



SOFTWARE REVIEWS 



Edited by Sheila Wright 



Simplify your Graphing Style on Apple 
VisiCalc IV: Spreadsheets to Graphs 
IBM's Interpretive Approach to Graphs 
A Nonintegrated Inventory System for IBM 



pfs:GRAPH 

System Requirements: Apple II, II Plus 
or lie; one disk drive; a printer or the 
Hewlett-Packard 7470A plotter; a color 
monitor is supported. 
Manufacturer: Software Publishing 
Corp., 1901 Landings Drive, Mountain 
View, CA 94043. 
Price: $125. 

The acronym KISS stands for: Keep It 
Simple, Stupid! pfs:Graph, from Soft- 
ware Publishing Corp., is a program that 
makes data display easy. 



It is written in Pascal and supports line, 
bar and pie plot graphs. 

The program lets you enter data in 
three ways: data interchange format 
(DIF) VisiCalc files, PFS files and directly 
from the keyboard. You can combine line 
and bar drawings in one display. Up to 
four different graphs can be printed on 
one pictorial chart. Bar and line drawings 
can be stacked on top of each other. Figs. 
1, 2 and 3 are examples of the different 
printouts that are available and are ex- 
plained below. 

For this review I used an Apple He with 



19S3 BUDGET 



J 




□ 3.85'-: 
GIFTS 

E2 5.13* 

CLOTHES 




5.13^ 
INSURANCE 

ED 7.695! 

GASOLINE 

S3 8-975S 

UTILITIES 

E3 12.823S 

ENTERTAINMENT 

M 25.64* 

FOOD 

36 . 77": 
RENT 




Fig. 1 . A pfs:Graph pie chart showing a 1 983 budget. 
146 Microcomputing, January 1984 



an 80-column card and the He version of 
pfs:Graph. The documentation makes 
reference to the 80-column text card, but 
instructions for it are vague and I was 
never able to bring it up. However, the 
card would not have added to the utility 
of this program anyway. 

What You Get 

The package comes in the familiar 
"pfs:" box. You get two program disks, 
copy protected, and one sampler disk, 
which may be copied. I applaud the im- 
mediate inclusion of a backup for unin- 
terrupted use of the program. 

In addition, there is an 80-page man- 
ual. It contains a table of contents, a short 
tutorial, descriptions of the various func- 
tions and a quick reference card as well 
as a glossary of terms and an index. The 
manual contains excellent photographs 
of screen examples. 

While the introductory tutorial is 
short, it really touches on everything you 
need to know. It is a good idea to work 
through the six chapters because they 
explain the different functions. 

If your data is in raw form and you plan 
to type it from the keyboard, data entry is 
simple. Entries for the x axis (horizontal 
direction) can be expressed as dates, 
numbers or names. Once data has been 
entered, you cannot change the x data 
format. Up to 36 data points can be plot- 
ted on one graph. 

If you have a lot of information from an- 
other program such as VisiCalc or pfs: 
File, pfs:Graph will read and enter data 
directly. VisiCalc files have to be saved in 
DIF, which is a simple procedure. 

I constructed a small model using the 
1983 Budget in VisiCalc. It consists of 
three columns, A, B and C, and of 12 
rows. Only columns B and C from rows 
4-11 were saved as the DIF file 



(Continued on p. 138) 







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